Key Applications and Potential Limitations of Ionic Liquid Membranes in the Gas Separation Process of CO2, CH4, N2, H2 or Mixtures of These Gases from Various Gas Streams.
ABSTRACT: Heightened levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) have prompted research into techniques for their capture and separation, including membrane separation, chemical looping, and cryogenic distillation. Ionic liquids, due to their negligible vapour pressure, thermal stability, and broad electrochemical stability have expanded their application in gas separations. This work provides an overview of the recent developments and applications of ionic liquid membranes (ILMs) for gas separation by focusing on the separation of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrogen (N2), hydrogen (H2), or mixtures of these gases from various gas streams. The three general types of ILMs, such as supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs), ionic liquid polymeric membranes (ILPMs), and ionic liquid mixed-matrix membranes (ILMMMs) for the separation of various mixed gas systems, are discussed in detail. Furthermore, issues, challenges, computational studies and future perspectives for ILMs are also considered. The results of the analysis show that SILMs, ILPMs, and the ILMMs are very promising membranes that have great potential in gas separation processes. They offer a wide range of permeabilities and selectivities for CO2, CH4, N2, H2 or mixtures of these gases. In addition, a comparison was made based on the selectivity and permeability of SILMs, ILPMs, and ILMMMs for CO2/CH4 separation based on a Robeson's upper bound curves.
Project description:Polymeric (ionic liquid) (PIL) copolymers bearing cationic imidazolium pendants and polar acrylic acid groups (P(VBCImY-co-AAx)), which both favor the interaction with CO2 molecules, have been synthesized and blended with film forming, high glass transition temperature aromatic polyether-based pyridinium PILs (PILPyr). The blend membranes based on the above combination have been prepared and characterized in respect to their thermal and morphological behavior as well as to their gas separation properties. The used copolymers and blends showed a wide range of glass transition temperatures from 32 to 286 °C, while blends exhibited two phase morphology despite the presence of polar groups in the blend components that could participate in specific interactions. Finally, the membranes were studied in terms of their gas separation behavior. It revealed that blend composition, counter anion type and acrylic acid molar percentage affect the gas separation properties. In particular, PILPyr-TFSI/P(VBCImTFSI-co-AA20) blend with 80/20 composition shows CO2 permeability of 7.00 Barrer and quite high selectivity of 103 for the CO2/CH4 gas pair. Even higher CO2/CH4. selectivity of 154 was achieved for PILPyr-BF4/P(VBCImBF4-co-AA10) blend with composition 70/30.
Project description:Here, we report the synthesis and thermophysical properties of seven primarily aromatic, imidazolium-based polyamide ionenes. The effects of varied para-, meta-, and ortho-connectivity, and spacing of ionic and amide functional groups, on structural and thermophysical properties were analyzed. Suitable, robust derivatives were cast into thin films, neat, or with stoichiometric equivalents of the ionic liquid (IL) 1-benzy-3-methylimidazolium bistriflimide ([Bnmim][Tf2N]), and the gas transport properties of these membranes were measured. Pure gas permeabilities and permselectivities for N2, CH4, and CO2 are reported. Consistent para-connectivity in the backbone was shown to yield the highest CO2 permeability and suitability for casting as a very thin, flexible film. Derivatives containing terephthalamide segments exhibited the highest CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2 selectivities, yet CO2 permeability decreased with further deviation from consistent para-linkages.
Project description:Membrane-based separation of combined acid gases carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from natural gas streams has attracted increasing academic and commercial interest. These feeds are referred to as "sour," and herein, we report an ultra H2S-selective and exceptionally permeable glassy amidoxime-functionalized polymer of intrinsic microporosity for membrane-based separation. A ternary feed mixture (with 20% H2S:20% CO2:60% CH4) was used to demonstrate that a glassy amidoxime-functionalized membrane provides unprecedented separation performance under challenging feed pressures up to 77 bar. These membranes show extraordinary H2S/CH4 selectivity up to 75 with ultrahigh H2S permeability >4000 Barrers, two to three orders of magnitude higher than commercially available glassy polymeric membranes. We demonstrate that the postsynthesis functionalization of hyper-rigid polymers with appropriate functional polar groups provides a unique design strategy for achieving ultraselective and highly permeable membrane materials for practical natural gas sweetening and additional challenging gas pair separations.
Project description:Ethyl cellulose was grafted with ionic liquids in optimal yields (62.5-64.1%) and grafting degrees (5.93-7.90%) by the esterification of the hydroxyl groups in ethyl cellulose with the carboxyl groups in ionic liquids. In IR spectra of the ethyl cellulose derivatives exhibited C=O bond stretching vibration peaks at 1760 or 1740 cm-1, confirming the formation of the ester groups and furnishing the evidence of the successful grafting of ethyl cellulose with ionic liquids. The ethyl cellulose grafted with ionic liquids could be formed into membranes by using the casting solution method. The resulting membranes exhibited good membrane forming ability and mechanical properties. The EC grafted with ionic liquids-based membranes demonstrated PCO2/PCH4 separation factors of up to 18.8, whereas the PCO2/PCH4 separation factor of 9.0 was obtained for pure EC membrane (both for CO2/CH4 mixture gas). The membranes also demonstrated an excellent gas permeability coefficient PCO2, up to 199 Barrer, which was higher than pure EC (PCO2 = 46.8 Barrer). Therefore, it can be concluded that the ionic liquids with imidazole groups are immensely useful for improving the gas separation performances of EC membranes.
Project description:Three new isomeric 6FDA-based polyimide-ionenes, with imidazolium moieties and varying regiochemistry (para-, meta-, and ortho- connectivity), and composites with three different ionic liquids (ILs) have been developed as gas separation membranes. The structural-property relationships and gas separation behaviors of the newly developed 6FDA polyimide-ionene + IL composites have been extensively studied. All the 6FDA-based polyimide-ionenes exhibited good compatibility with the ILs and produced homogeneous hybrid membranes with the high thermal stability of ~380 °C. Particularly, [6FDA I4A pXy][Tf2N] ionene + IL hybrids having [C4mim][Tf2N] and [Bnmim][Tf2N] ILs offered mechanically stable matrixes with high CO2 affinity. The permeability of CO2 was increased by factors of 2 and 3 for C4mim and Bnmim hybrids (2.15 to 6.32 barrers), respectively, compared to the neat [6FDA I4A pXy][Tf2N] without sacrificing their permselectivity for CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2 gas pairs.
Project description:Pervaporation and gas separation performances of polymer membranes can be improved by crosslinking or addition of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Crosslinked copolyimide membranes show higher plasticization resistance and no significant loss in selectivity compared to non-crosslinked membranes when exposed to mixtures of CO2/CH4 or toluene/cyclohexane. Covalently crosslinked membranes reveal better separation performances than ionically crosslinked systems. Covalent interlacing with 3-hydroxypropyldimethylmaleimide as photocrosslinker can be investigated in situ in solution as well as in films, using transient UV/Vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The photocrosslinking yield can be determined from the FTIR-spectra. It is restricted by the sti?ness of the copolyimide backbone, which inhibits the photoreaction due to spatial separation of the crosslinker side chains. Mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) with MOFs as additives (fillers) have increased permeabilities and often also selectivities compared to the pure polymer. Incorporation of MOFs into polysulfone and Matrimid® polymers for MMMs gives defect-free membranes with performances similar to the best polymer membranes for gas mixtures, such as O2/N2 H2/CH4, CO2/CH4, H2/CO2, CH4/N2 and CO2/N2 (preferentially permeating gas is named first). The MOF porosity, its particle size and content in the MMM are factors to influence the permeability and the separation performance of the membranes.
Project description:CO2 separation from CH4 by using mixed matrix membranes has received great attention due to its higher separation performance compared to neat polymeric membrane. However, Robeson's trade-off between permeability and selectivity still remains a major challenge for mixed matrix membrane in CO2/CH4 separation. In this work, we report the preparation, characterization and CO2/CH4 gas separation properties of mixed matrix membranes containing 6FDA-durene polyimide and ZIF-8 particles functionalized with different types of amine groups. The purpose of introducing amino-functional groups into the filler is to improve the interaction between the filler and polymer, thus enhancing the CO2 /CH4 separation properties. ZIF-8 were functionalized with three differents amino-functional group including 3-(Trimethoxysilyl)propylamine (APTMS), N-[3-(Dimethoxymethylsilyl)propyl ethylenediamine (AAPTMS) and N1-(3-Trimethoxysilylpropyl) diethylenetriamine (AEPTMS). The structural and morphology properties of the resultant membranes were characterized by using different analytical tools. Subsequently, the permeability of CO2 and CH4 gases over the resultant membranes were measured. The results showed that the membrane containing 0.5 wt% AAPTMS-functionalized ZIF-8 in 6FDA- durene polymer matrix displayed highest CO2 permeability of 825 Barrer and CO2/CH4 ideal selectivity of 26.2, which successfully lies on Robeson upper bound limit.
Project description:The field of polymer membrane design is primarily based on empirical observation, which limits discovery of new materials optimized for separating a given gas pair. Instead of relying on exhaustive experimental investigations, we trained a machine learning (ML) algorithm, using a topological, path-based hash of the polymer repeating unit. We used a limited set of experimental gas permeability data for six different gases in ~700 polymeric constructs that have been measured to date to predict the gas-separation behavior of over 11,000 homopolymers not previously tested for these properties. To test the algorithm's accuracy, we synthesized two of the most promising polymer membranes predicted by this approach and found that they exceeded the upper bound for CO2/CH4 separation performance. This ML technique, which is trained using a relatively small body of experimental data (and no simulation data), evidently represents an innovative means of exploring the vast phase space available for polymer membrane design.
Project description:Simultaneous capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) and its utilization with subsequent work-up would significantly enhance the competitiveness of CO2-based sustainable chemistry over petroleum-based chemistry. Here we report an interfacial catalytic reaction platform for an integrated autonomous process of simultaneously capturing/fixing CO2 in gas-liquid laminar flow with subsequently providing a work-up step. The continuous-flow microreactor has built-in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with immobilized ionic liquid catalysts on tips of cone-shaped nanowire bundles. Because of the superamphiphobic SiNWs, a stable gas-liquid interface maintains between liquid flow of organoamines in upper part and gas flow of CO2 in bottom part of channel. The intimate and direct contact of the binary reagents leads to enhanced mass transfer and facilitating reactions. The autonomous integrated platform produces and isolates 2-oxazolidinones and quinazolines-2,4(1H,3H)-diones with 81-97% yields under mild conditions. The platform would enable direct CO2 utilization to produce high-valued specialty chemicals from flue gases without pre-separation and work-up steps.
Project description:Ionic clathrate hydrates can selectively capture small gas molecules such as CO2, N2, CH4 and H2. We investigated CO2?+?N2 mixed gas separation properties of ionic clathrate hydrates formed with tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB), tetra-n-butylammonium chloride (TBAC), tetra-n-butylphosphonium bromide (TBPB) and tetra-n-butylphosphonium chloride (TBPC). The results showed that CO2 selectivity of TBAC hydrates was remarkably higher than those of the other hydrates despite less gas capacity of TBAC hydrates. The TBAB hydrates also showed irregularly high CO2 selectivity at a low pressure. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic analyses clarified that TBAC stably formed the tetragonal hydrate structure, and TBPB and TBPC formed the orthorhombic hydrate structure. The TBAB hydrates showed polymorphic phases which may consist of the both orthorhombic and tetragonal hydrate structures. These results showed that the tetragonal hydrate captured CO2 more efficiently than the orthorhombic hydrate, while the orthorhombic hydrate has the largest gas capacity among the basic four structures of ionic clathrate hydrates. The present study suggests new potential for improving gas capacity and selectivity of ionic clathrate hydrates by choosing suitable ionic guest substances for guest gas components.