Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Fluorescent Pyrido[2,3-b]indolizines from Alkylpyridinium Salts and Enaminones.
ABSTRACT: Pyridinium ylides are well recognized as dipoles for cycloaddition reactions. In its turn, the microwave-assisted interaction of N-(cyanomethyl)-2-alkylpyridinium salts with enaminones unexpectedly proceeds as a domino sequence of cycloisomerization and cyclocondensation reactions, instead of a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The reaction takes place in the presence of sodium acetate as base and employs benign solvents. The optical properties of the resulting pyrido[2,3-b]indolizines were studied, showing green light emission with high fluorescence quantum yields.
Project description:Hetero-cycloisomerization reactions of propargylic alcohol derivatives leading to indolizines have been demonstrated to proceed in the presence of water alone. This stands as a significant advance over the previous methods using Pt, Cu or Ag salts paired with ligands in organic solvents such as benzene, acetonitrile or methylene chloride.
Project description:We report herein the development of a palladium-catalyzed, multicomponent synthesis of indolizines. The reaction proceeds <i>via</i> the carbonylative formation of a high energy, mesoionic pyridine-based 1,3-dipole, which can undergo spontaneous cycloaddition with alkynes. Overall, this provides a route to prepare indolizines in a modular fashion from combinations of commercially available or easily generated reagents: 2-bromopyridines, imines and alkynes.
Project description:The three possible structural isomers of 4-(pyridyl)pyrimidine were employed for the synthesis of new pyrrolo[1,2-c]pyrimidines and new indolizines, by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of their corresponding N-ylides generated in situ from their corresponding cycloimmonium bromides. In the case of 4-(3-pyridyl)pyrimidine and 4-(4-pyridyl)pyrimidine the quaternization reactions occur as expected at the pyridine nitrogen atom leading to pyridinium bromides and consequently to new indolizines via the corresponding pyridinium N-ylides. However, in the case of 4-(2-pyridyl)pyrimidine the steric hindrance directs the reaction to the pyrimidinium N-ylides and, subsequently, to the formation of the pyrrolo[1,2-c]pyrimidines. The new pyrrolo[1,2-c]pyrimidines and the new indolizines were structurally characterized through NMR spectroscopy. The X-ray structures of two of the starting materials, 4-(2-pyridyl)pyrimidine and 4-(4-pyridyl)pyrimidine, are also reported.
Project description:A double divergent process has been developed for the reaction of α-enaminones with quinones through facile manipulation of catalyst and additive, leading to structurally completely different products. The two divergent processes, which involve formal aza- and oxo-[3 + 2] cycloaddition reactions, are mediated by chiral phosphoric acid and molecular sieves, respectively. While inclusion of phosphoric acid in the reaction switched the reaction pathway to favor the efficient formation of a wide range of <i>N</i>-substituted indoles, addition of 4 Å molecular sieves to the reaction switched the reaction pathway again, leading to enantioselective synthesis of 2,3-dihydrobenzofurans in excellent yields and enantioselectivities under mild conditions. Studies in this work suggest that the chiral phosphoric acid acts to lower the transition state energy and promote the formation of amide intermediate for the formal aza-[3 + 2] cycloaddition and the molecular sieves serve to facilitate proton transfer for oxo-[3 + 2] cycloaddition. The reactivity of α-enaminones is also disclosed in this work.
Project description:The reactions of ?-aminoethanethiol with <i>N</i>,<i>N</i>-dimethyl enaminones are performed to selectively provide disulfide-functionalized enaminones and 1,4-thiazines. By performing the reaction in water and catalyst-free conditions, the transamination and oxidative S-S coupling between the two substrates take place to give disulfide-functionalized enaminones. On the other hand, by using identical starting materials, the employment of the CuI catalyst in dimethyl sulfoxide enables the selective generation of 1,4-thiazines via tandem transamination and C(sp<sup>2</sup>)-H bond thiolation.
Project description:A nickel-catalyzed reductive cross-coupling of alkylpyridinium salts and aryl bromides has been developed using Mn as the reductant. Both primary and secondary alkylpyridinium salts can be used, and high functional group and heterocycle tolerance is observed, including for protic groups. Mechanistic studies indicate the formation of an alkyl radical, and controlling its fate was key to the success of this reaction.
Project description:A Negishi cross-coupling of alkylpyridinium salts and alkylzinc halides has been developed. This is the first example of alkyl-alkyl bond formation via cross-coupling of an alkyl amine derivative with an unactivated alkyl group, and allows both primary and secondary alkylpyridinium salts to react with primary alkylzinc halides with high functional group tolerance. When combined with formation of the pyridinium salts from primary amines, this method enables the noncanonical transformation of NH2 groups into a wide range of alkyl substituents with broad functional group tolerance.
Project description:A highly effective protocol for palladium-catalyzed selective arylation and heteroarylation of indolizines at C-3 has been developed. Mechanistic studies unambiguously support an electrophilic substitution pathway for this transformation.
Project description:An alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling of Katritzky alkylpyridinium salts and organoboranes, formed in situ via hydroboration of alkenes, has been developed. This method utilizes the abundance of both alkyl amine precursors and alkenes to form C(sp3)-C(sp3) bonds. This strategy is also effective with alkynes, enabling a C(sp3)-C(sp2) cross-coupling. Under these mild conditions, a broad range of functional groups, including protic groups, is tolerated. As seen with previous alkylpyridinium cross-couplings, mechanistic studies support an alkyl radical intermediate.
Project description:A ligand-free method for the Pd-catalyzed direct arylation of cyclic enaminones using aryl iodides was developed. This method can be applied to a wide range of cyclic enaminones and aryl iodides with excellent C5-regioselectivity. Using widely available aryl iodides, the generality of this transformation provides easy access to a variety of 3-arylpiperidine structural motifs.