Novel Bis-Ammonium Salts of Pyridoxine: Synthesis and Antimicrobial Properties.
ABSTRACT: A series of 108 novel quaternary bis-ammonium pyridoxine derivatives carrying various substituents at the quaternary nitrogen's and acetal carbon was synthesized. Thirteen compounds exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.25-16 µg/mL) comparable or superior than miramistin, benzalkonium chloride, and chlorhexidine. A strong correlation between the lipophilicity and antibacterial activity was found. The most active compounds had logP values in the range of 1-3, while compounds with logP > 6 and logP < 0 were almost inactive. All active compounds demonstrated cytotoxicity comparable with miramistin and chlorhexidine on HEK-293 cells and were three-fold less toxic when compared to benzalkonium chloride. The antibacterial activity of leading compound 5c12 on biofilm-embedded Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa was comparable or even higher than that of the benzalkonium chloride. In vivo 5c12was considerably less toxic (LD50 1705 mg/kg) than benzalkonium chloride, miramistine, and chlorhexidine at oral administration on CD-1 mice. An aqueous solution of 5c12 (0.2%) was shown to be comparable to reference drugs efficiency on the rat's skin model. The molecular target of 5c12 seems to be a cellular membrane as other quaternary ammonium salts. The obtained results make the described quaternary bis-ammonium pyridoxine derivatives promising and lead molecules in the development of the new antiseptics with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity.
Project description:Quaternary ammonium amphiphiles are a class of compounds with a wide range of commercial and industrial uses. In the pharmaceutical field, the most common quaternary ammonium surfactant is benzalkonium chloride (BAC), which is employed as a preservative in several topical formulations for ocular, skin, or nasal application. Despite the broad antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as fungi and small enveloped viruses, safety concerns regarding its irritant and cytotoxic effect on epithelial cells still remain. In this work, quaternary ammonium derivatives of leucine esters (C10, C12 and C14) were synthesised as BAC analogues. These cationic surfactants were characterised in terms of critical micelle concentration (CMC, by tensiometry), cytotoxicity (MTS and LDH assays on the Caco-2 and Calu-3 cell lines) and antimicrobial activity on the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis among the Gram-positives, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa among the Gram-negatives and the yeast Candida albicans. They showed satisfactory surface-active properties, and a cytotoxic effect that was dependent on the length of the hydrophobic chain. Lower minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC) values were calculated for C14-derivatives, which were comparable to those calculated for BAC toward Gram-positive bacteria and slightly higher for Gram-negative bacteria and C. albicans. Thus, the synthesised leucine-based quaternary ammonium cationic surfactants can potentially find application as promising surface-active compounds with antimicrobial activity.
Project description:A series of novel quaternary ammonium 4-deoxypyridoxine derivatives was synthesized. Two compounds demonstrated excellent activity against a panel of Gram-positive methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains with MICs in the range of 0.5-2??g/mL, exceeding the activity of miramistin. At the same time, both compounds were inactive against the Gram-negative E. coli and P. aeruginosa strains. Cytotoxicity studies on human skin fibroblasts and embryonic kidney cells demonstrated that the active compounds possessed similar toxicity with benzalkonium chloride but were slightly more toxic than miramistin. SOS-chromotest in S. typhimurium showed the lack of DNA-damage activity of both compounds; meanwhile, one compound showed some mutagenic potential in the Ames test. The obtained results make the described chemotype a promising starting point for the development of new antibacterial therapies.
Project description:Optimal disinfection protocols are fundamental to minimize bacterial resistance to the compound applied, or cross-resistance to other antimicrobials such as antibiotics. The objective is twofold: guarantee safe levels of pathogens and minimize the excess of disinfectant after a treatment. In this work, the disinfectant dose is optimized based on a mathematical model. The model explains and predicts the interplay between disinfectant and pathogen at different initial microbial densities (inocula) and dose concentrations. The study focuses on the disinfection of Escherichia coli with benzalkonium chloride, the most common quaternary ammonium compound. Interestingly, the specific benzalkonium chloride uptake (mean uptake per cell) decreases exponentially when the inoculum concentration increases. As a consequence, the optimal disinfectant dose increases exponentially with the initial bacterial concentration.
Project description:Ninety-seven epidemiologically unrelated strains of Listeria monocytogenes were investigated for their sensitivities to quaternary ammonium compounds (benzalkonium chloride and cetrimide). The MICs for seven serogroup 1/2 strains were high. Three came from the environment and four came from food; none were isolated from human or animal samples. All 97 strains carried the mdrL gene, which encodes a multidrug efflux pump, and the orfA gene, a putative transcriptional repressor of mdrL. The absence of plasmids in four of the seven resistant strains and the conservation of resistance after plasmid curing suggested that the resistance genes are not plasmid borne. Moreover, PCR amplification and Southern blot hybridization experiments failed to find genes phylogenetically related to the qacA and smr genes, encoding multidrug efflux systems previously described for the genus Staphylococcus. The high association between nontypeability by phages and the loss of sensitivity to quaternary ammonium compounds are suggestive of an intrinsic resistance due to modifications in the cell wall.
Project description:Lipophilicity is a vital physicochemical parameter of a molecule, which affects several biological processes such as absorption, tissue distribution, and pharmacokinetic properties. In this study, evaluation of lipophilicities of a series of novel fluoroquinolone-Safirinium dye hybrids using chromatographic and computational methods is presented. Fluoroquinolone-Safirinium dye hybrids have been synthesized as new dual-acting hydrophilic antibacterial agents. Reversed phase thin-layer chromatography and micellar electrokinetic chromatography experiments were carried out. Furthermore, logP values of the target structures were predicted by means of different software platforms and algorithms. In order to assess similarities and dissimilarities of the obtained lipophilicity indexes, cluster analysis and sum of ranking differences were performed. The significant differences of calculated logP values (? = 0.05, p < 0.001) indicated that an experimental approach is necessary for lipophilicity prediction of this class of antibiotics. Chromatographic data indicated that the newly synthesized hybrid (fluoro)quinolone-based quaternary ammonium derivatives show less lipophilic character than the parent (fluoro)quinolones. Additionally, the chromatographically obtained lipophilicity indexes were evaluated for possible application in quantitative retention-activity relationships. The established lipophilicity models have the potential to predict antimicrobial activities of a series of quaternary (fluoro)quinolones against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Proteus vulgaris.
Project description:The MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) for the biocides benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine were determined against 1,602 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Both compounds showed unimodal MIC and MBC distributions (2 and 4 or 8 mg/liter, respectively) with no apparent subpopulation with reduced susceptibility. To investigate further, all isolates were screened for qac genes, and 39 of these also had the promoter region of the NorA multidrug-resistant (MDR) efflux pump sequenced. The presence of qacA, qacB, qacC, and qacG genes increased the mode MIC, but not MBC, to benzalkonium chloride, while only qacA and qacB increased the chlorhexidine mode MIC. Isolates with a wild-type norA promoter or mutations in the norA promoter had similar biocide MIC distributions; notably, not all clinical isolates with norA mutations were resistant to fluoroquinolones. In vitro efflux mutants could be readily selected with ethidium bromide and acriflavine. Multiple passages were necessary to select mutants with biocides, but these mutants showed phenotypes comparable to those of mutants selected by dyes. All mutants showed changes in the promoter region of norA, but these were distinct from this region of the clinical isolates. Still, none of the in vitro mutants displayed fitness defects in a killing assay in Galleria mellonella larvae. In conclusion, our data provide an in-depth comparative overview on efflux in S. aureus mutants and clinical isolates, showing also that plasmid-encoded efflux pumps did not affect bactericidal activity of biocides. In addition, current in vitro tests appear not to be suitable for predicting levels of resistance that are clinically relevant.
Project description:SARS-CoV-2 is the virus responsible for the current global pandemic, COVID-19. Because this virus is novel, little is known about its sensitivity to disinfection. In this study, we performed suspension tests against SARS-CoV-2 using three commercially available quaternary ammonium compound (Quat) disinfectants and one laboratory-made 0.2% benzalkonium chloride solution. Three of the four formulations completely inactivated the virus within 15 seconds of contact, even in the presence of a soil load or when diluted in hard water. We conclude that Quats rapidly inactivate SARS-CoV-2, making them potentially useful for controlling SARS-CoV-2 spread in hospitals and the community.
Project description:Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) are two of the most common household antiseptics, but show weaker efficacy against Gram-negative bacteria as well as against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains, relative to other S.?aureus strains. We prepared 28 novel quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) that represent a hybrid of these two structures, using 1- to 2-step synthetic sequences. The biscationic (bisQAC) species prepared show uniformly potent activity against six bacterial strains tested, with nine novel antiseptics displaying single-digit micromolar activity across the board. Effects of unequal chain lengths of two installed side chains had less impact than the overall number of side chain carbon atoms present, which was optimal at 22-25 carbons. This is further indication that simple refinements to multiQAC architectures can show improvement over current household antiseptics.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Chemical disinfection is state of the art in preventing spread of infectious agents in the healthcare setting. Additionally, the antimicrobial properties of solid copper alloy surfaces against various microorganisms have recently been substantiated. Thus, antimicrobially active copper surfaces may serve as an additional barrier against distribution of pathogenic microorganisms and be combined with chemical disinfection measures in the hospital. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate on a quantitative basis whether the combination of chemical disinfectants with copper alloy surfaces results in an overall compromised, combined or even synergistic antimicrobial efficacy. METHODS:Experiments were carried out using the quantitative carrier test devised by the German Society for Hygiene and Microbiology (DGHM) to study antimicrobial efficacy of chemical disinfectants. Requirements for microbicidal efficacy as defined by prEN 14885 were applied. The chemical disinfectants tested in our study contained alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol), quaternary ammonium compounds (benzalkonium chloride) and glutaraldehyde as actives. Quantitative carrier tests were carried out on different carriers (tiles, copper alloy discs, stainless steel discs) using Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Kocuria rhizophila and Candida albicans as test organisms. RESULTS:For the alcohol-based disinfectant no difference in antimicrobial efficacy was observed when applied to antimicrobial active copper alloy carriers, tiles or stainless steel discs. For all test organisms microbial contamination was reduced to the detection limit of < 1 log (CFU/ml) within a contact time of 2 min indicating a ? 5 log reduction for the tested bacteria and a ? 4 log reduction for the yeast, as being requested for chemical disinfectants by prEN 14885. In order to elucidate a potential synergism the chemical disinfectant based on quaternary ammonium compounds (benzalkonium chloride) and glutaraldehyde was used at a sub-effective concentration. Hence, no complete reduction of microbial contamination was achieved on stainless steel or tile carriers for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Interestingly, when using copper alloy carriers complete reduction indicating a ? 5 log reduction for P. aeruginosa and a ? 4 log reduction for C. albicans was detected. Thus, data of this study indicates that solid copper alloy surfaces and disinfectants synergize. CONCLUSIONS:According to this data, commercially available disinfectants based on alcohol, quaternary ammonium compounds and aldehyde can effectively be combined in a dual strategy with solid copper alloy surfaces to reduce microbial contamination.
Project description:The resistance of Listeria monocytogenes to cadmium and arsenic has been used extensively for strain subtyping. However, limited information is available on the prevalence of such resistance among isolates from the environment of food-processing plants. In addition, it is not known whether the resistance of such isolates to heavy metals may correlate with resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds extensively used as disinfectants in the food-processing industry. In this study, we characterized 192 L. monocytogenes isolates (123 putative strains) from the environment of turkey-processing plants in the United States for resistance to cadmium and arsenic and to the quaternary ammonium disinfectant benzalkonium chloride (BC). Resistance to cadmium was significantly more prevalent among strains of serotypes 1/2a (or 3a) and 1/2b (or 3b) (83% and 74%, respectively) than among strains of the serotype 4b complex (19%). Resistance to BC was encountered among 60% and 51% of the serotype 1/2a (or 3a) and 1/2b (or 3b) strains, respectively, and among 7% of the strains of the serotype 4b complex. All BC-resistant strains were also resistant to cadmium, although the reverse was not always the case. In contrast, no correlation was found between BC resistance and resistance to arsenic, which overall was low (6%). Our findings suggest that the processing environment of turkey-processing plants may constitute a reservoir for L. monocytogenes harboring resistance to cadmium and to BC and raise the possibility of common genetic elements or mechanisms mediating resistance to quaternary ammonium disinfectants and to cadmium in L. monocytogenes.