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Novel Bis-Ammonium Salts of Pyridoxine: Synthesis and Antimicrobial Properties.

ABSTRACT: A series of 108 novel quaternary bis-ammonium pyridoxine derivatives carrying various substituents at the quaternary nitrogen's and acetal carbon was synthesized. Thirteen compounds exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.25-16 µg/mL) comparable or superior than miramistin, benzalkonium chloride, and chlorhexidine. A strong correlation between the lipophilicity and antibacterial activity was found. The most active compounds had logP values in the range of 1-3, while compounds with logP > 6 and logP < 0 were almost inactive. All active compounds demonstrated cytotoxicity comparable with miramistin and chlorhexidine on HEK-293 cells and were three-fold less toxic when compared to benzalkonium chloride. The antibacterial activity of leading compound 5c12 on biofilm-embedded Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa was comparable or even higher than that of the benzalkonium chloride. In vivo 5c12was considerably less toxic (LD50 1705 mg/kg) than benzalkonium chloride, miramistine, and chlorhexidine at oral administration on CD-1 mice. An aqueous solution of 5c12 (0.2%) was shown to be comparable to reference drugs efficiency on the rat's skin model. The molecular target of 5c12 seems to be a cellular membrane as other quaternary ammonium salts. The obtained results make the described quaternary bis-ammonium pyridoxine derivatives promising and lead molecules in the development of the new antiseptics with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC7570726 | BioStudies | 2020-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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