Heme oxygenase-1 modulation: A potential therapeutic target for COVID-19 and associated complications.
ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to infect hundred thousands of people every day worldwide. Since it is a novel virus, research continues to update the possible therapeutic targets when new evidence regarding COVID-19 are gathered. This article presents an evidence-based hypothesis that activating the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway is a potential target for COVID-19. Interferons (IFNs) have broad-spectrum antiviral activity including against SARS-CoV-2. Induction of HO-1 and increase in the heme catabolism end-product confer antiviral activity. IFN activation results in inhibition of viral replication in various viral infections. COVID-19 induced inflammation as well as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and coagulopathies are now known major causes of mortality. A protective role of HO-1 induction in inflammation, inflammation-induced coagulation, and ARDS has been reported. Based on an association of HO-1 promoter polymorphisms and disease severity, we propose an evaluation of the status of these polymorphisms in COVID-19 patients who become severely ill. If an association is established, it might be helpful in identifying patients at high risk. Hence, we hypothesize that HO-1 pathway activation could be a therapeutic strategy against COVID-19 and associated complications.
Project description:The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requires urgent need for effective treatment. Severe COVID-19 is characterized by a cytokine storm syndrome with subsequent multiple organ failure (MOF) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which may lead to intensive care unit and increased risk of death. While awaiting a vaccine, targeting COVID-19-induced cytokine storm syndrome appears currently as the efficient strategy to reduce the mortality of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The stress-responsive enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is largely known to protect against inflammatory response in animal models. HO-1 is induced by hemin, a well-tolerated molecule, used for decades in the treatment of acute intermittent porphyria. Experimental studies showed that hemin-induced HO-1 mitigates cytokine storm and lung injury in mouse models of sepsis and renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Furthermore, HO-1 may also control numerous viral infections by inhibiting virus replication. In this context, we suggest the hypothesis that HO-1 cytoprotective pathway might be a promising target to control SARS-CoV-2 infection and mitigate COVID-19-induced cytokine storm and subsequent ARDS.
Project description:This review describes targeting neutrophils as a potential therapeutic strategy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Neutrophil counts are significantly elevated in patients with COVID-19 and significantly correlated with disease severity. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio can serve as a clinical marker for predicting fatal complications related to ARDS in patients with COVID-19. Neutrophil-associated inflammation plays a critical pathogenic role in ARDS. The effector functions of neutrophils, acting as respiratory burst oxidants, granule proteases, and neutrophil extracellular traps, are linked to the pathogenesis of ARDS. Hence, neutrophils can not only be used as pathogenic markers but also as candidate drug targets for COVID-19 associated ARDS.
Project description:Despite to outbreaks of highly pathogenic beta and alpha coronaviruses including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and human coronavirus, the newly emerged 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) is considered as a lethal zoonotic virus due to its deadly respiratory syndrome and high mortality rate among the human. Globally, more than 3,517,345 cases have been confirmed with 243,401 deaths due to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) caused by COVID-19. The antiviral drug discovery activity is required to control the persistence of COVID-19 circulation and the potential of the future emergence of coronavirus. However, the present review aims to highlight the important antiviral approaches, including interferons, ribavirin, mycophenolic acids, ritonavir, lopinavir, inhibitors, and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to provoke the nonstructural proteins and deactivate the structural and essential host elements of the virus to control and treat the infection of COVID-19 by inhibiting the viral entry, viral RNA replication and suppressing the viral protein expression. Moreover, the present review investigates the epidemiology, diagnosis, structure, and replication of COVID-19 for better understanding. It is recommended that these proteases, inhibitors, and antibodies could be a good therapeutic option in drug discovery to control the newly emerged coronavirus.HighlightsCOVID-19 has more than 79.5% identical sequence to SARS-CoV and a 96% identical sequence of the whole genome of bat coronaviruses.Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), renal failure, and septic shock are the possible clinical symptoms associated with COVID-19.Different antivirals, including interferons, ribavirin, lopinavir, and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) could be the potent therapeutic agents against COVID-19.The initial clinical trials on hydroquinone in combination with azithromycin showed an admirable result in the reduction of COVID-19.The overexpression of inflammation response, cytokine dysregulation, and induction of apoptosis could be an well-organized factors to reduce the pathogenicity of COVID-19.
Project description:The COVID-19-, SARS- and MERS-related coronaviruses share many genomic and structural similarities. However, the SARS-CoV-2 is less pathogenic than SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Despite some differences in the cytokine patterns, it seems that the cytokine storm plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19-, SARS- and MERS. Monocytes and macrophages may be infected by SARS-CoV-2 through ACE2-dependent and ACE2-independent pathways. SARS-CoV-2 can effectively suppress the anti-viral IFN response in monocytes and macrophages. Since macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) act as antigen presenting cells (APCs), the infection of these cells by SARS-CoV-2 impairs the adaptive immune responses against the virus. Upon infection, monocytes migrate to the tissues where they become infected resident macrophages, allowing viruses to spread through all organs and tissues. The SARS-CoV-2-infected monocytes and macrophages can produce large amounts of numerous types of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which contribute to local tissue inflammation and a dangerous systemic inflammatory response called cytokine storm. Both local tissue inflammation and the cytokine storm play a fundamental role in the development of COVID-19-related complications, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is a main cause of death in COVID-19 patients. Here, we describe the monocytes and macrophage responses during severe coronavirus infections, while highlighting potential therapeutic interventions to attenuate macrophage-related inflammatory reactions in possible approaches for COVID-19 treatment.
Project description:The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has elicited a swift response by the scientific community to elucidate the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced lung injury and develop effective therapeutics. Clinical data indicate that severe COVID-19 most commonly manifests as viral pneumonia-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a clinical entity mechanistically understood best in the context of influenza A virus-induced pneumonia. Similar to influenza, advanced age has emerged as the leading host risk factor for developing severe COVID-19. In this review we connect the current understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle and host response to the clinical presentation of COVID-19, borrowing concepts from influenza A virus-induced ARDS pathogenesis and discussing how these ideas inform our evolving understanding of COVID-19-induced ARDS. We also consider important differences between COVID-19 and influenza, mainly the protean clinical presentation and associated lymphopenia of COVID-19, the contrasting role of interferon-? in mediating the host immune response to these viruses, and the tropism for vascular endothelial cells of SARS-CoV-2, commenting on the potential limitations of influenza as a model for COVID-19. Finally, we explore hallmarks of ageing that could explain the association between advanced age and susceptibility to severe COVID-19.
Project description:The discovery of angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) as the receptor for SARS- CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2) has implicated the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and respiratory failure in patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). The angiotensin converting enzyme-1-angiotensin II-angiotensin AT1 receptor pathway contributes to the pathophysiology of ARDS, whereas activation of the ACE-2-angiotensin(1-7)-angiotensin AT2 receptor and the ACE-2-angiotensin(1-7)-Mas receptor pathways have been shown to be protective. Here we propose and discuss therapeutic considerations how to increase soluble ACE-2 in plasma in order for ACE-2 to capture and thereby inactivate SARS-CoV-2. This could be achieved by administering recombinant soluble ACE-2. We also discuss why and how ACEIs and ARBs provide cardiovascular, renal and also pulmonary protection in SARS-CoV-2- associated ARDS. Discontinuing these medications in COVID-19 patients may therefore potentially be harmful.
Project description:Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has sparked a global pandemic, affecting more than 4 million people worldwide. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause acute lung injury (ALI) and even acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); with a fatality of 7.0 %. Accumulating evidence suggested that the progression of COVID-19 is associated with lymphopenia and excessive inflammation, and a subset of severe cases might exhibit cytokine storm triggered by secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). Furthermore, secondary bacterial infection may contribute to the exacerbation of COVID-19. We recommend using both IL-10 and IL-6 as the indicators of cytokine storm, and monitoring the elevation of procalcitonin (PCT) as an alert for initiating antibacterial agents. Understanding the dynamic progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection is crucial to determine an effective treatment strategy to reduce the rising mortality of this global pandemic.
Project description:The current outbreak of the beta-coronavirus (beta-Cov) severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) began in December 2019. No specific antiviral treatments or vaccines are currently available. A recent study has reported that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, is associated with neutrophil-specific plasma membrane rupture, and release excessive neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and extracellular DNAs (eDNAs). This mechanism involves the activation of NETosis, a neutrophil-specific programmed cell death, which is believed to play a crucial role in COVID-19 pathogenesis. Further progression of the disease can cause uncontrolled inflammation, leading to the initiation of cytokine storms, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and sepsis. Herein, it is reported that DNase-I-coated melanin-like nanospheres (DNase-I pMNSs) mitigate sepsis-associated NETosis dysregulation, thereby preventing further progression of the disease. Recombinant DNase-I and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) are used as coatings to promote the lengthy circulation and dissolution of NET structure. The data indicate that the application of bioinspired DNase-I pMNSs reduce neutrophil counts and NETosis-related factors in the plasma of SARS-CoV-2 sepsis patients, alleviates systemic inflammation, and attenuates mortality in a septic mouse model. Altogether, the findings suggest that these nanoparticles have potential applications in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2-related illnesses and other beta-CoV-related diseases.
Project description:Clinically approved PARP inhibitors (PARPi) have a mild adverse effect profile and are well tolerated as continuous daily oral therapy. We review the evidence that justifies the repurposing of PARPi to block the proliferation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and combat the life-threatening sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by several mechanisms. PARPi can effectively decrease IL-6, IL-1 and TNF-? levels (key interleukins in SARS-CoV-2-induced cytokine storm) and can alleviate subsequent lung fibrosis, as demonstrated in murine experiments and clinical trials. PARPi can tune macrophages towards a tolerogenic phenotype. PARPi may also counteract SARS-CoV-2-induced and inflammation-induced cell death and support cell survival. PARPi is effective in animal models of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), asthma and ventilator-induced lung injury. PARPi may potentiate the effectiveness of tocilizumab, anakinra, sarilumab, adalimumab, canakinumab or siltuximab therapy. The evidence suggests that PARPi would benefit COVID-19 patients and trials should be undertaken.
Project description:The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic is an unprecedented worldwide health crisis. COVID-19 is caused by SARS-CoV-2, a highly infectious pathogen that is genetically similar to SARS-CoV. Similar to other recent coronavirus outbreaks, including SARS and MERS, SARS-CoV-2 infected patients typically present with fever, dry cough, fatigue, and lower respiratory system dysfunction, including high rates of pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); however, a rapidly accumulating set of clinical studies revealed atypical symptoms of COVID-19 that involve neurological signs, including headaches, anosmia, nausea, dysgeusia, damage to respiratory centers, and cerebral infarction. These unexpected findings may provide important clues regarding the pathological sequela of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, no efficacious therapies or vaccines are currently available, complicating the clinical management of COVID-19 patients and emphasizing the public health need for controlled, hypothesis-driven experimental studies to provide a framework for therapeutic development. In this mini-review, we summarize the current body of literature regarding the central nervous system (CNS) effects of SARS-CoV-2 and discuss several potential targets for therapeutic development to reduce neurological consequences in COVID-19 patients.