A streamlined pipeline for multiplexed quantitative site-specific N-glycoproteomics.
ABSTRACT: Regulation of protein N-glycosylation is essential in human cells. However, large-scale, accurate, and site-specific quantification of glycosylation is still technically challenging. We here introduce SugarQuant, an integrated mass spectrometry-based pipeline comprising protein aggregation capture (PAC)-based sample preparation, multi-notch MS3 acquisition (Glyco-SPS-MS3) and a data-processing tool (GlycoBinder) that enables confident identification and quantification of intact glycopeptides in complex biological samples. PAC significantly reduces sample-handling time without compromising sensitivity. Glyco-SPS-MS3 combines high-resolution MS2 and MS3 scans, resulting in enhanced reporter signals of isobaric mass tags, improved detection of N-glycopeptide fragments, and lowered interference in multiplexed quantification. GlycoBinder enables streamlined processing of Glyco-SPS-MS3 data, followed by a two-step database search, which increases the identification rates of glycopeptides by 22% compared with conventional strategies. We apply SugarQuant to identify and quantify more than 5,000 unique glycoforms in Burkitt's lymphoma cells, and determine site-specific glycosylation changes that occurred upon inhibition of fucosylation at high confidence.
Project description:Site-specific regulation of protein N-glycosylation is essential in human cells. However, accurate quantification of glycosylation sites and their individual glycan moieties in a cell-wide manner is still technically challenging. Here, we introduce SugarQuant, an integrated mass spectrometry-based pipeline comprising fast protein aggregation capture (PAC)-based sample preparation, optimized multi-notch MS3 LC-MS acquisition (Glyco-SPS-MS3) and a data-processing tool (GlycoBinder) that allows for confident, global identification and quantification of intact glycopeptides in complex biological samples. PAC greatly reduces the overall sample-handling time without compromising sensitivity. Glyco-SPS-MS3 combines high-resolution MS2 and MS3 scans, resulting in enhanced reporter signals of isobaric mass tags, improved detection of N-glycopeptide fragments, and significantly lowered interference in multiplexed quantification. GlycoBinder enables streamlined processing of Glyco-SPS-MS3 data, followed by a two-step database search which increases the identification rates of intact glycopeptides by up to 22% when compared with one-step database search strategies. SugarQuant was applied to identify and quantify more than 5,000 unique glycoforms in Burkitt’s lymphoma cells, and determined complex site-specific glycosylation changes that occurred upon inhibition of fucosylation at high confidence.
Project description:The heterogeneity and complexity of glycosylation hinder the depth of site-specific glycoproteomics analysis. High-field asymmetric-waveform ion-mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) has shown to improve the scope of bottom-up proteomics. The benefits of FAIMS for quantitative N-glycoproteomics have not been investigated yet. In this work, we optimized FAIMS settings for N-glycopeptide identification, with or without the tandem mass tag (TMT) label. The optimized FAIMS approach significantly increased the identification of site-specific N-glycopeptides derived from the purified IgM protein or human lymphoma cells. We explored in detail the changes in FAIMS mobility caused by N-glycopeptides with different characteristics, including TMT labeling, charge state, glycan type, peptide sequence, glycan size and precursor m/z. Importantly, FAIMS also improved multiplexed N-glycopeptide quantification, both with the standard MS2 acquisition method and with our recently developed Glyco-SPS-MS3 method. The combination of FAIMS and Glyco-SPS-MS3 provided the highest quantitative accuracy and precision. Our results demonstrate the advantages of FAIMS for improved mass-spectrometry-based qualitative and quantitative N-glycoproteomics.
Project description:Mass spectrometry (MS) coupled toisobaric labeling has developed rapidly into a powerful strategy for high-throughput protein quantification. Sample multiplexing and exceptional sensitivity allow for the quantification of tens of thousands of peptides and, by inference, thousands of proteins from multiple samples in a single MS experiment. Accurate quantification demands a consistent and robust sample-preparation strategy. Here, we present a detailed workflow for SPS-MS3-based quantitative abundance profiling of tandem mass tag (TMT)-labeled proteins and phosphopeptides that we have named the streamlined (SL)-TMT protocol. We describe a universally applicable strategy that requires minimal individual sample processing and permits the seamless addition of a phosphopeptide enrichment step ("mini-phos") with little deviation from the deep proteome analysis. To showcase our workflow, we profile the proteome of wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast grown with either glucose or pyruvate as the carbon source. Here, we have established a streamlined TMT protocol that enables deep proteome and medium-scale phosphoproteome analysis.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are increasingly being recognized as important vehicles for intercellular communication and as promising sources for biomarker discovery. Because the state of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) such as phosphorylation and glycosylation can be a key determinant of cellular physiology, comprehensive characterization of protein PTMs in EVs can be particularly valuable for early-stage diagnostics and monitoring of disease status. However, the analysis of PTMs in EVs has been complicated by limited amounts of purified EVs, low-abundance PTM proteins, and interference from proteins and metabolites in biofluids. Recently, we developed an approach to isolate phosphoproteins and glycoproteins in EVs from small volumes of human plasma that enabled us to identify nearly 10,000 unique phosphopeptides and 1,500 unique N-glycopeptides. The approach demonstrated the feasibility of using these data to identify potential markers to differentiate disease from healthy states. Here we present an updated workflow to sequentially isolate phosphopeptides and N-glycopeptides, enabling multiple PTM analyses of the same clinical samples. In this updated workflow, we have improved the reproducibility and efficiency of EV isolation, protein extraction, and phosphopeptide/N-glycopeptide enrichment to achieve sensitive analyses of low-abundance PTMs in EVs isolated from 1 mL of plasma. The modularity of the workflow also allows for the characterization of phospho- or glycopeptides only and enables additional analysis of total proteomes and other PTMs of interest. After blood collection, the protocol takes 2 d, including EV isolation, PTM/peptide enrichment, mass spectrometry analysis, and data quantification.
Project description:Chemical tools have accelerated progress in glycoscience, reducing experimental barriers to studying protein glycosylation, the most widespread and complex form of posttranslational modification. For example, chemical glycoproteomics technologies have enabled the identification of specific glycosylation sites and glycan structures that modulate protein function in a number of biological processes. This field is now entering a stage of logarithmic growth, during which chemical innovations combined with mass spectrometry advances could make it possible to fully characterize the human glycoproteome. In this review, we describe the important role that chemical glycoproteomics methods are playing in such efforts. We summarize developments in four key areas: enrichment of glycoproteins and glycopeptides from complex mixtures, emphasizing methods that exploit unique chemical properties of glycans or introduce unnatural functional groups through metabolic labeling and chemoenzymatic tagging; identification of sites of protein glycosylation; targeted glycoproteomics; and functional glycoproteomics, with a focus on probing interactions between glycoproteins and glycan-binding proteins. Our goal with this survey is to provide a foundation on which continued technological advancements can be made to promote further explorations of protein glycosylation.
Project description:Despite increasing importance of protein glycosylation, most of the large-scale glycoproteomics have been limited to profiling the sites of N-glycosylation. However, in-depth knowledge of protein glycosylation to uncover functions and their clinical applications requires quantitative glycoproteomics eliciting both peptide and glycan sequences concurrently. Here we describe a novel strategy for the multiplexed quantitative mouse serum glycoproteomics based on a specific chemical ligation, namely, reverse glycoblotting technique, focusing sialic acids and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). LC-MS/MS analysis of de-glycosylated peptides identified 270 mouse serum peptides (95 glycoproteins) as sialylated glycopeptides, of which 67 glycopeptides were fully characterized by MS/MS analyses in a straightforward manner. We revealed the importance of a fragment ion containing innermost N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residue as MRM transitions regardless the sequence of the peptides. Versatility of the reverse glycoblotting-assisted MRM assays was demonstrated by quantitative comparison of 25 targeted glycopeptides from 16 proteins between mice with homo and hetero types of diabetes disease model.
Project description:Epithelial cells lining the urinary tract secrete urinary exosomes (40-100 nm) that can be targeted to specific cells modulating their functionality. One potential targeting mechanism is adhesion between vesicle surface glycoproteins and target cells. This makes the glycopeptide analysis of exosomes important. Exosomes reflect the physiological state of the parent cells; therefore, they are a good source of biomarkers for urological and other diseases. Moreover, the urine collection is easy and noninvasive and urinary exosomes give information about renal and systemic organ systems. Accordingly, multiple studies on proteomic characterization of urinary exosomes in health and disease have been published. However, no systematic analysis of their glycoproteomic profile has been carried out to date, whereas a conserved glycan signature has been found for exosomes from urine and other sources including T cell lines and human milk. Here, we have enriched and identified the N-glycopeptides from these vesicles. These enriched N-glycopeptides were solved for their peptide sequence, glycan composition, structure, and glycosylation site using collision-induced dissociation MS/MS (CID-tandem MS) data interpreted by a publicly available software GlycopeptideId. Released glycans from the same sample was also analyzed with MALDI-MS. We have identified the N-glycoproteome of urinary exosomes. In total 126 N-glycopeptides from 51 N-glycosylation sites belonging to 37 glycoproteins were found in our results. The peptide sequences of these N-glycopeptides were identified unambiguously and their glycan composition (for 125 N-glycopeptides) and structures (for 87 N-glycopeptides) were proposed. A corresponding glycomic analysis with released N-glycans was also performed. We identified 66 unique nonmodified N-glycan compositions and in addition 13 sulfated/phosphorylated glycans were also found. This is the first systematic analysis of N-glycoproteome of urinary exosomes.
Project description:Confident characterization of the microheterogeneity of protein glycosylation through identification of intact glycopeptides remains one of the toughest analytical challenges for glycoproteomics. Recently proposed mass spectrometry (MS)-based methods still have some defects such as lack of the false discovery rate (FDR) analysis for the glycan identification and lack of sufficient fragmentation information for the peptide identification. Here we proposed pGlyco, a novel pipeline for the identification of intact glycopeptides by using complementary MS techniques: 1) HCD-MS/MS followed by product-dependent CID-MS/MS was used to provide complementary fragments to identify the glycans, and a novel target-decoy method was developed to estimate the false discovery rate of the glycan identification; 2) data-dependent acquisition of MS3 for some most intense peaks of HCD-MS/MS was used to provide fragments to identify the peptide backbones. By integrating HCD-MS/MS, CID-MS/MS and MS3, intact glycopeptides could be confidently identified. With pGlyco, a standard glycoprotein mixture was analyzed in the Orbitrap Fusion, and 309 non-redundant intact glycopeptides were identified with detailed spectral information of both glycans and peptides.
Project description:Glycosylation, the covalent attachment of carbohydrate structures onto proteins, is the most abundant post-translational modification. Over 50% of human proteins are glycosylated, which alters their activities in diverse fundamental biological processes. Despite the importance of glycosylation in biology, the identification and functional validation of complex glycoproteins has remained largely unexplored. Here we develop a novel quantitative approach to identify intact glycopeptides from comparative proteomic data sets, allowing us not only to infer complex glycan structures but also to directly map them to sites within the associated proteins at the proteome scale. We apply this method to human and mouse embryonic stem cells to illuminate the stem cell glycoproteome. This analysis nearly doubles the number of experimentally confirmed glycoproteins, identifies previously unknown glycosylation sites and multiple glycosylated stemness factors, and uncovers evolutionarily conserved as well as species-specific glycoproteins in embryonic stem cells. The specificity of our method is confirmed using sister stem cells carrying repairable mutations in enzymes required for fucosylation, Fut9 and Slc35c1. Ablation of fucosylation confers resistance to the bioweapon ricin, and we discover proteins that carry a fucosylation-dependent sugar code for ricin toxicity. Mutations disrupting a subset of these proteins render cells ricin resistant, revealing new players that orchestrate ricin toxicity. Our comparative glycoproteomics platform, SugarQb, enables genome-wide insights into protein glycosylation and glycan modifications in complex biological systems.
Project description:Antibody glycosylation analysis has seen methodological progress resulting in new findings with regard to antibody glycan structure and function in recent years. For example, antigen-specific IgG glycosylation analysis is now applicable for clinical samples because of the increased sensitivity of measurements, and this has led to new insights in the relationship between IgG glycosylation and various diseases. Furthermore, many new methods have been developed for the purification and analysis of IgG Fc glycopeptides, notably multiple reaction monitoring for high-throughput quantitative glycosylation analysis. In addition, new protocols for IgG Fab glycosylation analysis were established revealing autoimmune disease-associated changes. Functional analysis has shown that glycosylation of IgA and IgE is involved in transport across the intestinal epithelium and receptor binding, respectively.