Neighborhood deprivation, prefrontal morphology and neurocognition in late childhood to early adolescence.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Neighborhood deprivation adversely effects neurodevelopment and cognitive function; however, mechanisms remain unexplored. Neighborhood deprivation could be particularly impactful in late childhood/early adolescence, in neural regions with protracted developmental trajectories, e.g., prefrontal cortex (PFC). METHODS:The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study recruited 10,205 youth. Geocoded residential history was used to extract individual neighborhood characteristics. A general cognitive ability index and MRI scans were completed. Associations with neurocognition were examined. The relation of PFC surface area and cortical thickness to neighborhood deprivation was tested. PFC subregions and asymmetry, with putative differential environmental susceptibility during key developmental periods, were explored. Analyses tested PFC area as a possible mediating mechanism. RESULTS:Neighborhood deprivation predicted neurocognitive performance (? ?= ?-0.11), even after accounting for parental education and household income (? ?= ?-0.07). Higher neighborhood deprivation related to greater overall PFC surface area (?p2 ?= ?0.003), and differences in leftward asymmetry were observed for area (?p2 ?= ?0.001), and thickness (?p2 ?= ?0.003). Subregion analyses highlighted differences among critical areas that are actively developing in late childhood/early adolescence and are essential to modulating high order cognitive function. These included orbitofrontal, superior frontal, rostral middle frontal, and frontal pole regions (Cohen's d ?= ?0.03-0.09). PFC surface area partially mediated the relation between neighborhood deprivation and neurocognition. DISCUSSION:Neighborhood deprivation related to cognitive function (a foundational skill tied to a range of lifetime outcomes) and PFC morphology, with evidence found for partial mediation of PFC on neurocognitive function. Results inform public health conceptualizations of development and environmental vulnerability.
Project description:BACKGROUND:HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) can occur in patients without prior AIDS defining illness and can be debilitating. This study aimed to evaluate the difference in the patterns of intrinsic brain activity between patients with or without HAND for deepening our understanding of HAND. METHODS:We evaluated 24 HIV-infected individuals, 12 with previously diagnosed HAND and 12 previously diagnosed without HAND, and 11 seronegative individuals. These individuals then underwent repeat NP testing and a functional brain MRI scan. For functional MRI analysis, seed-based analysis with bilateral precuneus cortex seed was applied. RESULTS:Among the 12 individuals with previously diagnosed HAND, 3 showed improvement of their neurocognitive function and 1 was excluded for worsening liver disease. Among the 12 patients who previously had normal neurocognitive function, 2 showed neurocognitive impairment. Overall, the HAND group, who had impaired cognitive function at the time of MRI scan, showed significant decrease of resting status functional connectivity between bilateral precuneus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) compared with nonHAND group, those who had normal neurocognitive function (Corrected P<0.05). The functional connectivity with the right inferior frontal operculum and right superior frontal gyrus was positively correlated with memory and learning ability. CONCLUSIONS:This cross-sectional study found a significant difference in fMRI patterns between patients with and without HAND. Decreased functional connectivity between precuneus and PFC could be possible functional substrate for cognitive dysfunction in HIV patients, which should be characterized in a longitudinal study.
Project description:Purpose:The neural processing of children with overweight/obesity (CWO), may affect their eating behavior. We investigated the visual information processing of CWO under response control condition, by event-related potential (ERP) study, an electrophysiologic study for cognitive mechanism. Methods:Seventeen CWO (mean age: 10.6±1.9), and 17 age-matched non-obese children (NOC), participated in the study. Neurocognitive function tests and visual ERP under Go/NoGo conditions, were implemented. Area amplitudes of major ERP components (P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3) from four scalp locations (frontal, central, parietal, and occipital), were analyzed. Results:For Go and NoGo conditions, CWO had significantly greater occipital P1, fronto-central N1, and P2 amplitudes compared with NOC. P2 amplitude was significantly greater in CWO, than in NOC, at the frontal location. N2 amplitude was not significantly different, between CWO and NOC. For CWO and NOC, Go P3 amplitude was highest at the parietal location, and NoGo P3 amplitude was highest at the frontal location. In Go and NoGo conditions, P3 amplitude of CWO was significantly less than in NOC. Conclusion:The greater P1, N1, and P2 suggested hyper-vigilance to visual stimuli of CWO, but the smaller P3 suggested insufficient mental representation of them. Such altered visual processing, may affect the eating behavior of CWO.
Project description:The existence of deficits in several social cognitive domains has been established in schizophrenia, and those impairments are known to be a significant determinant of functional outcome. Both symptoms and neurocognition have been linked to social cognitive deficits, but the nature and the relative strength of these relationships have not been established.A meta-analysis of 154 studies (combined N = 7175) was conducted to determine the magnitude of the relationships between 3 symptom domains (reality distortion, disorganization, and negative symptoms) and 6 Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) domains of neurocognition with 4 domains of social cognition. Analyses were conducted to determine whether the strength of these relationships differed depending on the symptom type or neurocognitive domain under investigation.The correlations between reality distortion and the domains of social cognition ranged from near zero to moderate (r's range from -.07 to -.22), as compared with the moderate association for disorganization (r's range from -.22 to -.32) and negative symptoms (r's range from -.20 to -.26). For each of the neurocognitive domains, the relationships to social cognitive domains were mostly moderate (r's range from .17 to .37), with no one neurocognitive domain being prominent.The effect sizes of the correlations between disorganization and negative symptoms with social cognition were relatively larger and more consistent than reality distortion. The relationship between social cognition and 6 MATRICS domains of neurocognition were mostly moderate and relatively consistent. When considering disorganization and negative symptoms, the relationship to social cognitive processes was relatively as strong as for neurocognition.
Project description:Multitasking is associated with the generation of stimulus-locked theta (4-7 Hz) oscillations arising from prefrontal cortex (PFC). Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that influences endogenous brain oscillations. Here, we investigate whether applying alternating current stimulation within the theta frequency band would affect multitasking performance, and explore tACS effects on neurophysiological measures. Brief runs of bilateral PFC theta-tACS were applied while participants were engaged in a multitasking paradigm accompanied by electroencephalography (EEG) data collection. Unlike an active control group, a tACS stimulation group showed enhancement of multitasking performance after a 90-minute session (F1,35 = 6.63, p = 0.01, ?p2 = 0.16; effect size = 0.96), coupled with significant modulation of posterior beta (13-30 Hz) activities (F1,32 = 7.66, p = 0.009, ?p2 = 0.19; effect size = 0.96). Across participant regression analyses indicated that those participants with greater increases in frontal theta, alpha and beta oscillations exhibited greater multitasking performance improvements. These results indicate frontal theta-tACS generates benefits on multitasking performance accompanied by widespread neuronal oscillatory changes, and suggests that future tACS studies with extended treatments are worth exploring as promising tools for cognitive enhancement.
Project description:Higher rates of non-right-handedness (i.e. left- and mixed-handedness) have been reported in schizophrenia and have been a centrepiece for theories of anomalous lateralization in this disorder. We investigated whether non-right-handedness is (i) more prevalent in patients as compared with unaffected siblings and healthy unrelated control participants; (ii) familial; (iii) associated with disproportionately poorer neurocognition; and (iv) associated with grey matter volume asymmetries. We examined 1445 participants (375 patients with schizophrenia, 502 unaffected siblings and 568 unrelated controls) using the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, a battery of neuropsychological tasks and structural magnetic resonance imaging data. Patients displayed a leftward shift in Edinburgh Handedness Inventory laterality quotient scores as compared with both their unaffected siblings and unrelated controls, but this finding disappeared when sex was added to the model. Moreover, there was no evidence of increased familial risk for non-right-handedness. Non-right-handedness was not associated with disproportionate neurocognitive disadvantage or with grey matter volume asymmetries in the frontal pole, lateral occipital pole or temporal pole. Non-right-handedness was associated with a significant reduction in left asymmetry in the superior temporal gyrus in both patients and controls. Our data neither provide strong support for 'atypical' handedness as a schizophrenia risk-associated heritable phenotype nor that it is associated with poorer neurocognition or anomalous cerebral asymmetries.
Project description:Background:Failure of procognitive drug trials in schizophrenia may reflect the clinical heterogeneity of schizophrenia, underscoring the need to identify biomarkers of treatment sensitivity. We used an experimental medicine design to test the procognitive effects of a putative procognitive agent, tolcapone, using an electroencephalogram-based cognitive control task in healthy subjects. Methods:Healthy men and women (n=27; ages 18-35 years), homozygous for either the Met/Met or Val/Val rs4680 genotype, received placebo and tolcapone 200 mg orally across 2 test days separated by 1 week in a double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced, within-subject design. On each test day, neurocognitive performance was assessed using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery and an electroencephalogram-based 5 Choice-Continuous Performance Test. Results:Tolcapone enhanced visual learning in low-baseline MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery performers (d=0.35) and had an opposite effect in high performers (d=0.5), and enhanced verbal fluency across all subjects (P=.03) but had no effect on overall MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery performance. Tolcapone reduced false alarm rate (d=0.8) and enhanced frontal P200 amplitude during correctly identified nontarget trials (d=0.6) in low-baseline 5 Choice-Continuous Performance Test performers and had opposite effects in high performers (d=0.5 and d=0.25, respectively). Tolcapone's effect on frontal P200 amplitude and false alarm rate was correlated (rs=-0.4, P=.05). All neurocognitive effects of tolcapone were independent of rs4680 genotype. Conclusion:Tolcapone enhanced neurocognition and engaged electroencephalogram measures relevant to cognitive processes in specific subgroups of healthy individuals. These findings support an experimental medicine model for identifying procognitive treatments and provide a strong basis for future biomarker-informed procognitive studies in schizophrenia patients.
Project description:Cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia are very frequent. They concern both neurocognition and social cognition, including facial emotion recognition. These impairments have a negative impact on the daily functioning, in particular the social and vocational rehabilitation of people with schizophrenia. Previous studies in this area clearly demonstrated the interest of cognitive remediation to improve neurocognitive and social cognitive functioning in schizophrenia. They also established clear links between facial emotion recognition skills and attentional processes. The present study compares the GAÏA s-face program (GAÏA arm), which focuses on facial emotion recognition processes, with the RECOS program (RECOS arm), a neurocognitive remediation therapy focusing on selective attention. Forty people with schizophrenia were randomly distributed between each study arm and assessed pre- (T1) and post- (T2) therapy. The single-blind assessment focused on facial emotion recognition (the main criteria), symptoms, social and subjective functioning, and neurocognitive and social cognitive performance. Both programs were conducted by nurses after a 3-day training session. The study showed a significant improvement in facial emotion recognition performance in both groups, with a significantly larger effect in the GAÏA arm. Symptoms and social functioning also improved in the GAÏA arm, and certain neurocognitive and social cognitive processes improved in both study arms. Further studies are recommended, with larger population samples and a follow-up assessing the long-term preservation of these improvements.
Project description:HIV-infected women may be particularly vulnerable to certain types of neurocognitive impairments which may be exacerbated by aging and other predictors. Within the context of cognitive reserve, this article examines issues surrounding women as they age with HIV. For this, a review of 12 recent studies (2013-2016) using data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), the largest cohort study comparing HIV-infected and demographically matched uninfected women, is presented that specifically examines neurocognition. In general, HIV-infected women are more vulnerable to developing neurocognitive impairments than uninfected women; other factors that may contribute to these neurocognitive impairments include recent illicit drug use, reading level (educational quality/cognitive reserve), stress, PTSD, insulin resistance, liver fibrosis, and age. Surprisingly, when examined in some analyses, age × HIV interactions were not observed to impact neurocognitive performance, findings largely consistent in the literature; however, longitudinal analyses of these data have yet to be performed which may yield future insights of how cognitive reserve may be compromised over time. Yet, with insulin resistance, liver fibrosis, stress, and other known predictors of poorer neurocognition also occurring more with advanced age, in time, the synergistic effect of age and HIV may be more robust and observable as this population ages.
Project description:To define the ictal cortical/subcortical network of reading-induced seizures.We analyzed ictal magnetoencephalography (MEG) and EEG-correlated fMRI (EEG-fMRI) data in a unique patient with reading epilepsy (RE) affected by frequent perioral reflex myocloni triggered by reading silently.Ictal MEG corroborated EEG localization and revealed activity extending precentrally into Brodmann area (BA) 6. fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes in the left deep piriform cortex (PFC) and left BA6 preceded seizures and occurred before BOLD changes were observed in thalamus and right inferior frontal gyrus (BA44). Dynamic causal modeling provided evidence of a causal link between hemodynamic changes in the left PFC and reading-evoked seizures.Our findings support the important role of deep cortical and subcortical structures, in particular the frontal PFC, as key regions in initiating and modulating seizure activity. In our patient with RE, BA6 appeared to be the area linking cognitive activation and seizure activity.
Project description:The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist ketamine has demonstrated rapid antidepressant effects in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Despite the promise of a novel and urgently needed treatment for refractory depression, concerns regarding potential adverse neurocognitive effects of ketamine remain.Although extensive research has been conducted in healthy volunteers, there is a paucity of studies examining the neurocognitive effects of ketamine in depressed patients. Therefore, the aims of the current study were to characterize the relationship between baseline neurocognition and antidepressant response to ketamine, measure the acute impact of ketamine on neurocognition, and investigate the relationship between acute neurocognitive effects of ketamine and antidepressant response.Neurocognitive functioning was assessed in 25 patients with TRD using a comprehensive battery: estimated premorbid intelligence quotient (IQ), current IQ, and tests from the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). A subset of the MCCB was repeated immediately following a 40-min intravenous infusion of ketamine (0.5 mg/kg).Patients who responded to ketamine 24 h following treatment had poorer baseline neurocognitive performance relative to nonresponders and, in particular, slower processing speed (F?=?8.42; df?=?23; p?=?0.008). Ketamine was associated with selective impairments in memory recall, and the degree of cognitive change carried negative prognostic significance (e.g., negative cognitive effects immediately after ketamine predicted lower response rate at 24 h; Fisher's exact test two-sided p?=?0.027).Taken together, our findings suggest a potential baseline neurocognitive predictor of ketamine response and an inverse relationship between the cognitive effects of ketamine and antidepressant efficacy.