Usual or unusual presentations of Dirofilaria repens in two sibling dogs: a case report.
ABSTRACT: This study describes two different manifestations of Dirofilaria repens infection in sibling dogs with microfilaremia. Dog 1, asymptomatic, harbored a gravid female of D. repens on the parietal layer of tunica vaginalis of one testicle and showed a marked circulating eosinophilia (3.3·103/?L). Both testicles were normal in shape and size without any gross lesions. Dog 2 had a pyotraumatic dermatitis. The cases were confirmed by PCR and sequencing. The sequences obtained showed 100% identity with those of D. repens isolated from human scrotum in Croatia. The treatment with moxidectin 2.5% and imidacloprid 10%/kg was effective in eliminating microfilariae after just one application, as demonstrated by negative modified Knott's tests and PCR analyses of blood samples. This status was maintained during the post-treatment observation period. The classical localization of D. repens in dogs is in subcutaneous tissues, within nodules or free; however, it can also occur with some frequency in testicles, as described in humans. The infection can be associated with circulating eosinophilia or pyotraumatic dermatitis, as reported in this study. Thus, in endemic areas, it is advisable to carefully inspect the removed testicles at neutering since parasite localization can take place without any macroscopic changes. Moreover, in the case of circulating eosinophilia or pyotraumatic dermatitis, investigations should include modified Knott's test and PCR to ensure that D. repens is not the cause of these alterations. Rapid and sensitive tests for the early detection of infected animals would help to prevent or limit the spread of this zoonosis.
Project description:Dirofilariosis is a potentially zoonotic parasitic disease, mainly transmitted by mosquito vectors in many parts of the world. Data concerning the canine Dirofilaria species currently circulating in Portugal is scarce. Thereby, a large-scale study was conducted to determine the Dirofilaria spp. present in Portugal, based on a molecular approach, and also to optimize a reliable and highly sensitive species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that could be used for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens, and other concurrent filarial species in animal reservoirs.Blood samples were collected from three districts of Portugal (Coimbra, Santarém and Setúbal) between 2011 and 2013. Samples were tested using rapid immunomigration tests (Witness® Dirofilaria), modified Knott's technique and acid phosphatase histochemical staining. In addition, molecular analysis was performed by amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region using two different PCR protocols, specific for molecular screening of canine filarial species.Of the 878 dogs sampled, 8.8% (n?=?77) were positive for D. immitis circulating antigen and 13.1% (n?=?115) positive for microfilariae by the modified Knott's technique. Of the 134 samples tested by acid phosphatase histochemical staining, 100 (74.6%) were positive for D. immitis. Overall, 13.7% (n?=?120) were positive by PCR for D. immitis by ITS2, of which 9.3% (67/720) were also positive by ITS1. ITS2 PCR was the most sensitive and specific method, capable of detecting mixed D. immitis and A. reconditum infections. Heterozygosity, in the form of double peaks, was detected by sequencing of both ITS regions. No D. repens was detected by any of the diagnostic methods.The present study confirmed D. immitis as the dominant species of the genus Dirofilaria infecting Portuguese dogs, based on sequencing of ITS1 and ITS2 PCR fragments. Additionally, ITS2 PCR was the most adequate method for diagnosis and prevalence estimation.
Project description:Dirofilaria repens infection was diagnosed in a dog that had been imported to Norway from Hungary three years previously. The dog was a four-year-old castrated male mixed-breed dog and presented for examination of two masses on the right thoracic wall. Fine needle sampling from the subcutaneous nodules and subsequent cytological examination revealed a high number of microfilariae and a pyogranulomatous inflammation. At re-examination approximately 3 weeks later, both masses had apparently disappeared spontaneously, based on both inspection and palpation. However, examination of peripheral blood by a modified Knott's test revealed a high number of unsheathed microfilariae with mean length of 360 ?m and mean width of 6-7 ?m, often with the classic umbrella handle appearance of D. repens. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing confirmed the D. repens diagnosis. Subcutaneous dirofilariosis caused by D. repens is probably the most common cause of human zoonotic dirofilariosis in Europe, but currently is rarely encountered in northern countries such as Norway. However, travelling, import and relocation of dogs have increased, and thus the geographical range of these parasites is likely to increase from traditionally endemic southern regions. Increasing numbers of autochthonous cases of D. repens infections in dogs have been reported in eastern and central Europe. Although infection with D. repens often induces only mild signs or subclinical infections in dogs, they nevertheless represent a reservoir for zoonotic transmission and thus a public health concern, and, in addition, due to the long prepatent period and the high frequency of subclinical infections or infections with unspecific clinical signs, could easily be missed. Lack of experience and expectation of these parasites may mean that infection is underdiagnosed in veterinary clinics in northern countries. Also, predicted climate changes suggest that conditions in some countries where this infection is currently not endemic are likely to become more suitable for development in the intermediate host, and thus the establishment of the infection in new areas.
Project description:Canine filarioids are important nematodes transmitted to dogs by arthropods. Diagnosis of canine filariosis is accomplished by the microscopic identification of microfilariae, serology or PCR for filarial-DNA. The aim of this study was to evaluate a molecular assay for the detection of canine filariae in dog blood, to compare its performance to other diagnostic techniques, and to determine the relationship between microfilarial concentration and infection with other vector-borne pathogens.Blood samples from 146 dogs from Costa Rica were subjected to the detection of canine filarioids by four different methods: the microhematocrit tube test (MCT), Knott's modified test, serology and a high resolution melt and quantitative real-time PCR (HRM-qPCR). Co-infection with other vector-borne pathogens was also evaluated.Fifteen percent of the dogs were positive to Dirofilaria immitis by at least one of the methods. The HRM-qPCR produced distinctive melting plots for the different filarial worms and revealed that 11.6% of dogs were infected with Acanthocheilonema reconditum. The latter assay had a limit of detection of 2.4x10?? mf/?l and detected infections with lower microfilarial concentrations in comparison to the microscopic techniques and the serological assay. The MCT and Knott's test only detected dogs with D. immitis microfilaremias above 0.7 mf/?l. Nevertheless, there was a strong correlation between the microfilarial concentration obtained by the Knott's modified test and the HRM-qPCR (r = 0.906, p < 0.0001). Interestingly, one dog was found infected with Cercopithifilaria bainae infection. Moreover, no association was found between microfilaremia and co-infection and there was no significant difference in microfilarial concentration between dogs infected only with D. immitis and dogs co-infected with Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys or Babesia vogeli.This is the first report of A. reconditum and C. bainae in Costa Rica and Central America. Among the evaluated diagnostic techniques, the HRM-qPCR showed the most sensitive and reliable performance in the detection of blood filaroids in comparison to the Knott's modified test, the MCT test and a serological assay.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In Lithuania, the first case of canine subcutaneous dirofilariosis was recorded in 2010. Since then, an increasing number of cases of canine dirofilariosis have been documented in different veterinary clinics throughout the country. Human dirofilariosis was diagnosed in Lithuania for the first time in September 2011. However, to the authors' knowledge, there are no published data on the presence and prevalence of autochthonous dirofilariosis in dogs and humans in the country. The present study provides information about the predominant species and prevalence of Dirofilaria in dogs and describes the cases of human dirofilariosis in Lithuania. It also outlines PCR detection of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia that contributes to the inflammatory features of filarioid infection. RESULTS:A total of 2280 blood samples and six adult worms from pet and shelter dogs were collected in the central and eastern regions of Lithuania in 2013-2015. Based on their morphological appearance, morphometric measurements and molecular analysis, all the adult nematodes were identified as Dirofilaria repens. The diagnosis of microfilariae in blood samples was based on blood smear analysis and Knott's test. The PCR and sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA ITS2 region and cox1 gene confirmed the presence of D. repens. Overall, 61 (2.7%) of the 2280 blood samples were found to be positive for the presence of D. repens. The infection rate of D. repens was significantly higher in shelter dogs (19.0%; 19/100) than in pet dogs (1.9%; 42/2180) (?2?=?100.039, df?=?1, P?<?0.0001). Forty-nine DNA samples of D. repens-infected dogs were tested for the presence of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia and, of these, 40 samples (81.6%) were found to be positive. Three ocular and six subcutaneous cases of human dirofilariosis were diagnosed in Lithuania in the period 2011-2018. CONCLUSIONS:To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of autochthonous D. repens infection in dogs and humans in Lithuania. The present data demonstrate that D. repens is the main etiological agent of dirofilariosis in Lithuania. The DNA of the filarioid endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia was detected in the vast majority of dogs infected with D. repens.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dogs are the definitive hosts of Spirocerca lupi. Spirocercosis is treated by prolonged avermectin administration by injection or daily oral doses. In this prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, clinical trial, the efficacy of imidacloprid and moxidectin spot-on formulation (Advocate®) was compared to injectable doramectin (Dectomax®). Dogs diagnosed with benign esophageal spirocercosis were divided randomly into doramectin (400 ?g/kg IM) or moxidectin and imidacloprid spot-on (2.5-6.25 mg/kg and 10-25 mg/kg, respectively) groups and treated weekly for 12 consecutive weeks. Dogs were followed for 20 weeks by physical examination, owners' questionnaire, blood work, fecal floatation, PCR and endoscopy. RESULTS:All the doramectin group dogs (n = 10) completed the treatment and follow-up, and the disease had completely resolved in all by week 12. Of the Advocate® group (n = 10), four had complete resolution at week 12, four had partial resolution, one dog did not respond to treatment, and one dog was switched to the doramectin protocol on week 5 due to persistent severe clinical signs. PCR analysis was more sensitive in detecting S. lupi eggs compared to fecal floatation. Discrepancies were detected on 22 occasions, of which on 20 occasions, the PCR was positive while fecal floatation was negative, and only on two occasions the PCR results were negative while fecal flotation was positive. CONCLUSIONS:The present results indicate that weekly Advocate® spot-on administration may be effective for treating benign esophageal spirocercosis, but is less effective than the currently used injectable doramectin therapy at the dose and duration used herein.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Dirofilaria repens is a filarioid nematode transmitted by mosquitoes. Adult D. repens are typically localized in the subcutaneous tissue of the host, but other, atypical localizations have also been reported. There have been several reports of clinical cases involving an association of parasites and hernias in both animals and humans. However, it is unclear if parasitic infection can act as a triggering factor in the development of hernias.<h4>Methods</h4>A 12-year-old dog was referred to a private veterinarian clinic in Satu Mare, northwestern Romania due to the presence of a swelling in the lateral side of the penis (inguinal area). The dog underwent hernia repair surgery during which four long nematodes were detected in the peritoneal serosa of the inguinal hernial sac. One female specimen was subjected to genomic DNA extraction to confirm species identification, based on amplification and sequencing of a 670-bp fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. Treatment with a single dose of imidacloprid 10% + moxidectin 2.5% (Advocate, Bayer AG) was administered.<h4>Results</h4>The nematodes were morphologically identified as adult D. repens, and the BLAST analyses revealed a 100% nucleotide similarity to a D. repens sequence isolated from a human case in Czech Republic.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We report a case of an atypical localization of D. repens in the peritoneal cavity of a naturally infected pet dog with inguinal hernia and discuss the associations between hernia and parasitic infections.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in stray, pet, and working dogs (n = 413, 266, and 103, resp.) from Guwahati (Assam) and Aizawl (Mizoram), areas located in two Northeastern States of India. Diagnostic methods applied were microscopy (wet film and Knott's concentration technique), immunological test (Ag ELISA by SNAP 4Dx ELISA kit), and molecular tools (polymerase chain reaction and sequencing), which evidenced 11.38, 18.03, and 13.93% of positive animals, respectively. No significant differences were observed by area (18.23% versus 17.68%) nor by sex (18.1% versus 17.9%), whereas stray dogs proved more infected than other groups (P < 0.05). ELISA test evidenced an overall 22.69% of occult infections, mainly in working dogs (60%), and molecular techniques detected Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens in 4 stray dogs from Guwahati. Characterization of D. immitis isolates for ITS-2 region showed close identity with South Asian isolates.
Project description:Over the past decade, increasing numbers of autochthonous cases of heartworm infection have been reported in the countries of Eastern Europe where previously only imported cases were described. In this report we have described the first clinical case of Dirofilaria immitis infection in an imported dog in Lithuania. In 2018, a 5-year-old male Spanish greyhound (Spanish galgo) was imported to Lithuania from southern Spain and referred to a small animal veterinary clinic in Vilnius for wellness screening. Circulating microfilariae and female antigens of D. immitis were detected using the Knott's test and SNAP 4Dx Plus Test (IDEXX Laboratories, Portland, USA). The diagnosis was confirmed using molecular analysis. Treatment according to the guidelines recommended by the American Heartworm Society was applied. This is the first confirmed report of canine heartworm infection in an imported dog in Lithuania. Heartworm-infected dogs transported to North-Eastern Europe from endemic areas could act as microfilarial reservoirs for the local mosquito population, which could increase the risk of spreading the disease.
Project description:Dirofilaria repens is a nematode affecting domestic and wild canids, transmitted by several species of mosquitoes. It usually causes a non-pathogenic subcutaneous infection in dogs and is the principal agent of human dirofilariosis in the Old World. In the last decades, D. repens has increased in prevalence in areas where it has already been reported and its distribution range has expanded into new areas of Europe, representing a paradigmatic example of an emergent pathogen. Despite its emergence and zoonotic impact, D. repens has received less attention by scientists compared to Dirofilaria immitis. In this review we report the recent advances of D. repens infection in dogs and humans, and transmission by vectors, and discuss possible factors that influence the spread and increase of this zoonotic parasite in Europe. There is evidence that D. repens has spread faster than D. immitis from the endemic areas of southern Europe to northern Europe. Climate change affecting mosquito vectors and the facilitation of pet travel seem to have contributed to this expansion; however, in the authors' opinion, the major factor is likely the rate of undiagnosed dogs continuing to perpetuate the life-cycle of D. repens. Many infected dogs remain undetected due to the subclinical nature of the disease, the lack of rapid and reliable diagnostic tools and the poor knowledge and still low awareness of D. repens in non-endemic areas. Improved diagnostic tools are warranted to bring D. repens diagnosis to the state of D. immitis diagnosis, as well as improved screening of imported dogs and promotion of preventative measures among veterinarians and dog owners. For vector-borne diseases involving pets, veterinarians play a significant role in prevention and should be more aware of their responsibility in reducing the impact of the zoonotic agents. In addition, they should enhance multisectorial collaboration with medical entomologists and the public health experts, under the concept and the actions of One Health-One Medicine.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dirofilariasis is a serious and potentially deadly condition in dogs and one of the zoonotic filarial infections, which inadvertently affects the humans. The objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence and the molecular identity of dirofilariasis in Kerman Province, southeastern Iran between Jul and Aug 2013. METHODS:A hundred and forty-nine domestic dogs were randomly selected and five ml blood samples were taken from each dog. One ml of anticoagulant (EDTA) was used for each test in the parasitological study (modified Knott's test) and sera samples were examined, using ELISA kit to detect Dirofilaria immitis antigen. Extracted DNA of all positive blood samples was used for molecular characterization and sequencing. RESULTS:Four (2.7%) domestic dogs of the total 149 domestic dogs were infected with micofilariae of D. immitis, while the serological study showed 8 (5.4%) domestic dogs were infected with D. immitis. No significant difference, however, was found between dirofilariasis infection and gender. On the other hand, a significant difference was observed between dirofilariasis infection and age (P<0.05). Based on the PCR findings, among the total specimens, 6 positive samples were characterized as D. immitis. CONCLUSION:Dirofilariasis occurred when there was low endemicity in the dogs. Such dogs could be a potential source of infection for humans. These findings could help in better understanding of the epidemiological aspects of D. immitis in the southeastern parts of Iran.