Altered G1 signaling order and commitment point in cells proliferating without CDK4/6 activity.
ABSTRACT: Cell-cycle entry relies on an orderly progression of signaling events. To start, cells first activate the kinase cyclin D-CDK4/6, which leads to eventual inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein Rb. Hours later, cells inactivate APC/CCDH1 and cross the final commitment point. However, many cells with genetically deleted cyclin Ds, which activate and confer specificity to CDK4/6, can compensate and proliferate. Despite its importance in cancer, how this entry mechanism operates remains poorly characterized, and whether cells use this path under normal conditions remains unknown. Here, using single-cell microscopy, we demonstrate that cells with acutely inhibited CDK4/6 enter the cell cycle with a slowed and fluctuating cyclin E-CDK2 activity increase. Surprisingly, with low CDK4/6 activity, the order of APC/CCDH1 and Rb inactivation is reversed in both cell lines and wild-type mice. Finally, we show that as a consequence of this signaling inversion, Rb inactivation replaces APC/CCDH1 inactivation as the point of no return. Together, we elucidate the molecular steps that enable cell-cycle entry without CDK4/6 activity. Our findings not only have implications in cancer resistance, but also reveal temporal plasticity underlying the G1 regulatory circuit.
Project description:Proliferating cells must cross a point of no return before they replicate their DNA and divide. This commitment decision plays a fundamental role in cancer and degenerative diseases and has been proposed to be mediated by phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. Here, we show that inactivation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC(Cdh1)) has the necessary characteristics to be the point of no return for cell-cycle entry. Our study shows that APC(Cdh1) inactivation is a rapid, bistable switch initiated shortly before the start of DNA replication by cyclin E/Cdk2 and made irreversible by Emi1. Exposure to stress between Rb phosphorylation and APC(Cdh1) inactivation, but not after APC(Cdh1) inactivation, reverted cells to a mitogen-sensitive quiescent state, from which they can later re-enter the cell cycle. Thus, APC(Cdh1) inactivation is the commitment point when cells lose the ability to return to quiescence and decide to progress through the cell cycle.
Project description:Cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) in complex with D-type cyclins promote cell cycle entry. Most human cancers contain overactive CDK4/6-cyclin D, and CDK4/6-specific inhibitors are promising anti-cancer therapeutics. Here, we investigate the critical functions of CDK4/6-cyclin D kinases, starting from an unbiased screen in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that simultaneous mutation of lin-35, a retinoblastoma (Rb)-related gene, and fzr-1, an orthologue to the APC/C co-activator Cdh1, completely eliminates the essential requirement of CDK4/6-cyclin D (CDK-4/CYD-1) in C. elegans. CDK-4/CYD-1 phosphorylates specific residues in the LIN-35 Rb spacer domain and FZR-1 amino terminus, resembling inactivating phosphorylations of the human proteins. In human breast cancer cells, simultaneous knockdown of Rb and FZR1 synergistically bypasses cell division arrest induced by the CDK4/6-specific inhibitor PD-0332991. Our data identify FZR1 as a candidate CDK4/6-cyclin D substrate and point to an APC/C(FZR1) activity as an important determinant in response to CDK4/6-inhibitors.
Project description:The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates cell cycle progression in proliferating cells. To enter the S-phase, APC/C must be inactivated by phosphorylation of its cofactor, Cdh1. In post-mitotic cells such as neurons APC/C-Cdh1 complex is highly active and responsible for the continuous degradation of mitotic cyclins. However, the specific molecular pathway that determines neuronal cell cycle blockade in post-mitotic neurons is unknown. Here, we show that activation of glutamatergic receptors in rat cortical primary neurons endogenously triggers cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5)-mediated phosphorylation of Cdh1 leading to its cytoplasmic accumulation and disassembly from the APC3 core protein, causing APC/C inactivation. Conversely, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of Cdk5 promotes Cdh1 ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Furthermore, we show that Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation and inactivation of Cdh1 leads to p27 depletion, which switches on the cyclin D1-cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (Cdk4)-retinoblastoma protein (pRb) pathway to allow the S-phase entry of neurons. However, neurons do not proceed through the cell cycle and die by apoptosis. These results indicate that APC/C-Cdh1 actively suppresses an aberrant cell cycle entry and death of neurons, highlighting its critical function in neuroprotection.
Project description:Cyclin dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) in complex with D-type cyclins promote cell cycle entry, at least in part through phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb). The CDK4/6-cyclin D-Rb pathway is commonly deregulated in human cancer, often through CDK4/6 or D-type cyclin overexpression, or inactivation of the CDK4/6 antagonist p16/CDKN2A. Importantly, a substantial fraction of cancers depend on continuous CDK4/6-cyclin D kinase activity and are sensitive to CDK4/6-specific inhibitors. Here, we investigate critical CDK4/6-cyclin D functions that may determine the sensitivity to CDK4/6 inhibitors, making use of the essential roles of CDK4/6 (CDK-4) and cyclin D (CYD-1) in the nematode C. elegans. In an unbiased screen, we found that simultaneous loss of C. elegans Rb (lin-35) and down-regulation of the APC/C substrate specificity factor FZR1/Cdh1 completely overcomes CDK-4/CYD-1 requirement. Furthermore, CDK-4/CYD-1 phosphorylates specific residues in the LIN-35 Rb spacer domain and FZR-1 N-terminus that correspond to inactivating phosphorylations of the human homologs. Thus, CDK-4/CYD-1 appears to promote cell cycle entry by antagonizing not only transcriptional repression by LIN-35 Rb but also protein degradation by APC/CFZR-1. Simultaneous knockdown of Rb and FZR1 in human breast cancer cells synergistically overcomes arrest by the CDK4/6-specific inhibitor PD 00332991. These results reveal APC/CFZR1 as a putative CDK4/6-Cyclin D target and important contributing factor in the response to CDK4/6-inhibitor treatment.
Project description:APC/Cdh1 is a major cell cycle regulator and its function has been implicated in DNA damage repair; however, its exact role remains unclear. Using affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry, we identified Claspin as a novel Cdh1-interacting protein and further demonstrated that Claspin is a novel Cdh1 ubiquitin substrate. As a result, inactivation of Cdh1 leads to activation of the Claspin/Chk1 pathway. Previously, we demonstrated that Rb interacts with Cdh1 to influence its ability to degrade Skp2. Here, we report that Cdh1 reciprocally regulates the Rb pathway through competing with E2F1 to bind the hypophosphorylated form of Rb. Although inactivation of Cdh1 in HeLa cells, with defective p53/Rb pathways, led to premature S phase entry, acute depletion of Cdh1 in primary human fibroblasts resulted in premature senescence. Acute loss of many other major tumor suppressors, including PTEN and VHL, also induces premature senescence in a p53- or Rb-dependent manner. Similarly, we showed that inactivation of the p53/Rb pathways by overexpression of SV40 LT-antigen partially reversed Cdh1 depletion-induced growth arrest. Therefore, loss of Cdh1 is only beneficial to cells with abnormal p53 and Rb pathways, which helps explain why Cdh1 loss is not frequently found in many tumors.
Project description:B-type cyclin-dependent kinase activity must be turned off for mitotic exit and G1 stabilization. B-type cyclin degradation is mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C); during and after mitotic exit, APC/C is dependent on Cdh1. Cdh1 is in turn phosphorylated and inactivated by cyclin-CDK at the Start transition of the new cell cycle. We developed a biosensor to assess the cell cycle dynamics of APC/C-Cdh1. Nuclear exit of the G1 transcriptional repressor Whi5 is a known marker of Start; APC/C-Cdh1 is inactivated 12 min after Whi5 nuclear exit with little measurable cell-to-cell timing variability. Multiple phosphorylation sites on Cdh1 act in a redundant manner to repress its activity. Reducing the number of phosphorylation sites on Cdh1 can to some extent be tolerated for cell viability, but it increases variability in timing of APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation. Mutants with minimal subsets of phosphorylation sites required for viability exhibit striking stochasticity in multiple responses including budding, nuclear division, and APC/C-Cdh1 activity itself. Multiple cyclin-CDK complexes, as well as the stoichiometric inhibitor Acm1, contribute to APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation; this redundant control is likely to promote rapid and reliable APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation immediately following the Start transition.
Project description:The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an ubiquitin ligase and core component of the cell-cycle oscillator. During G1 phase, APC/C binds to its substrate receptor Cdh1 and APC/C(Cdh1) plays an important role in restricting S-phase entry and maintaining genome integrity. We describe a reciprocal feedback circuit between APC/C and a second ubiquitin ligase, the SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F box). We show that cyclin F, a cell-cycle-regulated substrate receptor (F-box protein) for the SCF, is targeted for degradation by APC/C. Furthermore, we establish that Cdh1 is itself a substrate of SCF(cyclin F). Cyclin F loss impairs Cdh1 degradation and delays S-phase entry, and this delay is reversed by simultaneous removal of Cdh1. These data indicate that the coordinated, temporal ordering of cyclin F and Cdh1 degradation, organized in a double-negative feedback loop, represents a fundamental aspect of cell-cycle control. This mutual antagonism could be a feature of other oscillating systems.
Project description:The retinoblastoma protein (RB) restricts cell cycle gene expression and entry into the cell cycle. The RB-related protein p130 forms the DREAM (DP, RB-like, E2F, and MuvB) complex and contributes to repression of cell cycle-dependent genes during quiescence. Although both RB and DREAM bind and repress an overlapping set of E2F-dependent gene promoters, it remains unclear whether they cooperate to restrict cell cycle entry. To test the specific contributions of RB and DREAM, we generated RB and p130 knockout cells in primary human fibroblasts. Knockout of both p130 and RB yielded higher levels of cell cycle gene expression in G0 and G1 cells compared to cells with knockout of RB alone, indicating a role for DREAM and RB in repression of cell cycle genes. We observed that RB had a dominant role in E2F-dependent gene repression during mid to late G1 while DREAM activity was more prominent during G0 and early G1. Cyclin D-Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 (CDK4)-dependent phosphorylation of p130 occurred during early G1, and led to the release of p130 and MuvB from E2F4 and decreased p130 and MuvB binding to cell cycle promoters. Specific inhibition of CDK4 activity by palbociclib blocked DREAM complex disassembly during cell cycle entry. In addition, sensitivity to CDK4 inhibition was dependent on RB and an intact DREAM complex in both normal cells as well as in palbociclib-sensitive cancer cell lines. Although RB knockout cells were partially resistant to CDK4 inhibition, RB and p130 double knockout cells were significantly more resistant to palbociclib treatment. These results indicate that DREAM cooperates with RB in repressing E2F-dependent gene expression and cell cycle entry and supports a role for DREAM as a therapeutic target in cancer.
Project description:Cdh1, a coactivator of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), is a potential tumor suppressor. Cdh1 ablation promotes precocious S-phase entry, but it was unclear how this affects DNA replication dynamics while contributing to genomic instability and tumorigenesis. We find that Cdh1 depletion causes early S-phase onset in conjunction with increase in Rb/E2F1-mediated cyclin E1 expression, but reduced levels of cyclin E1 protein promote this transition. We hypothesize that this is due to a weakened cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI)-cyclin-dependent kinase 2 positive-feedback loop, normally generated by APC-Cdh1-mediated proteolysis of Skp2. Indeed, Cdh1 depletion increases Skp2 abundance while diminishing levels of the CKI p27. This lowers the level of cyclin E1 needed for S-phase entry and delays cyclin E1 proteolysis during S-phase progression while corresponding to slowed replication fork movement and reduced frequency of termination events. In summary, using both experimental and computational approaches, we show that APC-Cdh1 establishes a stimulus-response relationship that promotes S phase by ensuring that proper levels of p27 accumulate during G1 phase, and defects in its activation accelerate the timing of S-phase onset while prolonging its progression.
Project description:Inactivation of the Apc gene is recognized as the key early event in the development of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC), where its loss leads to constitutive activation of ?-catenin/T-cell factor 4 signaling and hence transcription of Wnt target genes such as c-Myc. Our and other previous studies have shown that although cyclin D1 is required for adenoma formation, it is not immediately upregulated following Apc loss within the intestine, suggesting that proliferation following acute Apc loss may be dependent on another D-type cyclin. In this study, we investigated the expression and functional relevance of cyclin D2 following Apc loss in the intestinal epithelium. Cyclin D2 is upregulated immediately following Apc loss, which corresponded with a significant increase in cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and hyperphosphorylated Rb levels. Deficiency of cyclin D2 resulted in a reduction in enterocyte proliferation and crypt size within Apc-deficient intestinal epithelium. Moreover, cyclin D2 dramatically reduced tumor growth and development in Apc(Min/+) mice. Importantly, cyclin D2 knockout did not affect proliferation of normal enterocytes, and furthermore, CDK4/6 inhibition also suppressed the proliferation of adenomatous cells and not normal cells from Apc(Min/+) mice. Taken together, these results indicate that cyclin D-CDK4/6 complexes are required for the efficient proliferation of cells with deregulated Wnt signaling, and inhibiting this complex may be an effective chemopreventative strategy in CRC.