The crucial choice of reference genes: identification of miR-191-5p for normalization of miRNAs expression in bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cell and HS27a/HS5 cell lines.
ABSTRACT: Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) have a critical role in tissue regeneration and in the hematopoietic niche due to their differentiation and self-renewal capacities. These mechanisms are finely tuned partly by small non-coding microRNA implicated in post-transcriptional regulation. The easiest way to quantify them is RT-qPCR followed by normalization on validated reference genes (RGs). This study identified appropriate RG for normalization of miRNA expression in BM-MSCs and HS27a and HS5 cell lines in various conditions including normoxia, hypoxia, co-culture, as model for the hematopoietic niche and after induced differentiation as model for regenerative medicine. Six candidates, namely miR-16-5p, miR-34b-3p, miR-103a-3p, miR-191-5p, let-7a-5p and RNU6A were selected and their expression verified by RT-qPCR. Next, a ranking on stability of the RG candidates were performed with two algorithms geNorm and RefFinder and the optimal number of RGs needed to normalize was determined. Our results indicate miR-191-5p as the most stable miRNA in all conditions but also that RNU6a, usually used as RG is the less stable gene. This study demonstrates the interest of rigorously evaluating candidate miRNAs as reference genes and the importance of the normalization process to study the expression of miRNAs in BM-MSCs or derived cell lines.
Project description:Osteoarthritis (OA) leads to chronic pain and disability, and traditional conservative treatments are not effective in the long term. The intra-articular injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is considered a novel therapy for OA whose efficacy mainly relies on the adaptive release of paracrine molecules which are either soluble or extracellular vesicles (EVs) embedded. The correct quantification of EV-miRNAs using reliable reference genes (RGs) is a crucial step in optimizing this future therapeutic cell-free approach. The purpose of this study is to rate the stabilities of literature-selected proposed RGs for EV-miRNAs in adipose derived-MSCs (ASCs). EVs were isolated by ultracentrifugation from ASCs cultured with or without inflammatory priming mimicking OA synovial fluid condition. Expression of putative RGs (let-7a-5p, miR-16-5p, miR-23a-3p, miR-26a-5p, miR-101-3p, miR-103a-3p, miR-221-3p, miR-423-5p, miR-425-5p, U6 snRNA) was scored by using the algorithms geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and ?Ct method. miR-16a-5p/miR-23a-3p yielded the most stable RGs, whereas let-7a-5p/miR-425-5p performed poorly. Outcomes were validated by qRT-PCR on miR-146a-5p, reported to be ASC-EVs enriched and involved in OA. Incorrect RG selection affected the evaluation of miR-146a-5p abundance and modulation by inflammation, with both values resulting strongly donor-dependent. Our findings demonstrated that an integrated approach of multiple algorithms is necessary to identify reliable, stable RGs for ASC-EVs miRNAs evaluation. A correct approach would increase the accuracy of embedded molecule assessments aimed to develop therapeutic strategies for the treatment of OA based on EVs.
Project description:Long-term expansion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) under defined culture conditions is necessary in human stem cell therapy. However, it alters the characteristics of MSCs. Since quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is widely used as one of the key analytical methods for comparative characterization, the validation of reference genes (RGs) for normalization under each experimental condition is important to achieve reliable qRT-PCR results. Therefore, the most stable RGs for long-term expanded bone marrow- and umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs and UCB-MSCs) under defined culture conditions for up to 20 passages were evaluated. The more apparent alterations in characteristics such as differentiation capacity, proliferation, senescence, and the expression of RGs were noted in BM-MSCs than UCB-MSCs during long-term expansion. The RG validation programs (GeNorm and NormFinder) suggested that PPIA, HPRT1, and YWHAZ were suitable for normalization in qRT-PCR regardless of MSC types and long-term culture expansion, and the traditional RGs (ACTB and GAPDH) were less stable in long-term expanded MSCs. In addition, the use of these RGs for normalization of OCT4 expression in long-term expanded BM-MSCs showed that a less stable RG (GAPDH) showed contrasting data compared to other RGs. Therefore, the use of RGs such as PPIA, HPRT1, and YWHAZ for normalization in qRT-PCR experiments is highly recommended for long-term expanded MSCs to generate accurate and reliable data.
Project description:Human amniotic membrane and amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs) have produced promising results in regenerative medicine, especially for the treatment of inflammatory-based diseases and for different injuries including those in the orthopedic field such as tendon disorders. hAMSCs have been proposed to exert their anti-inflammatory and healing potential via secreted factors, both free and conveyed within extracellular vesicles (EVs). In particular, EV miRNAs are considered privileged players due to their impact on target cells and tissues, and their future use as therapeutic molecules is being intensely investigated. In this view, EV-miRNA quantification in either research or future clinical products has emerged as a crucial paradigm, although, to date, largely unsolved due to lack of reliable reference genes (RGs). In this study, a panel of thirteen putative miRNA RGs (let-7a-5p, miR-16-5p, miR-22-5p, miR-23a-3p, miR-26a-5p, miR-29a-5p, miR-101-3p, miR-103a-3p, miR-221-3p, miR-423-5p, miR-425-5p, miR-660-5p and U6 snRNA) that were identified in different EV types was assessed in hAMSC-EVs. A validated experimental pipeline was followed, sifting the output of four largely accepted algorithms for RG prediction (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and ?Ct method). Out of nine RGs constitutively expressed across all EV isolates, miR-101-3p and miR-22-5p resulted in the most stable RGs, whereas miR-423-5p and U6 snRNA performed poorly. miR-22-5p was also previously reported to be a reliable RG in adipose-derived MSC-EVs, suggesting its suitability across samples isolated from different MSC types. Further, to shed light on the impact of incorrect RG choice, the level of five tendon-related miRNAs (miR-29a-3p, miR-135a-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR-337-3p, let-7d-5p) was compared among hAMSC-EVs isolates. The use of miR-423-5p and U6 snRNA did not allow a correct quantification of miRNA incorporation in EVs, leading to less accurate fingerprinting and, if used for potency prediction, misleading indication of the most appropriate clinical batch. These results emphasize the crucial importance of RG choice for EV-miRNAs in hAMSCs studies and contribute to the identification of reliable RGs such as miR-101-3p and miR-22-5p to be validated in other MSC-EVs related fields.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising tools for cell-based therapies due to their homing to injury sites, where they secrete bioactive factors such as cytokines, lipids, and nucleic acids, either free or conveyed within extracellular vesicles (EVs). Depending on the local environment, MSCs' therapeutic value may be modulated, determining their fate and cell behavior. Inflammatory signals may induce critical changes on both the phenotype and secretory portfolio. Intriguingly, in animal models resembling joint diseases as osteoarthritis (OA), inflammatory priming enhanced the healing capacity of MSC-derived EVs. In this work, we selected miRNA reference genes (RGs) from the literature (let-7a-5p, miR-16-5p, miR-23a-3p, miR-26a-5p, miR-101-3p, miR-103a-3p, miR-221-3p, miR-423-5p, miR-425-5p, U6 snRNA), using EVs isolated from adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) primed with IFNγ (iASCs). geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and ΔCt methods identified miR-26a-5p/16-5p as the most stable, while miR-103a-rp/425-5p performed poorly. Our results were validated on miRNAs involved in OA cartilage trophism. Only a proper normalization strategy reliably identified the differences between donors, a critical factor to empower the therapeutic value of future off-the-shelf MSC-EV isolates. In conclusion, the proposed pipeline increases the accuracy of MSC-EVs embedded miRNAs assessment, and help predicting donor variability for precision medicine approaches.
Project description:miRNAs are emerging as key regulators of complex biological systems in several developmental processes. qRT-PCR is a powerful tool to quantitatively assess the profiles and modulation of miRNA expression. In the emerging field of cartilage maturation studies, from precursor to hypertrophic chondrocytes, few data about miRNA regulation are available, and no consensus on the best reference gene (RG) has been reached. This is a crucial pitfall since reliable outcomes depend on proper data normalization. The aim of this work was to identify reliable and stable miRNA RGs, basing the analysis on available high throughput qRT-PCR miRNA data (from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus database, GSE49152) obtained from human embryonic cartilage tissues enriched in the precursor, differentiated, and hypertrophic chondrocytes. Four normalization approaches were used, and the stability was quantified by combining BestKeeper, delta-Ct, geNorm, and NormFinder statistical tools. An integrated approach allowed to identify miR-26a-5p as the most stable RG and miR-212-3p as the worst one. RNU44, used in original dataset analysis, performed as second best RG. Applications of different normalization strategies significantly impacted the profiles and modulation of miRNA expression. Herein presented results point out the crucial need of a consensus on data normalization studies aimed at dissecting miRNA role in human cartilage development, to avoid the postulation of unreliable biological conclusions.
Project description:The cardioprotective properties of extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are currently being investigated in preclinical studies. Although microRNAs (miRNAs) encapsulated in EVs have been identified as one component responsible for the cardioprotective effect of MSCs, their potential off-target effects have not been sufficiently characterized. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the miRNA profile of EVs isolated from MSCs that were derived from cord blood (CB) and adipose tissue (AT). The identified miRNAs were then compared to known targets from the literature to discover possible adverse effects prior to clinical use. Our data show that while many cardioprotective miRNAs such as miR-22-3p, miR-26a-5p, miR-29c-3p, and miR-125b-5p were present in CB- and AT-MSC-derived EVs, a large number of known oncogenic and tumor suppressor miRNAs such as miR-16-5p, miR-23a-3p, and miR-191-5p were also detected. These findings highlight the importance of quality assessment for therapeutically applied EV preparations.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belong to a family of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) playing important roles in human carcinogenesis. Multiple investigations reported miRNAs aberrantly expressed in several cancers, including high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGS-OvCa). Quantitative PCR is widely used in studies investigating miRNA expression and the identification of reliable endogenous controls is crucial for proper data normalization. In this study, we aimed to experimentally identify the most stable reference sncRNAs for normalization of miRNA qPCR expression data in HGS-OvCa. Eleven putative reference sncRNAs for normalization (U6, SNORD48, miR-92a-3p, let-7a-5p, SNORD61, SNORD72, SNORD68, miR-103a-3p, miR-423-3p, miR-191-5p, miR-16-5p) were analysed on a total of 75 HGS-OvCa and 30 normal tissues, using a highly specific qPCR. Both the normal tissues considered to initiate HGS-OvCa malignant transformation, namely ovary and fallopian tube epithelia, were included in our study. Stability of candidate endogenous controls was evaluated using an equivalence test and validated by geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Combining results from the three different statistical approaches, SNORD48 emerged as stably and equivalently expressed between malignant and normal tissues. Among malignant samples, considering groups based on residual tumour, miR-191-5p was identified as the most equivalent sncRNA. On the basis of our results, we support the use of SNORD48 as best reference sncRNA for relative quantification in miRNA expression studies between HGS-OvCa and normal controls, including the first time both the normal tissues supposed to be HGS-OvCa progenitors. In addition, we recommend miR-191-5p as best reference sncRNA in miRNA expression studies with prognostic intent on HGS-OvCa tissues.
Project description:Administration of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) significantly alleviates allergic airway inflammation. There are no studies that refer to the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) after the BM-MSCs treatment in airway allergic inflammation. We induced a mouse model of asthma and performed the transplantation of BM-MSCs. We analyzed aberrant miRNAs and key immune regulators using both miRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays. We identified that 296 miRNAs were differently expressed after the induction of asthma and/or the treatment of BM-MSCs, in which 14 miRNAs presented the reverse variation tendency between asthma induction and BM-MSCs transplantation. Mmu-miR-21a-3p, mmu-miR-449c-5p, and mmu-miR-496a-3p were further confirmed to be differently expressed with additional samples and quantitative real-time PCR. With an mRNA PCR array, we identified 19 genes to be involved in the allergy induction and the administration of BM-MSCs. Further target genes analysis revealed that mmu-miR-21a-3p was significantly correlated with the immune regulator activin A receptor, Type IIA (Acvr2a). Mmu-miR-21a-3p had opposite expression with Acvr2a after asthma and BM-MSCs treatment. Acvr2a had binding sites for miR-21a for both mice and human, suggesting that miR-21/Acvr2a axis is conserved between human and mice. Dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that mmu-miR-21a-3p negatively regulated the transcript of Acvr2a. In addition, has-miR-21a inhibitor significantly increased the expression of Acvr2a mRNA in BEAS-2B cells under lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Our results suggest that there were different miRNA and mRNA profiles after asthma induction and BM-MSCs treatment, and the miR-21/Acvr2a axis is an important mechanism for the induction of asthmatic inflammation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are attractive choices in regenerative medicine and can be genetically modified to obtain better results in therapeutics. Bone development and metabolism are controlled by various factors including microRNAs (miRs) interference, which are small non-coding endogenous RNAs. METHODS:In the current study, the effects of forced miR-148b expression was evaluated on osteogenic activity. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were transduced with bicistronic lentiviral vector encoding hsa-miR-148b-3p or -5p and the enhanced green fluorescent protein. Fourteen days post-transduction, immunostaining as well as Western blotting were used to analyze osteogenesis. RESULTS:Overexpression of miR-148b-3p increased the osteogenic differentiation of human BM-MSCs as demonstrated by anenhancement of mineralized nodular formation and an increase in the levels of osteoblastic differentiation biomarkers, alkaline phosphatase and collagen type I. CONCLUSIONS:Since lentivirally overexpressed miR-148b-3p increased osteogenic differentiation capability of BM-MSCs, this miR could be applied as a therapeutic modulator to optimize bone function.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate translation of mRNA into protein and play a crucial role for almost all biological activities. However, the identification of miRNAs from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), especially from dental pulp, is poorly understood. In this study, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were characterized in terms of their proliferation and differentiation capacity. Furthermore, 104 known mature miRNAs were profiled by using real-time PCR. Notably, we observed 19 up-regulated miRNAs and 29 significantly down-regulated miRNAs in DPSCs in comparison with bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs). The 19 up-regulated miRNAs were subjected to ingenuity analysis, which were composed into 25 functional networks. We have chosen top 2 functional networks, which comprised 10 miRNA (hsa-miR-516a-3p, hsa-miR-125b-1-3p, hsa-miR-221-5p, hsa-miR-7, hsa-miR-584-5p, hsa-miR-190a, hsa-miR-106a-5p, hsa-mir-376a-5p, hsa-mir-377-5p and hsa-let-7f-2-3p). Prediction of target mRNAs and associated biological pathways regulated by each of this miRNA was carried out. We paid special attention to hsa-miR-516a-3p and hsa-miR-7-5p as these miRNAs were highly expressed upon validation with qRT-PCR analysis. We further proceeded with loss-of-function analysis with these miRNAs and we observed that hsa-miR-516a-3p knockdown induced a significant increase in the expression of WNT5A. Likewise, the knockdown of hsa-miR-7-5p increased the expression of EGFR. Nevertheless, further validation revealed the role of WNT5A as an indirect target of hsa-miR-516a-3p. These results provide new insights into the dynamic role of miRNA expression in DPSCs. In conclusion, using miRNA signatures in human as a prediction tool will enable us to elucidate the biological processes occurring in DPSCs.