Congenital immobility and stiffness related to biallelic ATAD1 variants.
ABSTRACT: Objective:To delineate the phenotype associated with biallelic ATAD1 variants. Methods:We describe 2 new patients with ATAD1-related disorder diagnosed by whole-exome sequencing and compare their phenotype to 6 previous patients. Results:Patients 1 and 2 had a similar distinctive phenotype comprising congenital stiffness of limbs, absent spontaneous movements, weak sucking, and hypoventilation. Both had absent brainstem evoked auditory responses (BEARs). Patient 1 carried the homozygous p.(His357Argfs*15) variant in ATAD1. In the light of the finding in patient 1, a second reading of exome data for patient 2 revealed the novel homozygous p.(Gly128Val) variant. Conclusions:Analysis of the phenotypes of these 2 patients and of the 6 previous cases showed that biallelic ATAD1 mutations are responsible for a unique congenital encephalopathy likely comprising absent BEAR, different from hyperekplexia and other conditions with neonatal hypertonia.
Project description:Members of the AAA+ superfamily of ATPases are involved in the unfolding of proteins and disassembly of protein complexes and aggregates. ATAD1 encoding the ATPase family, AAA+ domain containing 1-protein Thorase plays an important role in the function and integrity of mitochondria and peroxisomes. Postsynaptically, Thorase controls the internalization of excitatory, glutamatergic AMPA receptors by disassembling complexes between the AMPA receptor-binding protein, GRIP1, and the AMPA receptor subunit GluA2. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous frameshift mutation in the last exon of ATAD1 [c.1070_1071delAT; p.(His357Argfs*15)] in three siblings who presented with a severe, lethal encephalopathy associated with stiffness and arthrogryposis. Biochemical and cellular analyses show that the C-terminal end of Thorase mutant gained a novel function that strongly impacts its oligomeric state, reduces stability or expression of a set of Golgi, peroxisomal and mitochondrial proteins and affects disassembly of GluA2 and Thorase oligomer complexes. Atad1-/- neurons expressing Thorase mutantHis357Argfs*15 display reduced amount of GluA2 at the cell surface suggesting that the Thorase mutant may inhibit the recycling back and/or reinsertion of AMPA receptors to the plasma membrane. Taken together, our molecular and functional analyses identify an activating ATAD1 mutation as a new cause of severe encephalopathy and congenital stiffness.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To describe adult-onset limb-girdle-type muscular dystrophy caused by biallelic variants in the PYROXD1 gene, which has been recently linked to early-onset congenital myofibrillar myopathy. METHODS:Whole exome sequencing was performed for adult-onset neuromuscular disease patients with no molecular diagnosis. Patients with PYROXD1 variants underwent clinical characterization, lower limb muscle MRI, muscle biopsy and spirometry. A yeast complementation assay was used to determine the biochemical consequences of the genetic variants. RESULTS:We identified four patients with biallelic PYROXD1 variants. Three patients, who had symptom onset in their 20s or 30s, were homozygous for the previously described p.Asn155Ser. The fourth patient, with symptom onset at age 49, was compound heterozygous for p.Asn155Ser variant and previously unknown p.Tyr354Cys. All patients presented with a LGMD-type phenotype of symmetric muscle weakness and wasting. Symptoms started in proximal muscles of the lower limbs, and progressed slowly to involve also upper limbs in a proximal-predominant fashion. All patients remained ambulant past the age of 60. They had restrictive lung disease but no cardiac impairment. Muscle MRI showed strong involvement of anterolateral thigh muscles. Muscle biopsy displayed chronic myopathic changes. Yeast complementation assay demonstrated the p.Tyr354Cys mutation to impair PYROXD1 oxidoreductase ability. CONCLUSION:PYROXD1 variants can cause an adult-onset slowly progressive LGMD-type phenotype.
Project description:ATAD1 encodes Thorase, a mediator of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionate (AMPA) receptor recycling; in this work, we characterized the phenotype resulting from ATAD1 mutations and developed a targeted therapy in both mice and humans.Using exome sequencing, we identified a novel ATAD1 mutation (p.E276X) as the etiology of a devastating neurologic disorder characterized by hypertonia, seizures, and death in a consanguineous family. We postulated that pathogenesis was a result of excessive AMPA receptor activity and designed a targeted therapeutic approach using perampanel, an AMPA-receptor antagonist.Perampanel therapy in ATAD1 knockout mice reversed behavioral defects, normalized brain MRI abnormalities, prevented seizures, and prolonged survival. The ATAD1 patients treated with perampanel showed improvement in hypertonicity and resolution of seizures.This work demonstrates that identification of novel monogenic neurologic disorders and observation of response to targeted therapeutics can provide important insights into human nervous system functioning.
Project description:The Integrator complex subunit 1 (INTS1) is a component of the integrator complex that comprises 14 subunits and associates with RPB1 to catalyze endonucleolytic cleavage of nascent snRNAs and assist RNA polymerase II in promoter-proximal pause-release on protein-coding genes. We present five patients, including two sib pairs, with biallelic sequence variants in INTS1. The patients manifested absent or severely limited speech, an abnormal gait, hypotonia and cataracts. Exome sequencing revealed biallelic variants in INTS1 in all patients. One sib pair demonstrated a missense variant, p.(Arg77Cys), and a frameshift variant, p.(Arg1800Profs*20), another sib pair had a homozygous missense variant, p.(Pro1874Leu), and the fifth patient had a frameshift variant, p.(Leu1764Cysfs*16) and a missense variant, p.(Leu2164Pro). We also report additional clinical data on three previously described individuals with a homozygous, loss of function variant, p.(Ser1784*) in INTS1 that shared cognitive delays, cataracts and dysmorphic features with these patients. Several of the variants affected the protein C-terminus and preliminary modeling showed that the p.(Pro1874Leu) and p.(Leu2164Pro) variants may interfere with INTS1 helix folding. In view of the cataracts observed, we performed in-situ hybridization and demonstrated expression of ints1 in the zebrafish eye. We used Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 to make larvae with biallelic insertion/deletion (indel) variants in ints1. The mutant larvae developed typically through gastrulation, but sections of the eye showed abnormal lens development. The distinctive phenotype associated with biallelic variants in INTS1 points to dysfunction of the integrator complex as a mechanism for intellectual disability, eye defects and craniofacial anomalies.
Project description:GNAT1, encoding the transducin subunit G?, is an important element of the phototransduction cascade. Mutations in this gene have been associated with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness. Recently, a homozygous truncating GNAT1 mutation was identified in a patient with late-onset rod-cone dystrophy. After exclusion of mutations in genes underlying progressive inherited retinal disorders, by targeted next generation sequencing, a 32 year-old male sporadic case with severe rod-cone dystrophy and his unaffected parents were investigated by whole exome sequencing. This led to the identification of a homozygous nonsense variant, c.963C>A p.(Cys321*) in GNAT1, which was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The mother was heterozygous for this variant whereas the variant was absent in the father. c.963C>A p.(Cys321*) is predicted to produce a shorter protein that lacks critical sites for the phototransduction cascade. Our work confirms that the phenotype and the mode of inheritance associated with GNAT1 variants can vary from autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness to autosomal recessive rod-cone dystrophy.
Project description:Baller-Gerold (BGS, MIM#218600) and Roberts (RBS, MIM#268300) syndromes are rare autosomal recessive disorders caused, respectively, by biallelic alterations in RECQL4 (MIM*603780) and ESCO2 (MIM*609353) genes. Common features are severe growth retardation, limbs shortening and craniofacial abnormalities which may include craniosynostosis. We aimed at unveiling the genetic lesions underpinning the phenotype of two unrelated children with a presumptive BGS diagnosis: patient 1 is a Turkish girl with short stature, microcephaly, craniosynostosis, seizures, intellectual disability, midface hemangioma, bilateral radial and thumb aplasia, tibial hypoplasia, and pes equinovarus. Patient 2 is an Iranian girl born to consanguineous parents with craniosynostosis, micrognathism, bilateral radial aplasia, thumbs, and foot deformity in the context of developmental delay. Upon negative RECQL4 test, whole exome sequencing (WES) analysis performed on the two trios led to the identification of two different ESCO2 homozygous inactivating variants: a previously described c.1131+1G>A transition in patient 1 and an unreported deletion, c.417del, in patient 2, thus turning the diagnosis into Roberts syndrome. The occurrence of a Baller-Gerold phenotype in two unrelated patients that were ultimately diagnosed with RBS demonstrates the strength of WES in redefining the nosological landscape of rare congenital malformation syndromes, a premise to yield optimized patients management and family counseling.
Project description:Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)1 and DGAT2 catalyze triglyceride (TG) biosynthesis in humans. Biallelic loss-of-function mutations in human DGAT1 result in severe congenital diarrhea and protein-losing enteropathy. Additionally, pharmacologic inhibition of DGAT1 led to dose-related diarrhea in human clinical trials. Here we identify a previously unknown DGAT1 mutation in identical twins of South Asian descent. These male patients developed watery diarrhea shortly after birth, with protein-losing enteropathy and failure to thrive. Exome sequencing revealed a homozygous recessive mutation in DGAT1, c.314T>C, p.L105P. We show here that the p.L105P DGAT1 enzyme produced from the mutant allele is less abundant, resulting in partial loss of TG synthesis activity and decreased formation of lipid droplets in patient-derived primary dermal fibroblasts. Thus, in contrast with complete loss-of-function alleles of DGAT1, the p.L105P missense allele partially reduces TG synthesis activity and causes a less severe clinical phenotype. Our findings add to the growing recognition of DGAT1 deficiency as a cause of congenital diarrhea with protein-losing enteropathy and indicate that DGAT1 mutations result in a spectrum of diseases.
Project description:Mutations in PIGN, resulting in multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor deficiency, have been published in four families to date. We report four patients from three unrelated families with epilepsy and hypotonia in whom whole exome sequencing yielded compound heterozygous variants in PIGN. As with previous reports Patients 1 and 2 (full siblings) have severe global developmental delay, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and minor dysmorphic features, including high palate, bitemporal narrowing, depressed nasal bridge, and micrognathia; Patient 3 had early global developmental delay with later progressive spastic quadriparesis, intellectual disability, and intractable generalized epilepsy; Patient 4 had bilateral narrowing as well but differed by the presence of hypertelorism, markedly narrow palpebral fissures, and long philtrum, had small distal phalanges of fingers 2, 3, and 4, absent distal phalanx of finger 5 and similar toe anomalies, underdeveloped nails, unusual brain anomalies, and a more severe early clinical course. These patients expand the known clinical spectrum of the disease. The severity of the presentations in conjunction with the patients' mutations suggest a genotype-phenotype correlation in which congenital anomalies are only seen in patients with biallelic loss-of-function. In addition, PIGN mutations appear to be panethnic and may be an underappreciated cause of epilepsy.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To describe the clinical and genetic characteristics of presynaptic congenital myasthenic syndrome secondary to biallelic variants in SLC18A3. METHODS:Individuals from 2 families were identified with biallelic variants in SLC18A3, the gene encoding the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), through whole-exome sequencing. RESULTS:The patients demonstrated features seen in presynaptic congenital myasthenic syndrome, including ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, fatigable weakness, apneic crises, and deterioration of symptoms in cold water for patient 1. Both patients demonstrated moderate clinical improvement on pyridostigmine. Patient 1 had a broader phenotype, including learning difficulties and left ventricular dysfunction. Electrophysiologic studies were typical for a presynaptic defect. Both patients showed profound electrodecrement on low-frequency repetitive stimulation followed by a prolonged period of postactivation exhaustion. In patient 1, this was unmasked only after isometric contraction, a recognized feature of presynaptic disease, emphasizing the importance of activation procedures. CONCLUSIONS:VAChT is responsible for uptake of acetylcholine into presynaptic vesicles. The clinical and electrographic characteristics of the patients described are consistent with previously reported mouse models of VAChT deficiency. These findings make it very likely that defects in VAChT due to variants in SLC18A3 are a cause of congenital myasthenic syndrome in humans.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy (CHN) is a rare congenital neuropathy that presents in the neonatal period and has been linked previously to mutations in several genes associated with myelination. A recent study has linked 4 homozygous frameshift mutations in the contactin-associated protein 1 (CNTNAP1) gene with this condition. METHODS:We report a neonate with CHN who was found to have absent sensory nerve and compound muscle action potentials and hypomyelination on nerve biopsy. RESULTS:On whole exome sequencing, we identified a novel CNTNAP1 homozygous missense mutation (p.Arg388Pro) in the proband, and both parents were carriers. Molecular modeling suggests that this variant disrupts a β-strand to cause an unstable structure and likely significant changes in protein function. CONCLUSIONS:This report links a missense CNTNAP1 variant to the disease phenotype previously associated only with frameshift mutations. Muscle Nerve 55: 761-765, 2017.