CD1d1 intrinsic signaling in macrophages controls NLRP3 inflammasome expression during inflammation.
ABSTRACT: Dysregulation of immune responses in the gut often associates with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Mouse CD1d1, an ortholog of human CD1d mainly participating in lipid-antigen presentation to NKT cells, is able to generate intrinsic signals upon stimulation. Mice with macrophage-specific CD1d1 deficiency (LymCD1d1-/- ) acquire resistance to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, attributing to the transcriptional inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome components. The hyperactivation of NLRP3 inflammasome accounts for gut epithelial proliferation and intestine-blood barrier integrity. Mechanistically, occupancy by the natural ligand glycosphingolipid iGb3, CD1d1 responds with intracellular Ser330 dephosphorylation thus to reduce the Peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1)-associated AKT-STAT1 phosphorylation and subsequent NF-?B activation, eventually causing transcriptional down-regulation of Nlrp3 and its immediate substrates Il1b and Il18 in macrophages. Therefore, the counterbalancing role of CD1d1 in macrophages appears to determine severity of DSS-mediated colitis in mice. These findings propose new intervention strategies for treating IBD and other inflammatory disorders.
Project description:Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is a chronic, relapsing condition associated with the disorder of gut microbial communities. A previous study reported that levels of Roseburia intestinalis (R.I), a butyrate?producing bacterium, are significantly decreased in patients with IBD and exert an anti?inflammatory function in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)?induced colitis. However, the role of R.I flagellin in UC and its underlying molecular mechanism are not yet fully understood. Therefore, a DSS?induced colitis model in C57Bl/6 mice and the LPS/ATP?induced THP?1 macrophages were treated with R.I flagellin, which were used to investigate the anti?inflammatory effects of R.I flagellin. The results demonstrated that R.I flagellin decreased colitis?associated disease activity index, colonic shortening and the pathological damage of the colon tissues in murine colitis models. Furthermore, R.I flagellin decreased the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibited activation of the nucleotide?binding oligomerization segment?like receptor family 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in murine colitis. R.I flagellin was also demonstrated to decrease the Gasdermin D to yield the N?terminal fragment membrane pore and inhibit inflammasome?triggered pyroptosis. In vitro analysis indicated that microRNA (miR)?223?3p was involved in the regulation of R.I flagellin on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrated that R.I flagellin inhibited activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and pyroptosis via miR?223?3p/NLRP3 signaling in macrophages, suggesting that R.I flagellin may be used as a novel probiotic product for the treatment of UC.
Project description:NLRP3 inflammasome is a novel therapeutic target for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of a bioactive flavonoid-oroxylin A on the treatment of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced murine colitis via targeting NLRP3 inflammasome. In this study, we found that oroxylin A attenuated experimental colitis in mice, including loss of body weights, shortening of the colon lengths and infiltration of inflammatory cells. The production of IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? in colon was also markedly reduced by oroxylin A. Moreover, oroxylin A significantly decreased the expression of NLRP3 in intestinal mucosal tissue. In addition, NLRP3-/- mice were observably protected from DSS-induced acute colitis, and oroxylin A treatment had no effects on attenuating inflammation in NLRP3-/- mice. Further study found that the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome was dose-dependently inhibited by oroxylin A in both THP-Ms and BMDMs, followed by decrease in the cleavage of caspase-1 and secretion of IL-1?. This inhibitory effect of oroxylin A was due to restraint of the NLRP3 protein expression and the inflammasome formation in macrophages. Furthermore, the reduction of NLRP3 protein expression by oroxylin A was dependent on the inhibition of NF-?B p65 expression and nuclear translocation. Besides, oroxylin A directly suppressed the ASC speck formation and the inflammasome assembly which in turn restrained the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Our findings demonstrated that oroxylin A inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and could potentially be used for the treatment of IBD.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is one of the most common diseases in the gastrointestinal tract related to aberrant inflammation. Pyroptosis, which is characterized by inflammasome formation, the activation of caspase-1, and the separation of the N- and C-terminals of GSDMD, might be related to IBD pathogenesis. NEK7 is an important component of the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages. We attempted to investigate the mechanism of NEK7 interacting with NLRP3 to modulate the pyroptosis in IBD. NEK7 mRNA and protein expression and pyroptosis-associated factors, including Caspase-1 (p45, p20), NLRP3, and GSDMD, were upregulated in IBD tissues. NEK7 knockdown abolish ATP?+?LPS-induced pyroptosis in vitro and improved DSS-induced chronic colitis in vivo. NEK7 interacted with NLRP3, as revealed by Co-IP and GST pull-down assays, to exert its effects. Moreover, short-term LPS treatment alone induced no significant changes in NEK7 protein level. TLR4/NF-?B signaling in MODE-K cells could be activated by LPS treatment. LPS-induced NEK7 upregulation could be significantly reversed by JSH-23, an inhibitor of p65. Furthermore, LUC and ChIP assays revealed that RELA might activate the transcription of NEK7 via targeting its promoter region. LPS-induced TLR4/NF-?B activation causes an increase in NEK7 expression by RELA binding NEK7 promoter region. In conclusion, NEK7 interacts with NLRP3 to modulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation, therefore modulating the pyroptosis in MODE-K cells and DSS-induced chronic colitis in mice. We provide a novel mechanism of NEK7-NLRP3 interaction affecting IBD via pyroptosis.
Project description:A westernized high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). High-level fecal deoxycholic acid (DCA) caused by HFD contributes to the colonic inflammatory injury of IBD; however, the mechanism concerning the initiation of inflammatory response by DCA remains unclear. In this study, we sought to investigate the role and mechanism of DCA in the induction of inflammation via promoting NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Here, we, for the first time, showed that DCA dose-dependently induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and highly pro-inflammatory cytokine-IL-1? production in macrophages. Mechanistically, DCA-triggered NLRP3 inflammasome activation by promoting cathepsin B release at least partially through sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2. Colorectal instillation of DCA significantly increased mature IL-1? level in colonic tissue and exacerbated DSS-induced colitis, while in vivo blockage of NLRP3 inflammasome or macrophage depletion dramatically reduced the mature IL-1? production and ameliorated the aggravated inflammatory injury imposed by DCA. Thus, our findings show that high-level fecal DCA may serve as an endogenous danger signal to activate NLRP3 inflammasome and contribute to HFD-related colonic inflammation. NLRP3 inflammasome may represent a new potential therapeutical target for treatment of IBD.
Project description:Fungi represent a significant proportion of the gut microbiota. Aberrant immune responses to fungi are frequently observed in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and colorectal cancer (CRC), and mutations in the fungal-sensing pathways are associated with the pathogenesis of IBD. Fungal recognition receptors trigger downstream signaling via the common adaptor protein CARD9 and the kinase SYK. Here we found that commensal gut fungi promoted inflammasome activation during AOM-DSS-induced colitis. Myeloid cell-specific deletion of Card9 or Syk reduced inflammasome activation and interleukin (IL)-18 maturation and increased susceptibility to colitis and CRC. IL-18 promoted epithelial barrier restitution and interferon-? production by intestinal CD8+ T cells. Supplementation of IL-18 or transfer of wild-type myeloid cells reduced tumor burden in AOM-DSS-treated Card9-/- and Sykfl/flLysMCre/+ mice, whereas treatment with anti-fungal agents exacerbated colitis and CRC. CARD9 deletion changes the gut microbial landscape, suggesting that SYK-CARD9 signaling maintains a microbial ecology that promotes inflammasome activation and thereby restrains colitis and colon tumorigenesis.
Project description:Activation of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) ameliorates inflammation, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we examined whether activation of CB2R could suppress the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. In peritoneal macrophages isolated from C57BL/6 mice, LPS/DSS challenge for 24 h increased the expression of the components of NLRP3 inflammasome NLRP3, Casp-1 p20/Casp-1 p45 ratio, proIL-1? and IL-1? and also enhanced autophagy (LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, Beclin-1 and SQSTM1). Pretreatment of peritoneal macrophages with HU 308, a selective CB2R agonist, attenuated LPS/DSS-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, but further enhanced autophagy. In comparison with wild-type (WT) control, peritoneal macrophages from CB2R knockout (KO) mice had more robust NLRP3 inflammasome activation and attenuated autophagy upon LPS/DSS challenge. Knockdown autophagy-related gene 5 (Atg5) with a siRNA in peritoneal macrophages attenuated the inhibitory effects of HU 308 on LPS/DSS-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in vitro. In vivo, HU308 treatment attenuated DSS-induced colitis mice associated with reduced colon inflammation and inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation in wild-type mice. In CB2R KO mice, DSS-induced inflammation and NLRP3 inflammasome activation were more pronounced than those in WT control. Finally, we demonstrated that AMPK-mTOR-P70S6K signaling pathway was involved in this CB2R-mediated process. We conclude that activation of CB2R ameliorates DSS-induced colitis through enhancing autophagy that may inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages.
Project description:Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and idiopathic inflammatory disease that affects the colon, resulting in immune dysregulation and the production of large amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Pyroptosis and NLRP3 inflammasome are associated with various kinds of inflammatory diseases including colitis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the protective effects and regulatory mechanism of Gly-Pro-Ala (GPA) peptide on DSS-induced colitis. In vivo, we find GPA peptide could exert anti-inflammatory effects on DSS-induced mice colitis, and its anti-inflammatory effects are abolished in NLRP3-/- mice. In macrophage, GPA suppresses the assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome and GSDMD cleavage. Furthermore, GPA maintains mitochondrial homeostasis through inhibiting ROS, mtDNA and NLRP3 mitochondrial localization, with other signals related to NLRP3 inflammasome unaffected. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of GPA on reactive oxygen species (ROS) are found to be achieved by increasing AMPK phosphorylation. Our results suggest that GPA inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation through increasing AMPK phosphorylation to suppress ROS, and can be applied in the prevention of colitis through targeting NLRP3.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with enhanced levels of the IL-1 family cytokines IL-1? and IL-18, which are activated by the Nlrp3 inflammasome. Here, we investigated the role of inflammasome-driven cytokine release on T cell polarization and DC differentiation in steady state and T cell transfer colitis. In vitro and in vivo data showed that IL-1? induces Th17 polarization and increases GM?CSF production by T cells. Reduced IL-1? levels in Nlrp3-/- mice correlated with enhanced FLT3L levels and increased frequency of tolerogenic CD103+ DC. In the T cell transfer colitis model, Nlrp3 deficiency resulted in lower IL?1? levels, reduced Th17 immunity, and less severe colitis. Unaltered IL-18 levels in both mouse strains pointed toward Nlrp3-independent processing. Importantly, cohousing revealed that the gut microbiome had no impact on the observed Nlrp3-/- phenotype. This study demonstrates that NLRP3 acts as a molecular switch of intestinal homeostasis by shifting local immune cells toward an inflammatory phenotype via IL-1?.
Project description:The roles of Rev-erb? and circadian clock in colonic inflammation remain unclarified. Here we show colon clock genes (including Rev-erb?) are dysregulated in mice with DSS-induced colitis. In turn, disruption of the circadian clock exacerbates experimental colitis. Rev-erb?-deficient mice are more sensitive to DSS-induced colitis, supporting a critical role of Rev-erb? in disease development. Further, Rev-erb? ablation causes activation of Nlrp3 inflammasome in mice. Cell-based experiments reveal Rev-erb? inactivates Nlrp3 inflammasome mainly at the priming stage. Rev-erb? directly represses Nlrp3 transcription through specific binding to the promoter region. Additionally, Rev-erb? represses p65 transcription and indirectly repressed Nlrp3 via the NF-?B pathway. Interestingly, Rev-erb? activation in wild-type mice by SR9009 attenuates DSS-induced colitis, whereas the protective effects are lost in Nlrp3-/- and Rev-erb?-/- mice. Taken together, Rev-erb? regulates experimental colitis through its repressive action on the NF-?B/Nlrp3 axis. Targeting Rev-erb? may represent a promising approach for prevention and management of colitis.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Inflammation contributes to cancer development and inflammatory bowel disease is an important risk factor for CRC. The aim of this study is to assess whether a widely used probiotic Enterococcus faecalis can modulate the NLRP3 inflammasome and protect against colitis and colitis-associated CRC. We studied the effect of heat-killed cells of E. faecalis on NLRP3 inflammasome activation in THP-1-derived macrophages. Pretreatment of E. faecalis or NLRP3 siRNA can inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages in response to fecal content or commensal microbes, P. mirabilis or E. coli, according to the reduction of caspase-1 activation and IL-1β maturation. Mechanistically, E. faecalis attenuates the phagocytosis that is required for the full activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. In in vivo mouse experiments, E. faecalis can ameliorate the severity of intestinal inflammation and thereby protect mice from dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis and the formation of CRC in wild type mice. On the other hand, E. faecalis cannot prevent DSS-induced colitis in NLRP3 knockout mice. Our findings indicate that application of the inactivated probiotic, E. faecalis, may be a useful and safe strategy for attenuation of NLRP3-mediated colitis and inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis.