?1,4-Galactosyltransferase V Modulates Breast Cancer Stem Cells through Wnt/?-catenin Signaling Pathway.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) contribute to the initiation, development, and recurrence of breast carcinomas. ?1,4-Galactosyltransferase V (B4GalT5), which catalyzes the addition of galactose to GlcNAc?1-4Man of N-glycans, is involved in embryogenesis. However, its role in the modulation of BCSCs remains unknown. Materials and Methods:The relationship between B4GalT5 and breast cancer stemness was investigated by online clinical databases and immunohistochemistry analysis. Mammosphere formation, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and in-vivo assays were used to evaluate B4GalT5 expression in BCSCs and its effect on BCSCs. B4GalT5 regulation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling was examined by immunofluorescence and Ricinus communis agglutinin I pull-down assays. Cell surface biotinylation and FACS assays were performed to assess the association of cell surface B4GalT5 and BCSCs. RESULTS:B4GalT5, but not other B4GalTs, was highly correlated with BCSC markers and poor prognosis. B4GalT5 significantly increased the stem cell marker aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) and promoted the production of CD44+CD24-/low cells and the formation of mammospheres. Furthermore, B4GalT5 overexpression resulted in dramatic tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistically, B4GalT5 modified and protected Frizzled-1 from degradation via the lysosomal pathway, promoting Wnt/?-catenin signaling which was hyperactivated in BCSCs. B4GalT5, located on the surface of a small subset of breast carcinoma cells, was not responsible for the stemness of BCSCs. CONCLUSION:B4GalT5 modulates the stemness of breast cancer through glycosylation modification to stabilize Frizzled-1 and activate Wnt/?-catenin signaling independent of its cell surface location. Our studies highlight a previously unknown role of B4GalT5 in regulating the stemness of breast cancer and provide a potential drug target for anticancer drug development.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The mechanism underlying breast cancer stem cell (BCSCs) characteristics remains to be fully elucidated. Accumulating evidence implies that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a pivotal role in regulating BCSCs stemness. METHODS:LncRNA LUCAT1 expression was assessed in breast cancer tissues (n?=?151 cases) by in situ hybridization. Sphere-formation assay and colony formation assay were used to detect cell self-renewal and proliferation, respectively. RNA immunoprecipitation, RNA pull down and luciferase reporter assays were used to identify LUCAT1 and TCF7L2 as the direct target of miR-5582-3p. The activity of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway was analyzed by TOP/FOP-Flash reporter assays, western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC). RESULTS:This study found LUCAT1 expression was related to tumor size (p?=?0.015), lymph node metastasis (p?=?0.002) and TNM staging (p?<?0.001). High LUCAT1 expression indicated a shorter overall survival (p?=?0.006) and disease-free survival (p?=?0.011). Furthermore, LUCAT1 was more expressed in BCSCs than in breast cancer cells (BCCs) by lncRNA microarray chips. LUCAT1 up-regulation promoted proliferation of BCCs, while LUCAT1 down-regulation inhibited self-renewal of BCSCs. MiR-5582-3p was directly bound to LUCAT1 and TCF7L2 and negatively regulated their expression. LUCAT1 affected Wnt/?-catenin pathway. CONCLUSIONS:LUCAT1 might be a significant biomarker to evaluate prognosis in breast cancer. LUCAT1 increased stem-like properties of BCCs and stemness of BCSCs by competitively binding miR-5582-3p with TCF7L2 and enhancing the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. The LUCAT1/miR-5582-3p/TCF7L2 axis provides insights for regulatory mechanism of stemness, and new strategies for clinical practice.
Project description:Previous research indicated that mortalin overexpressed in breast cancer and contributed to carcinogenesis. Mortalin was also demonstrated to promote Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and was considered as a factor for maintaining the stemness of the cancer stem cells. However, the underlying mechanisms about mortalin maintaining the stemness of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) remain unclear. Here, we identified that increased expression of mortalin in breast cancer was associated with poorer overall survival rate. Mortalin was elevated in breast cancer cell lines and BCSC-enriched populations. Additionally, knockdown of mortalin significantly inhibited the cell proliferation, migration and EMT, as well as sphere forming capacity and stemness genes expression. Further study revealed that mortalin promoted EMT and maintained BCSCs stemness via activating the Wnt/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway <i>in vivo</i> and <i>in vitro</i>. Taken together, these findings unveiled the mechanism of mortalin in maintaining and regulating the stemness of BCSCs, and may offer novel therapeutic strategies for breast cancer treatment.
Project description:Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are the minor population of breast cancer (BC) cells that exhibit several phenotypes such as migration, invasion, self-renewal, and chemotherapy as well as radiotherapy resistance. Recently, BCSCs have been more considerable due to their capacity for recurrence of tumors after treatment. Recognition of signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms involved in stemness phenotypes of BCSCs could be effective for discovering novel treatment strategies to target BCSCs. This review introduces BCSC markers, their roles in stemness phenotypes, and the dysregulated signaling pathways involved in BCSCs such as mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, PI3K/Akt/nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B), TGF-?, hedgehog (Hh), Notch, Wnt/?-catenin, and Hippo pathway. In addition, this review presents recently discovered molecular mechanisms implicated in chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance, migration, metastasis, and angiogenesis of BCSCs. Finally, we reviewed the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in BCSCs as well as several other therapeutic strategies such as herbal medicine, biological agents, anti-inflammatory drugs, monoclonal antibodies, nanoparticles, and microRNAs, which have been more considerable in the last decades.
Project description:Background: Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) play an essential role in facilitating breast cancer relapse and metastasis. The underlying mechanism, however, remains incompletely understood. In the current study, we investigated the clinical significance, biological function and mechanism of a long noncoding RNA CCAT1 (LncCCAT1) in BCSCs. Methods: Firstly, lncRNAs expression in poorly differentiated breast cancer tissues and BCSCs were measured by lncRNA microarray and confirmed in breast cancer tissues and cell lines. The functional roles and mechanisms of LncCCAT1 were further investigated by gain and loss of function assays in vitro and in vivo. Results: LncCCAT1 is markedly upregulated in breast cancer tissues BCSCs and is correlated with poor outcomes in breast cancer patients. Overexpression of LncCCAT1 contributes to the proliferation, stemness, migration and invasion capacities of BCSCs. Mechanistic investigation suggests that LncCCAT1 can interact with miR-204/211, miR-148a/152 and Annexin A2(ANXA2), then upregulate T-cell factor 4 (TCF4) or promote translocation of ?-catenin to the nucleus where it activates TCF4, leading to the activation of wingless/integrated (Wnt) signaling. Furthermore, TCF4 can also bind to the promoter of LncCCAT1 to promote LncCCAT1 transcription, thus forming a positive feedback regulatory circuit of LncCCAT1-TCF4-LncCCAT1 in BCSCs. Conclusions: LncCCAT1 plays an important role in breast cancer progression and may serve as a novel target for breast cancer diagnosis and therapy.
Project description:We investigated the miRNA profiles of breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) and non-CSC tumor cells by miRNA microarray and determined the effect of altered miR-1 expression on proliferation and migration of breast CSCs. The potential targets of miR-1 in the Wnt/?-catenin signaling were characterized by bioinformatics analysis and luciferase assay. We found that 14 miRNAs were up-regulated and 13 were down-regulated in the ESA+CD44+CD24-lineage- CSCs, related to ESA+CD44-CD24+lineage- non-CSC tumor cells. The miR-1 expression was associated inversely with aggressiveness of breast cancers. Furthermore, enhanced miR-1 expression decreased the percentages of SKBR3/CSCs and miR-1 inhibition increased the percentages of MCF-7/CSCs. Enhanced miR-1 expression significantly reduced the Frizzled 7 and Tankyrase-2 (TNKS2)-regulated luciferase activity in 293T cells and decreased Frizzled 7, TNKS2, c-Myc, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) and Nanog expression and the ratios of nuclear to cytoplasmic ?-catenin as well as ?-catenin-dependent luciferase activity in breast CSCs in vitro. miR-1 inhibited proliferation, migration and wound healing of breast CSCs in vitro. Enhanced miR-1 expression inhibited the growth of implanted MCF-7/CSCs while miR-1 inhibition promoted the growth of implanted MCF-7/CSCs in vivo. Our data indicate that miR-1 down-regulates breast CSC stemness, proliferation and migration by targeting the Frizzled 7 and TNKS2 to inhibit the Wnt/?-catenin signaling.
Project description:Tumor initiation, development, and relapse may be closely associated with cancer stem cells (CSCs). The complicated mechanisms underlying the maintenance of CSCs are keeping in illustration. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), due to their multifunction in various biological processes, have been indicated to play a crucial role in CSC renewal and stemness maintenance. Using lncRNA array, we identified a novel lncRNA (named lnc408) in epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related breast CSCs (BCSCs). The lnc408 is high expressed in BCSCs in vitro and in vivo. The enhanced lnc408 is critical to BCSC characteristics and tumorigenesis. Lnc408 can recruit transcript factor SP3 to CBY1 promoter to serve as an inhibitor in CBY1 transcription in BCSCs. The high expressed CBY1 in non-BCSC interacts with 14-3-3 and β-catenin to form a ternary complex, which leads a translocation of the ternary complex into cytoplasm from nucleus and degradation of β-catenin in phosphorylation-dependent pattern. The lnc408-mediated decrease of CBY1 in BCSCs impairs the formation of 14-3-3/β-catenin/CBY1 complex, and keeps β-catenin in nucleus to promote CSC-associated CD44, SOX2, Nanog, Klf4, and c-Myc expressions and contributes to mammosphere formation; however, restoration of CBY1 expression in tumor cells reduces BCSC and its enrichment, thus lnc408 plays an essential role in maintenance of BCSC stemness. In shortly, these findings highlight that the novel lnc408 functions as an oncogenic factor by recruiting SP3 to inhibit CBY1 expression and β-catenin accumulation in nucleus to maintain stemness properties of BCSCs. Lnc408-CBY1-β-catenin signaling axis might serve as a new diagnostic and therapeutic target for breast cancer.
Project description:Emerging evidence suggests that dysregulation of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plays a key role in tumorigenesis. The lncRNA, HOXA transcript at the distal tip (HOTTIP), has been reported to be up-regulated in multiple cancers, including breast cancer, and is involved in various biological processes, including the maintenance of stemness. However, the biological function and underlying modulatory mechanism of HOTTIP in breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) remains unknown. In this study, we found that HOTTIP was markedly up-regulated in BCSCs and had a positive correlation with breast cancer progression. Functional studies revealed that overexpression of HOTTIP markedly promoted cell clonogenicity, increased the expression of the stem cell markers, OCT4 and SOX2, and decreased the expression of the differentiation markers, CK14 and CK18, in breast cancer cells. Knockdown of HOTTIP inhibited the CSC-like properties of BCSCs. Consistently, depletion of HOTTIP suppressed tumour growth in a humanized model of breast cancer. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that HOTTIP directly binds to miR-148a-3p and inhibits the mediation of WNT1, which leads to inactivation of the Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathway. Our study is the first to report that HOTTIP regulates the CSC-like properties of BCSCs by as a molecular sponge for miR-148a-3p to increase WNT1 expression, offering a new target for breast cancer therapy.
Project description:Glutamine (gln) metabolism has emerged as a cancer therapeutic target in past few years, however, the effect of gln-deprivation of bCSCs remains elusive in breast cancer. In this study, effect of glutamine on stemness and differentiation potential of bCSCs isolated from MCF-7 and MDAMB-231 were studied. We have shown that bCSCs differentiate into CD24<sup>+</sup> epithelial population under gln-deprivation and demonstrated increased expression of epithelial markers such as e-cadherin, claudin-1 and decreased expression of mesenchymal protein n-cadherin. MCF-7-bCSCs showed a decrease in EpCAM<sup>high</sup> population whereas MDAMB-231-bCSCs increased CD44<sup>high</sup> population in response to gln-deprivation. The expression of intracellular stem cell markers such sox-2, oct-4 and nanog showed a drastic decrease in gene expression under gln-deprived MDAMB-231-bCSCs. Finally, localization of β-catenin in MCF-7 and MDAMB-231 cells showed its accumulation in cytosol or perinuclear space reducing its efficiency to transcribe downstream genes. Conclusively, our study demonstrated that gln-deprivation induces differentiation of bCSCs into epithelial subtypes and also reduces stemness of bCSCs mediated by reduced nuclear localization of β-catenin. It also suggests that basal and luminal bCSCs respond differentially towards changes in extracellular and intracellular gln. This study could significantly affect the gln targeting regimen of breast cancer therapeutics.
Project description:Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most difficult subtype of breast cancer to treat due to a paucity of effective targeted therapies. Many studies have reported that breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are enriched in TNBC and are responsible for chemoresistance and metastasis. In this study, we identify LRP8 as a novel positive regulator of BCSCs in TNBC. LRP8 is highly expressed in TNBC compared to other breast cancer subtypes and its genomic locus is amplified in 24% of TNBC tumors. Knockdown of LRP8 in TNBC cell lines inhibits Wnt/?-catenin signaling, decreases BCSCs, and suppresses tumorigenic potential in xenograft models. LRP8 knockdown also induces a more differentiated, luminal-epithelial phenotype and thus sensitizes the TNBC cells to chemotherapy. Together, our study highlights LRP8 as a novel therapeutic target for TNBC as inhibition of LRP8 can attenuate Wnt/?-catenin signaling to suppress BCSCs.
Project description:Secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2) is a glycoprotein with frizzled-like cysteine-rich domain that binds with Wnt ligands or frizzled receptors to regulate Wnt signaling. SFRP2 is frequently hypermethylated in glioma patients, and analysis of TCGA data indicates that SFRP2 is one of the most downregulated genes in radiotherapy treated glioma patients. In the present study, we aimed to explore the potential function of SFRP2 in tumorigenesis and radioresistance of glioma. The RNA sequencing data of TCGA glioma samples were downloaded and analyzed. SFRP2 expression in 166 glioma patients was evaluated by qRT-PCR. The potential functions of SFRP2 in glioma were evaluated by loss-of-function assays and gain-of-function assays in glioma cell lines. We found that SFRP2 was downregulated in radiotherapy-treated glioma patients, and low SFRP2 expression was correlated with advanced tumor stage and poor prognosis. CRISP/Cas9-meidated SFRP2 knockdown promoted soft agar colony formation, cancer stemness and radioresistance of glioma cells, while enforced SFRP2 expression exhibited opposite effects. Moreover, Wnt/β-catenin signaling was activated in radiotherapy treated glioma patients. SFRP2 knockdown activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling in glioma cell lines, while overexpression of SFRP2 inhibited Wnt/β-catenin activation. Besides, pharmacological inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by XAV-939 abrogated the effects of SFRP2 knockdown on cancer stemness and radioresistance of glioma cells. Our data for the first time demonstrated a role of SFRP2 in radioresistance of glioma cells, and suggested that inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling might be a potential strategy for increasing radiosensitivity of glioma patients.