MTA1, a Target of Resveratrol, Promotes Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Endometriosis via ZEB2.
ABSTRACT: Endometriosis is a benign disease that shares some malignant features. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) plays an important role in various cancers by promoting EMT, yet there are no studies on its function in endometriosis. In the present study, we found that MTA1 was highly expressed in the ectopic endometrium of endometriosis patients and that the expression of MTA1 was related to the revised American Fertility Society stage. MTA1 facilitated endometrial stroma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion by inducing EMT, and the promotion function and MTA1 expression were suppressed by resveratrol, a natural polyphenol. Moreover, we revealed that MTA1 induced EMT through interaction with ZEB2. The findings in a mouse endometriosis model further showed that MTA1 and ZEB2 were upregulated in ectopic tissues and that resveratrol inhibited the growth of ectopic lesions and expression of MTA1 and ZEB2. Taken together, we demonstrate that MTA1 is a protein that promotes EMT via interacting with ZEB2 in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, and may be a target of resveratrol.
Project description:The overexpression of metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) in prostate cancer (PCa) contributes to tumor aggressiveness and metastasis. We have reported the inhibition of MTA1 by resveratrol and its potent analog pterostilbene in vitro and in vivo. We have demonstrated that pterostilbene treatment blocks the progression of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and adenocarcinoma in mouse models by inhibiting MTA1 expression and signaling. In the current study, we investigated the MTA1 targeted anticancer effects of Gnetin C, a resveratrol dimer, in comparison with resveratrol and pterostilbene. Using DU145 and PC3M PCa cells, we found that Gnetin C downregulates MTA1 more potently than resveratrol and pterostilbene. Further, Gnetin C demonstrated significant MTA1-mediated inhibitory effect on cell viability, colony formation, and migration, while showing a more potent induction of cell death than resveratrol or pterostilbene. In addition, we identified Gnetin C-induced substantial ETS2 (erythroblastosis E26 transformation-specific 2) downregulation, which is not only MTA1-dependent, but is also independent of MTA1 as a possible mechanism for the superior anticancer efficacy of Gnetin C in PCa. Together, these findings underscore the importance of novel potent resveratrol dimer, Gnetin C, as a clinically promising agent for the future development of chemopreventive and possibly combinatorial therapeutic approaches in PCa.
Project description:Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important process of cell remodeling characterized by the gradual loss of the epithelial phenotype and progressive gain of a mesenchymal phenotype. EMT is not an all-or-nothing process, but instead a transition of epithelial to mesenchymal cells with intermediate cell states. Recently, EMT was described in endometriosis, and many EMT-specific pathways like Twist, Snail, Slug, Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1/2 (ZEB1/2), E/N-cadherin, keratins, and claudins are involved. However, as pointed out in this review, a comparison of the eutopic endometrium of women with and without endometriosis yielded only subtle changes of these EMT markers. Furthermore, only very few alterations in cell-cell contacts could be found but without changes in the epithelial phenotype. This suggests only a partial EMT which is not a prerequisite for the detachment of endometrial cells and, thus, not critical for the first step(s) in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. In contrast, the majority of changes in the EMT-related marker expression were found in the ectopic endometrium, especially in the three endometriotic entities, ovarian, peritoneal, and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE), compared with the eutopic endometrium. In this review, we examine the most important EMT pathways described in endometriosis and propose that partial EMT might result from the interaction of endometrial implants with their surrounding microenvironment.
Project description:Expression of Snail1 in epithelial cells triggers an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we demonstrate that the synthesis of Zeb2, a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin, is up-regulated after Snail1-induced EMT. Snail1 does not affect the synthesis of Zeb2 mRNA, but prevents the processing of a large intron located in its 5'-untranslated region (UTR). This intron contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) necessary for the expression of Zeb2. Maintenance of 5'-UTR Zeb2 intron is dependent on the expression of a natural antisense transcript (NAT) that overlaps the 5' splice site in the intron. Ectopic overexpression of this NAT in epithelial cells prevents splicing of the Zeb2 5'-UTR, increases the levels of Zeb2 protein, and consequently down-regulates E-cadherin mRNA and protein. The relevance of these results is demonstrated by the strong association between NAT presence and conservation of the 5'-UTR intron in cells that have undergone EMT or in human tumors with low E-cadherin expression. Therefore, the results presented in this article reveal the existence of a NAT capable of activating Zeb2 expression, explain the mechanism involved in this activation, and demonstrate that this NAT regulates E-cadherin expression.
Project description:Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent benign gynecological disease that shares some common features of malignancy. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been recognized as a core mechanism of endometriosis. MALAT1 is widely known as EMT promoter, while miR200 family members (miR200s) are considered as EMT inhibitors. Previous studies have reported that MALAT1 upregulation and miR200s downregulation are observed in endometriosis. MiR200c has been regarded as the strongest member of miR200s to interact with MALAT1. However, whether MALAT1/miR200c regulates EMT remains largely unclear. In this study, the roles of miR200s and MALAT1 in ectopic endometrium were investigated. Additionally, the effects of E2 on EMT and MALAT1/miR200s were examined in both EECs and Ishikawa cells. Notably, E2 could upregulate MALAT1 and downregulate miR200s expression levels and induce EMT in EECs and Ishikawa cells. PHTPP, an ER? antagonist, could reverse the effect of E2. Overexpression of miR200c and knockdown of MALAT1 significantly inhibited E2-mediated EMT, suggesting that both miR200c and MALAT1 are involved in the E2-induced EMT process in endometriosis. In addition, a reciprocal inhibition was found between miR200s and MALAT1. Therefore, the role of MALAT1/miR200c in EMT is influenced by the presence of estrogen during endometriosis development.
Project description:Endometriosis is a common and benign gynecological disorder but exhibits malignant features. However, the underlying pathogenesis and pathophysiology of endometriosis remain unclear. Circular RNAs have been demonstrated to participate in the occurrence and progression of multiple diseases. This study was aimed to explore the roles of circATRNL1 in endometriosis in vitro. Based on the results of reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, we found significant upregulation of circATRNL1 and Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), while downregulation of miR-141-3p and miR-200a-3p in ectopic tissues compared to eutopic tissues. The immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis showed differentially expressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers between EuEM and EcEM tissues. The in vitro assays indicated that overexpression of circATRNL1 could promote the proliferation, migration, and invasion of Ishikawa cells, and induce EMT process, while circATRNL1 silencing showed the opposite effect. The mechanical investigation indicated that circATRNL1 upregulated YAP1 by sponging miR-141-3p and miR-200a-3p. Gain-of-function assays validated the inhibitory function of miR-141-3p and miR-200a-3p in endometriosis. The results of rescue assays confirmed the function of circATRNL1-miR-141-3p/miR-200a-3p-YAP1 axis on Ishikawa cells. Our findings demonstrate that abnormal upregulation of circATRNL1 regulates cell proliferation and motility and promotes EMT process via the miR-141-3p/miR-200a-3p-YAP1 axis in vitro, which could contribute to the progression of endometriosis.
Project description:Colorectal cancer remains the most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide and it continues to lack an effective treatment. Here, we found that zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2) was overexpressed in several colorectal cancer cell lines and colorectal cancer specimens relative to adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Although ZEB2 has been reported to be associated with several tumors, its involvement in colorectal cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the biological functions and molecular mechanisms of ZEB2 underlying colorectal carcinoma metastasis and angiogenesis. HCT116 colorectal cancer cells were treated with ZEB2 shRNA or recombinant ZEB2, and the expression of ZEB2 was assessed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblotting, respectively. Ectopic expression of ZEB2 induced proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and increased the metastatic capacity of HCT116 cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, endothelial cell tube formation and angiogenesis in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) were accelerated by conditioned medium from ZEB2-overexpressing HCT116 cells. Further, overexpression of ZEB2 accelerated tumor growth and angiogenesis in xenotransplantation models. However, silencing endogenous ZEB2 caused an opposite outcome. Our results provide new evidence that ZEB2 promotes the progression of colon cancer, and thereby might represent a novel therapeutic target for colorectal carcinoma.
Project description:Endometriosis is a common, benign, and estrogen-dependent disease characterized by pelvic pain and infertility. To date, the pathogenesis of endometriosis remains unclear. Recent studies have demonstrated that noncoding RNAs, including microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs, play important roles in the development of endometriosis.Expression profiling of miRNAs in endometrial tissue was characterized using microarrays. The most differentially expressed miRNAs were confirmed using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis in additional ectopic endometrial (n?=?27) and normal endometrial (n?=?12) tissues. For in-vitro functional studies, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation assay, Transwell assay, and dual-luciferase reporter assay were used to measure the proliferation, migration, and luciferase activity of miR-200c and the predicted targets of miR-200c in primary endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) derived from human endometrial biopsies, respectively. For in-vivo therapeutic interventions, polymeric nanoparticles of polyethylenimine-polyethylene glycol-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid were used for delivery of miR-200c mimic and inhibitor to determine the therapeutic effect of miR-200c in a rat model of endometriosis.Exogenous overexpression of miR-200c inhibited the proliferation and migration of HESCs, which were mainly regulated by metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1). In contrast, inhibition of miR-200c promoted the proliferation and migration of HESCs, while the simultaneous silencing of MALAT1 expression exerted the opposite effects. We demonstrated that expression of MALAT1 in ectopic endometrial specimens was negatively correlated with that of miR-200c and that MALAT1 knockdown increased the level of miR-200c in HESCs. Moreover, the transfection of endometrial stromal cells with the miR-200c mimic or MALAT1 siRNAs decreased the protein levels of mesenchymal markers ZEB1, ZEB2, and N-cadherin and increased the protein levels of the epithelial marker E-cadherin. Furthermore, using a rat endometriosis model, we showed that local delivery of the miR-200c mimic significantly inhibited the growth of ectopic endometriotic lesions.The MALAT1/miR-200c sponge may be a potential therapeutic target for endometriosis.
Project description:EZH2, a subunit of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) catalyzing trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27), induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancers. However, whether EZH2 regulates EMT in endometriosis is unclear. Here, we show that EZH2 expression, along with its associated PRC2 proteins, is significantly elevated in ectopic and eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis as compared with control endometrium. EZH2 knockdown or inhibition restored the epithelial phenotypes of endometriotic epithelial cells, concomitant with the upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of vimentin and transcription factors (Snail and Slug) as well as reduced cellular migratory and invasive propensity. Conversely, overexpression of EZH2 induced the expression of Snail, Slug and vimentin and suppresses E-cadherin expression. In vivo administration of 3-Deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), an EZH2 inhibitor, significantly inhibited the growth of endometriotic lesions and improved generalized hyperalgesia, along with attenuated EMT and reduced fibrosis in endometriosis. Notably, platelets induced EZH2 upregulation and increased H3K27 and H3K9 trimethylation levels in endometriotic epithelial cells. These data identify EZH2 as a novel driver of EMT in endometriosis, implicates the link between wound healing and epigenetic changes in the context of endometriosis, and underscore the role of platelets in the development of endometriosis.
Project description:MTA1, SOX4, EZH2 and TGF-β are all potent inducers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer; however, the signaling relationship among these molecules in EMT is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the function of MTA1 in cancer cells and demonstrated that MTA1 overexpression efficiently activates EMT. This activation resulted in a significant increase in the migratory and invasive properties of three different cancer cell lines through a common mechanism involving SOX4 activation, screened from a gene expression profiling analysis. We showed that both SOX4 and MTA1 are induced by TGF-β and both are indispensable for TGF-β-mediated EMT. Further investigation identified that MTA1 acts upstream of SOX4 in the TGF-β pathway, emphasizing a TGF-β-MTA1-SOX4 signaling axis in EMT induction. The histone methyltransferase EZH2, a component of the polycomb (PcG) repressive complex 2 (PRC2), was identified as a critical responsive gene of the TGF-β-MTA1-SOX4 signaling in three different epithelial cancer cell lines, suggesting that this signaling acts broadly in cancer cells in vitro. The MTA1-SOX4-EZH2 signaling cascade was further verified in TCGA pan-cancer patient samples and in a colon cancer cDNA microarray, and activation of genes in this signaling pathway predicted an unfavorable prognosis in colon cancer patients. Collectively, our data uncover a SOX4-dependent EMT-inducing mechanism underlying MTA1-driven cancer metastasis and suggest a widespread TGF-β-MTA1-SOX4-EZH2 signaling axis that drives EMT in various cancers. We propose that this signaling may be used as a common therapeutic target to control epithelial cancer metastasis. We used microarrays to detect MTA1-regulated genes in cancer cells. Overall design: NCI-H446 control (NC) and MTA1-overexpressing (OE) cells were selected for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Endometriosis is a frequently occurring disease in women, which seriously affects their quality of life. However, its etiology and pathogenesis are still unclear. METHODS:To identify key genes/pathways involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, we recruited 3 raw microarray datasets (GSE11691, GSE7305, and GSE12768) from Gene Expression Omnibus database (GEO), which contain endometriosis tissues and normal endometrial tissues. We then performed in-depth bioinformatic analysis to determine differentially expressed genes (DEGs), followed by gene ontology (GO), Hallmark pathway enrichment and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis. The findings were further validated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining in endometrial tissues from endometriosis or control patients. RESULTS:We identified 186 DEGs, of which 118 were up-regulated and 68 were down-regulated. The most enriched DEGs in GO functional analysis were mainly associated with cell adhesion, inflammatory response, and extracellular exosome. We found that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) ranked first in the Hallmark pathway enrichment. EMT may potentially be induced by inflammatory cytokines such as CXCL12. IHC confirmed the down-regulation of E-cadherin (CDH1) and up-regulation of CXCL12 in endometriosis tissues. CONCLUSIONS:Utilizing bioinformatics and patient samples, we provide evidence of EMT in endometriosis. Elucidating the role of EMT will improve the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of endometriosis.