The Elastic Share of Inelastic Stress-Strain Paths of Woven Fabrics.
ABSTRACT: Manifold variations of the mechanical behavior of structural woven fabrics appear in the first load cycles. Nevertheless, invariable states, i.e., mechanically saturated states, can be approached by multiple monotonous load cycle biaxial tests. In a state acceptably close to the ideal saturated state, the stress-strain paths reveal the elastic share of the initially inelastic stress-strain paths of woven fabrics. In this paper, the mechanical saturation behavior of two types of PTFE-coated woven glass fiber fabrics is examined and compared to the recently reported saturation behavior of a PVC-coated polyester fabric. With the help of the saturation test data, an extrapolation function is developed that facilitates an estimation of late cycle stiffness behavior based on measured early cycle behavior. Furthermore, the considerable impact of late cycle properties on structural analyses is shown exemplarily in the numerical simulation of a prestressed fabric structure by comparing results achieved from late and early load cycle stiffness parameters.
Project description:Polymer composites containing natural fibers are receiving growing attention as possible alternatives for composites containing synthetic fibers. The use of biodegradable matrices obtained from renewable sources in replacement for synthetic ones is also increasing. However, only limited information is available about the creep behavior of the obtained composites. In this work, the tensile creep behavior of PLA based composites, containing flax and jute twill weave woven fabrics, produced through compression molding, was investigated. Tensile creep tests were performed at different temperatures (i.e., 40 and 60 °C). The results showed that the creep behavior of the composites is strongly influenced by the temperature and the woven fabrics used. As preliminary characterization, quasi-static tensile tests and dynamic mechanical tests were carried out on the composites. Furthermore, fabrics (both flax and jute) were tested as received by means of quasi-static tests and creep tests to evaluate the influence of fabrics mechanical behavior on the mechanical response of the resulting composites. The morphological analysis of the fracture surface of the tensile samples showed the better fiber-matrix adhesion between PLA and jute fabric.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We examined the ability of fabrics which might be used to create home-made face masks to filter out ultrafine (0.02-0.1?µm) particles at the velocity of adult human coughing. METHODS:Twenty commonly available fabrics and materials were evaluated for their ability to reduce air concentrations of ultrafine particles at coughing face velocities. Further assessment was made on the filtration ability of selected fabrics while damp and of fabric combinations which might be used to construct home-made masks. RESULTS:Single fabric layers blocked a range of ultrafine particles. When fabrics were layered, a higher percentage of ultrafine particles were filtered. The average filtration efficiency of single layer fabrics and of layered combination was found to be 35% and 45%, respectively. Non-woven fusible interfacing, when combined with other fabrics, could add up to 11% additional filtration efficiency. However, fabric and fabric combinations were more difficult to breathe through than N95 masks. CONCLUSIONS:The current coronavirus pandemic has left many communities without access to N95 face masks. Our findings suggest that face masks made from layered common fabric can help filter ultrafine particles and provide some protection for the wearer when commercial face masks are unavailable.
Project description:Plant breeding is achieved through the controlled self- or cross-pollination of individuals and typically involves isolation of floral parts from selected parental plants. Paper, cellulose or synthetic materials are used to avoid self pollination or cross contamination. Low seed set limits the rate of breeding progress and increases costs. We hypothesized that a novel 'non-woven' fabric optimal for both pollination and seed set in multiple plant species could be developed. After determining the baseline pollen characteristics and usage requirements we established iterative three phase development and biological testing. This determined (1) that white fabric gave superior seed return and informed the (2) development of three non-woven materials using different fibre and layering techniques. We tested their performance in selfing and hybridisation experiments recording differences in performance by material type within species. Finally we (3) developed further advanced fabrics with increased air permeability and tested biological performance. An interaction between material type and species was observed and environmental decoupling investigated, showing that the non-woven fabrics had superior water vapour transmission and temperature regulation compared to controls. Overall, non-woven fabrics outperformed existing materials for both pollination and seed set and we found that different materials can optimize species-specific, rather than species-generic performance.
Project description:All-solid-state electrolytes have received extensive attention due to their excellent safety and good electrochemical performance. However, due to the harsh conditions of the preparation process, the commercial production of all-solid-state electrolytes remains a challenge. The outbreak of the novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) has caused great inconvenience to people, while also allowing soft, lightweight and mass-producible non-woven fabrics in masks come into sight. Here, a polymer/polymer solid composite electrolyte is obtained by introducing the polyamide 6 (PA6) microfiber non-woven fabric into PEO polymer through the hot-pressing method. The addition of the PA6 non-woven fabric with lithium-philic properties can not only reduce the crystallinity of the polymer, but also provide more functional transmission sites and then promote the migration of lithium ions at the molecular level. Moreover, due to the sufficient mechanical strength and flexibility of the PA6 non-woven fabric, the composite electrolyte shows excellent inhibition ability of lithium dendrite growth and high electrochemical stability. The novel design concept of introducing low-cost and large-scale production of non-woven fabrics into all-solid-state composite electrolytes to develop high-performance lithium metal batteries is attractive, and can also be broadened to the combination of different types of polymers to meet the needs of various batteries.
Project description:The wearable electronic skin with high sensitivity and self-power has shown increasing prospects for applications such as human health monitoring, robotic skin, and intelligent electronic products. In this work, we introduced and demonstrated a design of highly sensitive, self-powered, and wearable electronic skin based on a pressure-sensitive nanofiber woven fabric sensor fabricated by weaving PVDF electrospun yarns of nanofibers coated with PEDOT. Particularly, the nanofiber woven fabric sensor with multi-leveled hierarchical structure, which significantly induced the change in contact area under ultra-low load, showed combined superiority of high sensitivity (18.376 kPa-1, at ~100?Pa), wide pressure range (0.002-10 kPa), fast response time (15 ms) and better durability (7500 cycles). More importantly, an open-circuit voltage signal of the PPNWF pressure sensor was obtained through applying periodic pressure of 10 kPa, and the output open-circuit voltage exhibited a distinct switching behavior to the applied pressure, indicating the wearable nanofiber woven fabric sensor could be self-powered under an applied pressure. Furthermore, we demonstrated the potential application of this wearable nanofiber woven fabric sensor in electronic skin for health monitoring, human motion detection, and muscle tremor detection.
Project description:The data presented in this paper are produced as part of the original research article entitled "Thin-film composite membrane on a compacted woven backing fabric for pressure assisted osmosis" (Sahebi et al., 2017). This article describes how to fabricate a defect free membrane for forward osmosis (FO) and pressure assisted osmosis (PAO) on the woven mesh backing fabric support. Casting polymer on backing fabric support may limit the interfacial polyemirization due to wrinkled membrane surface. This paper presents data obtained from two different backing fabrics used as support for fabrication of thin film composite FO membrane. Backing fabric support were woven polyester mesh with different opening size. The data include the characterization of the intrinsic properties of the membrane samples, SEM and their performance under FO process. The structural parameters (S value) of the substrate were computed from thickness and porosity of the substrates. Thin film composite (TFC) membrane achieved a water flux of 8.1?L?m2 h-1 in FO process and 37?L?m2 h-1 using 0.5?M NaCl as draw solution (DS) and deionised (DI) water as the feed solution (FS) when applied hydraulic pressure was 10?bar.
Project description:Composite industry has long been seeking practical solutions to boost laminate through-thickness strengths and interlaminar shear strengths (ILSS), so that composite primary structures, such as stiffeners, can bear higher complex loadings and be more delamination resistant. Three dimensional (3D) woven fabrics were normally employed to render higher transverse and shear strengths, but the difficulty and high expense in producing such fabrics make it a hard choice. Based on a novel idea that the warp yarns that interlock layers of the weft yarns might provide adequate fiber crimps that would allow the interlaminar shear or radial stresses to be transferred and borne by the fibers, rather than by the relatively weaker matrix resin, thus improving the transverse strengths, this work provided a two point five dimensional (2.5D) approach as a practical solution, and demonstrated the superior transverse performances of an economical 2.5D shallow-bend woven fabric (2.5DSBW) epoxy composites, over the conventional two dimensional (2D) laminates and the costly 3D counterpart composites. This approach also produced a potential candidate to fabricate high performance stiffeners, as shown by the test results of L-beams which are common structural components of any stiffeners. This study also discovered that an alternative structure, namely a 2.5D shallow-straight woven fabric (2.5DSSW), did not show any advantages over the two control structures, which were a 2D plain weave (2DPW) and a 3D orthogonal woven fabric (3DOW) made out of the same carbon fibers. Composites of these structures in this study were conveniently fabricated using a vacuum-assisted resin infusion process (VARI). The L-beams were tested using a custom-made test fixture. The strain distribution and failure mode analysis of these beams were conducted using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and X-ray Computed Tomography Scanning (CT). The results demonstrated that the structures containing Z-yarns or having high yarn crimps or waviness, such as in cases of 3DOW and 2.5DSBW, respectively, were shown to withstand high loadings and to resist delamination, favorable for the applications of high-performance structural composites.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Cloth face covering has been recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to decrease community viral transmission. This study aims to determine the filtration efficiency and airflow resistance of common household materials available for homemade mask production by comparing numbers of fabrics, various layers, and manipulation. METHODS:Common household woven, knitted, and nonwoven fabrics were tested for filtration efficiency using a fit testing setup and airflow resistance with pressure gauge setup. Three different levels of layering (1, 2, and 4) were tested. Some fabric material was further tested after washing and drying. Filtration performance, the area under the fitted curve comparing airflow resistance and filtration efficiency, was calculated for each fabric material and compared. RESULTS:Layering increased filtration efficiency and airflow resistance (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.01, respectively). Polyester felt demonstrated the highest filtration performance index (P < 0.0001), higher than all tested 100% cotton materials (all P < 0.05) as well as surgical masks (P < 0.05). Washing plus drying did not alter filtration performance significantly (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:A filtration performance of common household fabrics were compared. Homemade mask designers and producers will have improved data to better balance effectiveness, availability, and comfort with the goal of decreasing community viral transmission.
Project description:An antimicrobial nano-silver non-woven polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric has been prepared in a three step process. The fabrics were first pretreated by depositing a layer of organosilicon thin film using an atmospheric pressure plasma system, then silver nano-particles (AgNPs) were incorporated into the fabrics by a dipping-dry process, and finally the nano-particles were covered by a second organosilicon layer of 10-50?nm, which acts as a barrier layer. Different surface characterization techniques like SEM and XPS have been implemented to study the morphology and the chemical composition of the nano-silver fabrics. Based on these techniques, a uniform immobilization of AgNPs in the PET matrix has been observed. The antimicrobial activity of the treated fabrics has also been tested using P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and C. albicans. It reveals that the thickness of the barrier layer has a strong effect on the bacterial reduction of the fabrics. The durability and stability of the AgNPs on the fabrics has also been investigated in a washing process. By doing so, it is confirmed that the barrier layer can effectively prevent the release of AgNPs and that the thickness of the barrier layer is an important parameter to control the silver ions release.
Project description:The surface treatment of fabrics in an atmospheric environment may pave the way for commercially viable plasma modifications of fibrous matters. In this paper, we demonstrate a durably superhydrophobic cotton cellulose fabric prepared in a single-step graft polymerization of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) by N₂ and O₂ atmospheric pressure plasma. We systematically investigated effects on contact angle (CA) and surface morphology of the cotton fabric under three operational parameters: precursor value; ionization gas flow rate; and plasma cycle time. Surface morphology, element composition, chemical structure and hydrophobic properties of the treated fabric were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS, FTIR and CA on the fabrics. The results indicated that a layer of thin film and nano-particles were evenly deposited on the cotton fibers, and graft polymerization occurred between cellulose and HMDSO. The fabric treated by O₂ plasma exhibited a higher CA of 162° than that treated by N₂ plasma which was about 149°. Furthermore, the CA of treated fabrics decreased only 0°~10° after storing at the ambient conditions for four months, and treated fabrics could also endure the standard textile laundering procedure in AATCC 61-2006 with minimum change. Therefore, this single-step plasma treatment method is shown to be a novel and environment-friendly way to make durable and superhydrophobic cotton fabrics.