Exercise and Quality of Life in Women with Menopausal Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
ABSTRACT: Menopausal symptoms are associated with deterioration in physical, mental, and sexual health, lowering women's quality of life (QoL). Our study objective is to examine the effect of exercise on QoL in women with menopausal symptoms. After initially identifying 1306 studies published on PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Library before June 2020, two researchers independently selected nine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which any type of exercise was compared with no active treatment. We assessed the risk of bias in the included studies using the Cochrane risk-of-bias 2.0 tool for RCTs and computed the converged standardized mean difference with a 95% confidence interval. We found evidences for the positive effects of exercise on physical and psychological QoL scores in women with menopausal symptoms. However, there was no evidence for the effects of exercise on general, social, and menopause-specific QoL scores. The most common interventions for women with menopausal and urinary symptoms were yoga and pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), respectively. In our meta-analyses, while yoga significantly improved physical QoL, its effects on general, psychological, sexual, and vasomotor symptoms QoL scores as well as the effect of PFMT on general QoL were not significant. Our findings suggest that well-designed studies are needed to confirm the effect of exercise on QoL in women with menopausal symptoms.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Vasomotor symptoms (VMS), commonly reported during menopausal transition, negatively affect psychological health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). While hormone therapy is an effective treatment, its use is limited by concerns about possible harms. Thus, many women with VMS seek nonhormonal, nonpharmacologic treatment options. However, evidence to guide clinical recommendations is inconclusive. This study reviewed the effectiveness of yoga, tai chi and qigong on vasomotor, psychological symptoms, and HRQoL in peri- or post-menopausal women. DESIGN:MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database were searched. Researchers identified systematic reviews (SR) or RCTs that evaluated yoga, tai chi, or qigong for vasomotor, psychological symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in peri- or post-menopausal women. Data were abstracted on study design, participants, interventions and outcomes. Risk of bias (ROB) was assessed and updated meta-analyses were performed. RESULTS:We identified one high-quality SR (5 RCTs, 582 participants) and 3 new RCTs (345 participants) published after the SR evaluating yoga for vasomotor, psychological symptoms, and HRQoL; no studies evaluated tai chi or qigong. Updated meta-analyses indicate that, compared to controls, yoga reduced VMS (5 trials, standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.27, 95% CI -0.49 to -0.05) and psychological symptoms (6 trials, SDM -0.32; 95% CI -0.47 to -0.17). Effects on quality of life were reported infrequently. Key limitations are that adverse effects were rarely reported and outcome measures lacked standardization. CONCLUSIONS:Results from this meta-analysis suggest that yoga may be a useful therapy to manage bothersome vasomotor and psychological symptoms.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects the integration of the parasympathetic nervous system with the rest of the body. Studies on the effects of yoga and exercise on HRV have been mixed but suggest that exercise increases HRV. We conducted a secondary analysis of the effect of yoga and exercise on HRV based on a randomized clinical trial of treatments for vasomotor symptoms in peri/post-menopausal women. DESIGN:Randomized clinical trial of behavioral interventions in women with vasomotor symptoms (n=335), 40-62 years old from three clinical study sites. INTERVENTIONS:12-weeks of a yoga program, designed specifically for mid-life women, or a supervised aerobic exercise-training program with specific intensity and energy expenditure goals, compared to a usual activity group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Time and frequency domain HRV measured at baseline and at 12 weeks for 15min using Holter monitors. RESULTS:Women had a median of 7.6 vasomotor symptoms per 24h. Time and frequency domain HRV measures did not change significantly in either of the intervention groups compared to the change in the usual activity group. HRV results did not differ when the analyses were restricted to post-menopausal women. CONCLUSIONS:Although yoga and exercise have been shown to increase parasympathetic-mediated HRV in other populations, neither intervention increased HRV in middle-aged women with vasomotor symptoms. Mixed results in previous research may be due to sample differences. Yoga and exercise likely improve short-term health in middle-aged women through mechanisms other than HRV.
Project description:Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common problem in older women that is associated with pain and disabilities. Although yoga is recommended as an exercise intervention to manage arthritis, there is limited evidence documenting its effectiveness, with little known about its long term benefits. This study's aims were to assess the feasibility and potential efficacy of a Hatha yoga exercise program in managing OA-related symptoms in older women with knee OA.Eligible participants (N=36; mean age 72 years) were randomly assigned to 8-week yoga program involving group and home-based sessions or wait-list control. The yoga intervention program was developed by a group of yoga experts (N=5). The primary outcome was the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) total score that measures knee OA pain, stiffness, and function at 8 weeks. The secondary outcomes, physical function of the lower extremities, body mass index (BMI), quality of sleep (QOS), and quality of life (QOL), were measured using weight, height, the short physical performance battery (SPPB), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Cantril Self-Anchoring Ladder, and the SF12v2 Health Survey. Data were collected at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks, and 20 weeks.The recruitment target was met, with study retention at 95%. Based on ANCOVAs, participants in the treatment group exhibited significantly greater improvement in WOMAC pain (adjusted means [SE]) (8.3 [.67], 5.8 [.67]; p=.01), stiffness (4.7 [.28], 3.4 [.28]; p=.002) and SPPB (repeated chair stands) (2.0 [.23], 2.8 [.23]; p=.03) at 8 weeks. Significant treatment and time effects were seen in WOMAC pain (7.0 [.46], 5.4 [.54]; p=.03), function (24.5 [1.8], 19.9 [1.6]; p=.01) and total scores (35.4 [2.3], 28.6 [2.1]; p=.01) from 4 to 20 weeks. Sleep disturbance was improved but the PSQI total score declined significantly at 20 weeks. Changes in BMI and QOL were not significant. No yoga related adverse events were observed.A weekly yoga program with home practice is feasible, acceptable, and safe for older women with knee OA, and shows therapeutic benefits.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01832155.
Project description:The aim of this prospective, randomized, controlled trial was to investigate the impact of yoga on newly diagnosed patients with early breast cancer in the immediate postoperative phase. 93 women newly diagnosed with early breast cancer were randomized into an intervention group (IG) and a control group (waiting group, WG). The IG started yoga immediately after the operation. The WG started yoga 5 weeks after surgery. Both groups attended yoga classes twice weekly for 5 weeks. Quality of life (QoL) was evaluated using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-BR23 questionnaires before the intervention, immediately after the operation and after 3 months. After 3 months the patients were asked whether yoga improved their physical activity and whether they wished to continue with yoga. The overall QoL (p = 0.002) and the functional status (p = 0.005) increased significantly in the IG, while physical symptoms decreased over time in both groups. 86 % of patients in the IG and only 59 % of patients in the WG (p = 0.04) confirmed a positive change in their physical activity through yoga. More women in the IG intended to continue with yoga (p = 0.03). Early initiation of yoga as a supportive treatment in cancer had a positive impact on QoL. Teaching yoga allowed patients to practice yoga by themselves, enhanced the patients' QoL and was found to improve physical activity.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Behavioral strategies are recommended for menopausal symptoms, but little evidence exists regarding efficacy.<h4>Purpose</h4>Describe design and methodology of a randomized controlled 3 by 2 factorial trial of yoga, exercise and omega-3 fatty acids.<h4>Methods</h4>Women from three geographic areas with a weekly average of ?14 hot flashes/night sweats, who met exclusion/inclusion criteria, were randomized to 12weeks of: 1) yoga classes and daily home practice; 2) supervised, facility-based aerobic exercise training; or 3) usual activity. Women in each arm were further randomized to either omega-3 supplement or placebo. Standardized training, on-going monitoring, and site visits were adopted to ensure consistency across sites and fidelity to the intervention. Participant adherence to the intervention protocol was monitored continuously, and retention was actively encouraged by staff. Information on adverse events was systematically collected.<h4>Results</h4>Of 7377 women who responded to mass mailings, 355 (4.8%) were randomized; mean age was 54.7 (sd=3.7), 26.2% were African American, 81.7% were post-menopausal, and mean baseline frequency of daily hot flashes/night sweats was 7.6 (sd=3.8). Adherence of ?80% was 59% for yoga, 77% for exercise training, and 80% for study pills. Final week 12 data were collected from 95.2%<h4>Conclusions</h4>Conducting a multi-site, multi-behavioral randomized trial for menopausal symptoms is challenging but feasible. Benefits included cost-effective study design, centralized recruitment, and methodologic standardization.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Breast cancer (BC) is the most common type of cancer in women worldwide. Post-treatment, patients suffer from side effects and have various rehabilitation needs, which means that individualization is fundamental for optimal rehabilitation. This systematic review (SR) of SRs aims to evaluate the current evidence on rehabilitation interventions in female patients following BC treatment.<h4>Methods</h4>Full-text SRs published in English from 2009 were searched in Embase, PubMed, Cinahl Complete, PsycINFO, AMED, SCOPUS, and Cochrane Library.<h4>Inclusion criteria</h4>SRs of randomized or non-randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of rehabilitation interventions in women following BC treatment. All outcomes were considered. Methodological quality was evaluated using the AMSTAR 2 tool and interrater agreement was evaluated. Out of 1269 citations retrieved, 37 SRs were included.<h4>Results</h4>Five rehabilitation areas were identified: exercise and physical activity (PA), complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), yoga, lymphoedema treatment, and psychosocial interventions. The most solid evidence was found in exercise/PA and yoga. Exercise interventions improved outcomes such as shoulder mobility, lymphoedema, pain, fatigue and quality of life (QoL). Effects of yoga were shown on QoL, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance, fatigue and gastrointestinal symptoms. The effect of CAM was shown on nausea, pain, fatigue, anger and anxiety but these results need to be interpreted with caution because of low methodological quality in included studies in the SRs. Among the lymphoedema treatments, positive effects were seen for resistance training on volume reduction and muscle strength and psychosocial interventions such as cognitive behavioural therapy had positive effects on QoL, anxiety, depression and mood disturbance.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This SR of SRs show solid positive effects of exercise/PA and yoga for women following BC treatment, and provides extended knowledge of the effects of CAM, yoga, lymphoedema treatment and psychosocial interventions. It is evident that more than one intervention could have positive effects on a specific symptom and that the effects depend not only on intervention type but also on how and when the intervention is provided. The results can be used as a foundation for individualized rehabilitation and aid health care professionals in meeting patients' individual needs and preferences.<h4>Trial registration</h4>PROSPERO ( CRD42017060912 ).
Project description:BACKGROUND: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a prevalent and costly condition which may be treated surgically or by physical therapy. The aim of this review was to systematically assess the literature and present the best available evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) performed alone and together with adjunctive therapies (eg biofeedback, electrical stimulation, vaginal cones) for the treatment of female SUI. METHODS: All major electronic sources of relevant information were systematically searched to identify peer-reviewed English language abstracts or papers published between 1995 and 2005. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and other study designs eg non-randomised trials, cohort studies, case series, were considered for this review in order to source all the available evidence relevant to clinical practice. Studies of adult women with a urodynamic or clinical diagnosis of SUI were eligible for inclusion. Excluded were studies of women who were pregnant, immediately post-partum or with a diagnosis of mixed or urge incontinence. Studies with a PFMT protocol alone and in combination with adjunctive physical therapies were considered. Two independent reviewers assessed the eligibility of each study, its level of evidence and the methodological quality. Due to the heterogeneity of study designs, the results are presented in narrative format. RESULTS: Twenty four studies, including 17 RCTs and seven non-RCTs, met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of the studies varied but lower quality scores did not necessarily indicate studies from lower levels of evidence. This review found consistent evidence from a number of high quality RCTs that PFMT alone and in combination with adjunctive therapies is effective treatment for women with SUI with rates of 'cure' and 'cure/improvement' up to 73% and 97% respectively. The contribution of adjunctive therapies is unclear and there is limited evidence about treatment outcomes in primary care settings. CONCLUSION: There is strong evidence for the efficacy of physical therapy for the treatment for SUI in women but further high quality studies are needed to evaluate the optimal treatment programs and training protocols in subgroups of women and their effectiveness in clinical practice.
Project description:Objective: Physical exercise is recommended to help prevent lifestyle diseases. The present study was designed to quantify the efficacy of physical exercise on the quality of life (QoL), exercise ability and cardiopulmonary fitness of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Method: A comprehensive systematic literature search was performed in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and PubMed databases (from 1970 to December 1st, 2019) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing physical exercise combined with AF routine treatments to routine treatments alone. The meta-analysis was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. Our main outcomes were QoL (measured by the Short-Form 36 scale, SF-36), exercise ability (measured by the 6-min walk test, 6MWT) and cardiopulmonary fitness (measured by peak oxygen uptake and resting heart rate). Quality assessments were conducted using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Results: Twelve trials involving 819 patients met the criteria for analysis. The results showed that physical exercise improved the QoL by enhancing physical functioning [standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.63, 95%CI: 0.18-1.09; p = 0.006], general health perceptions (SMD = 0.64, 95%CI: 0.35-0.93; p < 0.001) and vitality (SMD = 0.51, 95%CI: 0.31-0.71; p < 0.001); increased exercise ability by improving the 6MWT performance (SMD = 0.69, 95%CI: 0.19-1.119; p = 0.007); and enhanced peak VO2 (SMD = 0.37, 95%CI: 0.16-0.57; p < 0.001) while reducing resting heart rate (SMD = -0.39, 95%CI: -0.65 to -0.13; p = 0.004). In addition, meta-regression analysis showed that training mode (p physicalfunctioning = 0.012, p generalhealthperceptions = 0.035) and training duration (p = 0.047) were the main factors of an intervention that influenced the effect size. Following sub-group analysis, we found that aerobics, Yoga and longer training durations (?60 min) showed larger improvements. Conclusion: In summary, our meta-analysis shows that physical exercise has a positive effect on the QoL, exercise ability and cardiopulmonary fitness in AF patients. When physicians offer exercise recommendations to AF patients, they should consider both the training mode and training duration to achieve maximum results.
Project description:Background: The aim of the present systematic meta-analytical review was to quantify the effects of different mind-body interventions (MBI) involving meditative movements on relevant psychological health outcomes (i.e., quality of life (QoL), depressive symptoms, fear of falling (FoF) and sleep quality) in older adults without mental disorders. Methods: A structured literature search was conducted in five databases (Ovid, PsycINFO, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science). Inclusion criteria were: (i) the study was a (cluster) randomized controlled trial, (ii) the subjects were aged ?59 years without mental illnesses, (iii) an intervention arm performing MBI compared to a non-exercise control group (e.g., wait-list or usual care), (iv) psychological health outcomes related to QoL, depressive symptoms, FoF or sleep quality were assessed and (v) a PEDro score of ?5. The interventions of the included studies were sub-grouped into Tai Chi/Qigong (TCQ) and Yoga/Pilates (YP). Statistical analyses were conducted using a random-effects inverse-variance model. Results: Thirty-seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (comprising 3224 participants) were included. Small to moderate-but-significant overall effect sizes favoring experimental groups (Hedges' g: 0.25 to 0.71) compared to non-exercise control groups were observed in all outcomes (all p values ? 0.007), apart from one subdomain of quality of life (i.e., social functioning, p = 0.15). Interestingly, a significant larger effect on QoL and depressive symptoms with increasing training frequency was found for TCQ (p = 0.03; p = 0.004). Conclusions: MBI involving meditative movements may serve as a promising opportunity to improve psychological health domains such as QoL, depressive symptoms, FoF and sleep quality in older adults. Hence, these forms of exercise may represent potential preventive measures regarding the increase of late-life mental disorders, which need to be further confirmed by future research.
Project description:Breast cancer has become a pandemic with an ever-increasing incidence. Although better diagnostics and treatment modalities have reduced mortality, a large number of survivors face cancer and treatment-related long-term symptoms. Many survivors are taking up yoga for improving the quality of life (QoL). The present study attempts to evaluate predictors of psychological states in breast cancer survivors with long-term yoga experience.A case-control study recruited early breast cancer survivors, 30-65 years, completing treatment > 6 months before recruitment, and grouped them based on prior yoga experience (BCY, n = 27) or naïve (BCN, n = 25). Demography, cancer history, diet, exercise habits, and yoga schedule were collected and tools to assess stress, anxiety, depression, general health, and QoL were administered. Multivariate linear regression was done to identify predictors of psychological variables.BCY had significantly lower stress, anxiety, depression, better general health, and QoL (P < 0.001). Global QoL and trait anxiety were significantly predicted by Yoga practice; depression was predicted by yoga practice, annual income, and sleep quality; state anxiety was predicted by Yoga practice and income; and stress was predicted by Yoga practice and sleep quality.Results indicate that breast cancer survivors, doing yoga, have better psychological profiles and are able to deal with demanding situations better. The psycho-oncogenic model of cancer etiology suggests that a better psychological state in survival has the potential to improve prognosis and survival outcomes and Yoga may be a suitable practice for staying cancer-free for a longer time.