A modified frozen elephant trunk technique for acute Stanford type A aortic dissection.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Acute Stanford type A aortic dissection is often fatal, with a high mortality rate and requiring emergency intervention. Salvage surgery aims to keep the patient alive by addressing severe aortic regurgitation, tamponade, primary tear, and organ malperfusion and, if possible, prevent the late dissection-related complications in the proximal and downstream aorta. Unfortunately, no optimal standard treatment or technique to treat this disease exists. Total arch replacement with frozen elephant trunk technique plays an important role in treating acute type A aortic dissection. We aim to describe a modified elephant trunk technique and report its short-term outcomes. METHODS:From February 2018 to August 2019, 16 patients diagnosed with acute Stanford type A aortic dissection underwent surgery with the modified frozen elephant trunk technique at Xiamen Heart Center (male/female: 9/7; average age: 56.1?±?7.6?years). All perioperative variables were recorded and analyzed. We measured the diameters of the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta on the bifurcation of the pulmonary and abdominal aortas and compared the diameters at admission, before discharge, and 3?months after discharge. RESULTS:Fifteen patients (93.8%) had hypertension. The primary tears were located in the lesser curvature of the aortic arch and ascending aorta in 5 (31.3%) and 9 patients (56.3%), respectively, and no entry was found in 2 patients (12.5%). The dissection extended to the iliac artery and distal descending aorta in 14 (87.6%) and 2 patients (12.5%), respectively. The duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), cross-clamping, and antegrade cerebral perfusion were 215.8?±?40.5, 140.8?±?32.3, and 55.1?± 15.2?min, respectively. Aortic valve repair was performed in 15 patients (93.8%). Bentall procedure was performed in one patient (6.3%). Another patient received coronary artery repair (6.3%). The diameters at all levels were greater on discharge than those on admission, except the aortic arch. After 3?months, the true lumen diameter distal to the frozen elephant trunk increased, indicating false lumen thrombosis and/or aortic remodeling. CONCLUSIONS:The modified frozen elephant trunk technique for acute Stanford type A aortic dissection is safe and feasible and could be used for organ malperfusion. Short-term outcomes are encouraging, but long-term outcomes require further investigation.
Project description:Total arch replacement using the frozen elephant trunk procedure is performed for true lumen expansion of the descending aorta in patients with type A acute aortic dissection. However, the remodelling effect of the frozen elephant trunk on the dissected descending aorta is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effect of the frozen elephant trunk on postoperative descending aortic remodelling after surgery. Between December 2012 and January 2020, we retrospectively investigated 24 patients who underwent total arch replacement using the frozen elephant trunk for type A acute aortic dissection. Remodelling of the descending aorta was evaluated using computed tomography. The aortic remodelling effect, based on aortic true lumen ratio, was determined for (i) DeBakey type (type I versus type III retrograde); (ii) thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair reintervention status (reintervention versus no reintervention); and (iii) stent length of the frozen elephant trunk (60 vs 90 mm). Postoperative true lumen ratio significantly increased in the type I dissection group. The true lumen ratio in the no-reintervention group, which had many patients with the type I dissection, significantly increased after the frozen elephant trunk. Aortic remodelling due to the frozen elephant trunk can be expected after type I acute aortic dissections.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of spinal cord injury in total arch replacement with frozen elephant trunk for acute type A aortic dissection using our spinal cord protection technique. METHODS:Between January 2013 and December 2017, 33 patients underwent total arch replacement with frozen elephant trunk for acute type A aortic dissection (mean age 67.9?±?13.3 years). Our spinal cord protection technique involved maintaining extracorporeal circulation through the left subclavian artery in all procedures, using aortic occlusion balloon during distal anastomosis, and inserting frozen elephant trunk above Th 8 with transesophageal echocardiographic guidance. Computed tomography was performed within 1-2 weeks, 12 months, and 36 months postoperatively. We compared the degree of thrombosis of the descending aorta between preoperation and early postoperative period by Fisher's exact test. Moreover, we evaluated postoperative mortality and mobility (including spinal cord injury) at follow-up. RESULTS:The operative mortality within 30 days was 6.1%. Neither paraplegia nor paraparesis was noted. We observed significant thrombosis of the false lumen at the distal arch and aortic valve level of the descending aorta in postoperative early term period (p?<?0.01). At mid-term follow-up (mean 33.9 months), survival probability and 3-year freedom from reoperation rates were 93.9?±?4.1% and 95.0?±?4.9%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The frozen elephant trunk technique with our spinal protection strategy provides good postoperative outcomes. Our strategy can maintain spinal cord perfusion without complete ischemia time even during lower body ischemia time. Implementation of our spinal protection strategy will help prevent spinal cord injury and dilated downstream aorta.
Project description:We report successful total debranching thoracic endovascular aortic repair using the elephant trunk insertion technique without hypothermic circulatory arrest for a 56-year-old man who developed aortic arch dissection and ascending aortic aneurysm. In the first step, an elephant trunk graft was inserted into the ascending aorta under cardiopulmonary bypass, and a branched prosthetic graft was attached to the ascending aorta. The left common carotid artery and brachiocephalic artery were sequentially anastomosed to the branched graft. The second step was thoracic endovascular aortic repair covering the elephant trunk to the distal arch. Postprocedure digital subtraction angiography showed no endoleaks or false lumen.