Association of Wnt9B rs1530364 and Wnt5A rs566926 Gene Polymorphisms with Nonsyndromic Cleft lip and Palate in South Indian Population using Deoxyribonucleic Acid Sequencing.
ABSTRACT: Context:Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/CP) is a common congenital facial malformation without any other structural or developmental abnormalities. Aims and Objectives:To test the association of Wnt9B rs1530364 and Wnt5A rs566926 gene variants with the nonsyndromic CL/CP patients in South Indian population. Methods:Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples of 25 subjects with nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate (NSCLP) and 25 unrelated controls collected from the department were used for the study. Group A: DNA samples of 25 subjects NSCLP (P1-P25). Group B: DNA samples of 25 unrelated controls (C1-C25). The extracted DNA samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction, and later, these amplified products were subjected to DNA sequencing. Results were documented in the form of electropherograms. Results:The results indicated that there is a strong association between the presence of Wnt9B rs1530364 gene with the incidence of NSCLP. This study also suggests that the likelihood of NSCLP is higher in subjects having CC (P = 0.02) genotype for Wnt9B gene variant rs1530364. Conclusion:We can conclude that Wnt9B gene variant rs1530364 can be considered as genetic marker for NSCLP for our population.
Project description:Plasma microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as a new class of regulatory molecules that influence many biological functions. However, the expression profile of plasma microRNAs in nonsyndromic cleft palate (NSCP) or nonsyndromic cleft lip with cleft palate (NSCLP) remains poorly investigated. In this study, we used Agilent human miRNA microarray chips to monitor miRNA levels in three NSCP plasma samples (mixed as the CP group), three NSCLP plasma samples (mixed as the CLP group) and three normal plasma samples (mixed as the Control group). Six selected plasma miRNAs were validated in samples from an additional 16 CP, 33 CLP and 8 healthy children using qRT-PCR. Using Venn diagrams, distinct and overlapping dysregulated miRNAs were identified. Their respective target genes were further assessed using gene ontology and pathway analysis. The results show that distinct or overlapping biological processes and signalling pathways were involved in CP and CLP. Our study showed that the common key gene targets reflected functional relationships to the Notch, Wnt, phosphatidylinositol and Hedgehog signalling pathways. Further studies should examine the mechanism of the potential target genes, which may provide new avenues for future clinical prevention and therapy.
Project description:We have conducted the first meta-analyses for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) using data from the two largest genome-wide association studies published to date. We confirmed associations with all previously identified loci and identified six additional susceptibility regions (1p36, 2p21, 3p11.1, 8q21.3, 13q31.1 and 15q22). Analysis of phenotypic variability identified the first specific genetic risk factor for NSCLP (nonsyndromic cleft lip plus palate) (rs8001641; P(NSCLP) = 6.51 × 10(-11); homozygote relative risk = 2.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.84-3.16).
Project description:Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCLP) is a common birth defect. Genetic and environmental factors have been causally implicated and studies have begun to delineate genetic contributions. The Wnt genes are involved in regulating mid-face development and upper lip fusion and are therefore strong candidates for an etiological role in NSCLP. Furthermore, the clf1 region in A/WyN clefting susceptible mice contains the Wnt3 and Wnt9B genes. To assess the role of the Wnt family of genes in NSCLP, we interrogated seven Wnt genes (Wnt3, Wnt3A, Wnt5A, Wnt7A, Wnt8A, Wnt9B and Wnt11) in our well-defined NSCLP dataset. Thirty-eight single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in 132 multiplex NSCLP families and 354 simplex parent-child trios. In the entire dataset, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three genes, Wnt3A (P = 0.006), Wnt 5A (P = 0.002) and Wnt11 (P = 0.0001) were significantly associated with NSCLP after correction for multiple testing. When stratified by ethnicity, the strongest associations were found for SNPs in Wnt3A (P = 0.0007), Wnt11 (P = 0.0012) and Wnt8A (P = 0.0013). Multiple haplotypes in Wnt genes were associated with NSCLP, and gene-gene interactions were observed between Wnt3A and both Wnt3 and Wnt5A (P = 0.004 and P = 0.039, respectively). This data suggests that alteration in Wnt gene function may perturb formation and/or fusion of the facial processes and predispose to NSCLP.
Project description:Van der Woude syndrome (VWS; OMIM 119300) is an autosomal-dominant condition associated with clefts of the lip and/or palate and lower lip pits and is caused by mutations in interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6). The standard of practice for children born with cleft lip/palate is surgical repair, which requires proper wound healing. We tested the hypothesis that children with VWS are more likely to have wound complications after cleft repair than children with nonsyndromic cleft lip/palate (NSCLP). Furthermore, we hypothesized that children with VWS have more surgical procedures. A retrospective, case-controlled study was performed. Seventeen children with VWS and 68 matched controls with NSCLP were scored for the presence of wound complications after cleft repair, for the severity of complications, and for number of surgeries from age 0 to 10. Of the 17 children with VWS, 8 had wound complications. Of 68 controls, 13 had wound complications (P = 0.02). Of 8 wound complications in the VWS group, 6 were major, whereas of 13 complications in the control group, 9 were major (P = 0.04). Most wound complications were fistulae and occurred in isolated cleft palate and bilateral cleft lip. The mean number of surgeries in the VWS group was 3.0 compared with 2.8 in the control group (P = 0.67). Our studies suggest that children with VWS have an increased risk for wound complications after cleft repair compared with children with NSCLP. Furthermore, these data support a role for IRF6 in wound healing.
Project description:Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts are common birth defects with multifactorial etiology. The most common type is cleft lip, which occurs with or without cleft palate (nsCLP and nsCLO, respectively). Although genetic components play an important role in nsCLP, the genetic factors that predispose to palate involvement are largely unknown. In this study, we carried out a meta-analysis on genetic and clinical data from three large cohorts and identified strong association between a region on chromosome 15q13 and nsCLP (P = 8.13 × 10(-14) for rs1258763; relative risk (RR): 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32-1.61)) but not nsCLO (P = 0.27; RR: 1.09 (0.94-1.27)). The 5 kb region of strongest association maps downstream of Gremlin-1 (GREM1), which encodes a secreted antagonist of the BMP4 pathway. We show during mouse embryogenesis, Grem1 is expressed in the developing lip and soft palate but not in the hard palate. This is consistent with genotype-phenotype correlations between rs1258763 and a specific nsCLP subphenotype, since a more than two-fold increase in risk was observed in patients displaying clefts of both the lip and soft palate but who had an intact hard palate (RR: 3.76, CI: 1.47-9.61, Pdiff<0.05). While we did not find lip or palate defects in Grem1-deficient mice, wild type embryonic palatal shelves developed divergent shapes when cultured in the presence of ectopic Grem1 protein (P = 0.0014). The present study identified a non-coding region at 15q13 as the second, genome-wide significant locus specific for nsCLP, after 13q31. Moreover, our data suggest that the closely located GREM1 gene contributes to a rare clinical nsCLP entity. This entity specifically involves abnormalities of the lip and soft palate, which develop at different time-points and in separate anatomical regions.
Project description:Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 (IRF6) is critical for craniofacial development, epidermal differentiation, and tissue repair. IRF6 mutations cause Van der Woude Syndrome (VWS) and Popliteal Pterygium Syndrome. Individuals with VWS exhibit craniofacial anomalies, including cleft lip and palate and lip pits. Furthermore, they have an increased risk for wound-healing complications following surgical repair when compared with patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate (NSCLP). However, nothing is known about the skin of these patients. The objective was to characterize the skin of patients with VWS. We hypothesize that IRF6 is required for proper skin homeostasis in humans.Discarded tissue from a hip was collected during surgical alveolar bone graft. Samples from children with VWS harboring IRF6 mutations (n = 2) were compared with samples from children with NSCLP (n = 7). Histology was assessed following hematoxylin and eosin staining. The expressions of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen, IRF6, P63, and Keratin 10 were determined by immunofluorescence. Keratinocytes were isolated and their proliferation potential was assessed by colony-forming efficiency assay.Hip skin from children with VWS showed a thicker epidermis when compared with that from children with NSCLP. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen staining revealed an increase in proliferation in syndromic tissues when compared with controls. However, P63 and Keratin 10 expression were similar between groups. Finally, keratinocytes from VWS showed increased long-term proliferation when compared with NSCLP.These results support, in vivo and in vitro, a previously described role for IRF6 in epidermal proliferation in humans. They further demonstrate a critical function for IRF6 in cutaneous homeostasis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate is one of the most common human birth defects worldwide that affects the lip and/or palate. The incidence of clefts varies among populations through ethnic, race, or geographical differences. The focus on Malay nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P) is because of a scarce report on genetic study in relation to this deformity in Malaysia. We are interested to discuss about the genes that are susceptible to cause orofacial cleft formation in the family. METHODS:Genome-wide linkage analysis was carried out on eight large extended families of NSCL/P with the total of 91 individuals among Malay population using microarray platform. Based on linkage analyses findings, copy number variation (CNV) of LPHN2, SATB2, PVRL3, COL21A1, and TOX3 were identified in four large extended families that showed linkage evidence using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) as for a validation purpose. Copy number calculated (CNC) for each genes were determined with Applied Biosystems CopyCallerTM Software v2.0. Normal CNC of the target sequence expected was set at two. RESULTS:Genome-wide linkage analysis had discovered several genes including TOX3 and COL21A1 in four different loci 4p15.2-p16.1, 6p11.2-p12.3, 14q13-q21, and 16q12.1. There was significant decreased, p < 0.05 of SATB2, COL21A1, and TOX3 copy number in extended families compared to the normal controls. CONCLUSION:Novel linkage evidence and significant low copy number of COL21A1 and TOX3 in NSCLP family was confirmed. These genes increased the risks toward NSCLP formation in that family traits.
Project description:Nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate (NSCLP) is one of the most common craniofacial anomalies in humans, affecting more than 135,000 newborns worldwide. NSCLP has a multifactorial etiology with more than 50 genes postulated to play an etiologic role. The genetic pathway comprised of Pbx-Wnt-p63-Irf6 genes was shown to control facial morphogenesis in mice and proposed as a regulatory pathway for NSCLP. Based on these findings, we investigated whether variation in PBX1, PBX2, and TP63, and their proposed interactions were associated with NSCLP. Fourteen single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in/nearby PBX1, PBX2, and TP63 were genotyped in 780 NSCLP families of nonHispanic white (NHW) and Hispanic ethnicities. Family-based association tests were performed for individual SNVs stratified by ethnicity and family history of NSCLP. Gene-gene interactions were also tested. A significant association was found for PBX2 rs3131300 and NSCLP in combined Hispanic families (p = .003) while nominal association was found for TP63 rs9332461 in multiplex Hispanic families (p = .005). Significant haplotype associations were observed for PBX2 in NHW (p = .0002) and Hispanic families (p = .003), and for TP63 in multiplex Hispanic families (.003). An independent case-control group was used to validate findings, and significant associations were found with PBX1 rs6426870 (p = .007) and TP63 rs9332461 (p = .03). Gene-gene interactions were detected between PBX1/PBX2/TP63 with IRF6 in NHW families, and between PBX1 with WNT9B in both NHW and Hispanic families (p?<?.0018). This study provides the first evidence for a role of PBX1 and PBX2, additional evidence for the role of TP63, and support for the proposed PBX-WNT-TP63-IRF6 regulatory pathway in the etiology of NSCLP.
Project description:Non-syndromic cleft lip with palate (NSCLP) is the most serious sub-phenotype of non-syndromic orofacial clefts (NSOFC), which are the most common craniofacial birth defects in humans. Here we conduct a GWAS of NSCLP with multiple independent replications, totalling 7,404 NSOFC cases and 16,059 controls from several ethnicities, to identify new NSCLP risk loci, and explore the genetic heterogeneity between sub-phenotypes of NSOFC. We identify 41 SNPs within 26 loci that achieve genome-wide significance, 14 of which are novel (RAD54B, TMEM19, KRT18, WNT9B, GSC/DICER1, PTCH1, RPS26, OFCC1/TFAP2A, TAF1B, FGF10, MSX1, LINC00640, FGFR1 and SPRY1). These 26 loci collectively account for 10.94% of the heritability for NSCLP in Chinese population. We find evidence of genetic heterogeneity between the sub-phenotypes of NSOFC and among different populations. This study substantially increases the number of genetic susceptibility loci for NSCLP and provides important insights into the genetic aetiology of this common craniofacial malformation.
Project description:Outgrowth and fusion of the lateral and medial nasal processes and of the maxillary process of the first branchial arch are integral to lip and primary palate development. Wnt9b mutations are associated with cleft lip and cleft palate in mice; however, the cause of these defects remains unknown. Here, we report that Wnt9b(-/-) mice show significantly retarded outgrowth of the nasal and maxillary processes due to reduced proliferation of mesenchymal cells, which subsequently results in a failure of physical contact between the facial processes that leads to cleft lip and cleft palate. These cellular defects in Wnt9b(-/-) mice are mainly caused by reduced FGF family gene expression and FGF signaling activity resulting from compromised canonical WNT/?-catenin signaling. Our study has identified a previously unknown regulatory link between WNT9B and FGF signaling during lip and upper jaw development.