Screening and identification of key genes and pathways in metastatic uveal melanoma based on gene expression using bioinformatic analysis.
ABSTRACT: The current study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and identify the potential key genes and pathways for metastatic uveal melanoma (UM) using bioinformatics analysis.Gene expression microarray data from GSE39717 included 39 primary UM tissue samples and 2 metastatic UM tissue samples. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were generated using Gene Expression Omnibus 2R. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed using the online Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) tool. The web-based STRING tool was adopted to construct a protein--protein interaction (PPI) network. The MCODE tool in Cytoscape was used to generate significant modules of the PPI network.A total of 213 DEGs were identified. GO and KEGG analyses revealed that the upregulated genes were mainly enriched in extracellular matrix organization and blood coagulation cascades, while the downregulated DEGs were mainly related to protein binding, negative regulation of ERK cascade, nucleus and chromatin modification, and lung and renal cell carcinoma. The most significant module was extracted from the PPI network. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses of the module revealed that the genes were mainly enriched in the extracellular region and space organization, blood coagulation process, and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Hub genes, including FN1, APOB, F2, SERPINC1, SERPINA1, APOA1, FGG, PROC, ITIH2, VCAN, TFPI, CXCL8, CDH2, and HP, were identified from DEGs. Survival analysis and hierarchical clustering results revealed that most of the hub genes were associated with prognosis and clinical progression.Results of this bioinformatics analysis may provide predictive biomarkers and potential candidate therapeutic targets for individuals with metastatic UM.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The techniques of DNA microarray and bioinformatic analysis have exhibited efficiency in identifying dysregulated gene expression in human cancers. In this study, we used integrated bioinformatics analysis to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).<h4>Methods</h4>In this study, we integrated four Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets, GSE33630, GSE35570, GSE60542 and GSE29265, including 136 normal samples and 157 PTC specimens. The contents of the four datasets are based on GPL570, an Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 array. Gene ontology (GO) analysis was used to identify characteristic the biological attributes of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between PTC and normal samples. GO annotation was performed on the DEGs obtained, and the process relied on the DAVID online tool. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) approach enrichment analyses were adopted to obtain the basic functions of the DEGs. The KOBAS online analysis database was used to complete DEG KEGG pathway comparison and analysis. The search tool (STRING) database was mainly used to search for interacting genes and complete the construction of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks.<h4>Results</h4>Five hundred-ninety DEGs were consistently expressed in the four datasets; 327 of them were upregulated, while 263 were downregulated. Ten DEGs, including five upregulated (<i>ENTPD1, THRSP, KLK10, ADAMTS9, MIR31HG</i>) and five downregulated (<i>SCARA5, EPHB1, CHRDL1, LOC440934, FOXP2</i>) genes, were randomly selected for q-PCR in our own tissue samples to validate the integrated data. The most highly enriched GO terms were extracellular exosome (GO:0070062), cell adhesion (GO:0070062), positive regulation of gene expression (GO:0010628), and extracellular matrix (ECM) organization (GO:0030198). KEGG pathway analysis was performed, and it was found that abnormally expressed genes effectively participated in pathways such as tyrosine metabolism, complement and coagulation cascades, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), transcriptional misregulation and ECM-receptor interaction pathways.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Five hundred-ninety DEGs were identified in PTC by integrated microarray analysis. The GO and KEGG analyses presented here suggest that the DEGs were enriched in extracellular exosome, tyrosine metabolism, CAMs, complement and coagulation cascades, transcriptional misregulation and ECM-receptor interaction pathways. Functional studies of PTC should focus on these pathways.
Project description:Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors with a high case-fatality rate among women. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on breast cancer by exploring the potential underlying molecular mechanisms. The expression profile of GSE43306, which refers to MDA-MB-231 cells with or without a 1:1 ratio of MSCs, was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database for differentially expressed gene (DEG) screening. The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery was used for gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis for DEGs. The protein-protein interactional (PPI) network of DEGs was constructed using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins. The data was subsequently analyzed using molecular complex detection for sub-network mining of modules. Finally, DEGs in modules were analyzed using GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses. A total of 291 DEGs including 193 upregulated and 98 downregulated DEGs were obtained. Upregulated DEGs were primarily enriched in pathways including response to wounding (P=5.92×10-7), inflammatory response (P=5.92×10-4) and defense response (P=1.20×10-2), whereas downregulated DEGs were enriched in pathways including the cell cycle (P=7.13×10-4), mitotic cell cycle (P=6.81×10-3) and M phase (P=1.72 ×10-2). The PPI network, which contained 156 nodes and 289 edges, was constructed, and Fos was the hub node with the degree of 29. A total of 3 modules were mined from the PPI network. In total, 14 DEGs in module A were primarily enriched in GO terms, including response to wounding (P=4.77×10-6), wounding healing (P=6.25×10-7) and coagulation (P=1.13 ×10-7), and these DEGs were also enriched in 1 KEGG pathway (complement and coagulation cascades; P=0.0036). Therefore, MSCs were demonstrated to exhibit potentially beneficial effects for breast cancer therapy. In addition, the screened DEGs, particularly in PPI network modules, including FN1, CD44, NGF, SERPINE1 and CCNA2, may be the potential target genes of MSC therapy for breast cancer.
Project description:Background:Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes, and the incidence has increased faster than any other cancer over the past half century. Most primary melanoma can be cured by local excision, but metastatic melanoma has a poor prognosis. Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is prone to metastasis, so the research on the mechanism of melanoma occurrence and metastasis will be beneficial to diagnose early, improve treatment, and prolong life survival. In this study, we compared the gene expression of normal skin (N), primary cutaneous melanoma (PM) and metastatic cutaneous melanoma (MM) in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Then we identified the key genes and molecular pathways that may be involved in the development and metastasis of cutaneous melanoma, thus to discover potential markers or therapeutic targets. Methods:Three gene expression profiles (GSE7553, GSE15605 and GSE46517) were downloaded from the GEO database, which contained 225 tissue samples. R software identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between pairs of N, PM and MM samples in the three sets of data. Subsequently, we analyzed the gene ontology (GO) function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway of the DEGs, and constructed a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. MCODE was used to seek the most important modules in PPI network, and then the GO function and KEGG pathway of them were analyzed. Finally, the hub genes were calculated by the cytoHubba in Cytoscape software. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data were analyzed using UALCAN and GEPIA to validate the hub genes and analyze the prognosis of patients. Results:A total of 134, 317 and 147 DEGs were identified between N, PM and MM in pair. GO functions and KEGG pathways analysis results showed that the upregulated DEGs mainly concentrated in cell division, spindle microtubule, protein kinase activity and the pathway of transcriptional misregulation in cancer. The downregulated DEGs occurred in epidermis development, extracellular exosome, structural molecule activity, metabolic pathways and p53 signaling pathway. The PPI network obtained the most important module, whose GO function and KEGG pathway were enriched in oxidoreductase activity, cell division, cell exosomes, protein binding, structural molecule activity, and metabolic pathways. 14, 18 and 18 DEGs were identified respectively as the hub genes between N, PM and MM, and TCGA data confirmed the expression differences of hub genes. In addition, the overall survival curve of hub genes showed that the differences in these genes may lead to a significant decrease in overall survival of melanoma patients. Conclusions:In this study, several hub genes were found from normal skin, primary melanoma and metastatic melanoma samples. These hub genes may play an important role in the production, invasion, recurrence or death of CM, and may provide new ideas and potential targets for its diagnosis or treatment.
Project description:The purpose of the present study was to identify key genes and investigate the related molecular mechanisms of bladder cancer (BC) progression. From the Gene Expression Omnibus database, the gene expression dataset GSE7476 was downloaded, which contained 43 BC samples and 12 normal bladder tissues. GSE7476 was analyzed to screen the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses were performed for the DEGs using the DAVID database, and a protein?protein interaction (PPI) network was then constructed using Cytoscape software. The results of the GO analysis showed that the upregulated DEGs were significantly enriched in cell division, nucleoplasm and protein binding, while the downregulated DEGs were significantly enriched in 'extracellular matrix organization', 'proteinaceous extracellular matrix' and 'heparin binding'. The results of the KEGG pathway analysis showed that the upregulated DEGs were significantly enriched in the 'cell cycle', whereas the downregulated DEGs were significantly enriched in 'complement and coagulation cascades'. JUN, cyclin?dependent kinase 1, FOS, PCNA, TOP2A, CCND1 and CDH1 were found to be hub genes in the PPI network. Sub?networks revealed that these gene were enriched in significant pathways, including the 'cell cycle' signaling pathway and 'PI3K?Akt signaling pathway'. In summary, the present study identified DEGs and key target genes in the progression of BC, providing potential molecular targets and diagnostic biomarkers for the treatment of BC.
Project description:Meningioma is the most frequently occurring type of brain tumor. The present study aimed to conduct a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis of key genes and relevant pathways involved in meningioma, and acquire further insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms. Initially, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in 47 meningioma samples as compared with 4 normal meninges were identified. Subsequently, these DEGs were subjected to Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses. In addition, a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of the identified DEGs was constructed using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes and visualized using Cytoscape. In total, 1,683 DEGs were identified, including 66 upregulated and 1,617 downregulated genes. The GO analysis results revealed that the DEGs were significantly associated with the 'protein binding', 'cytoplasm', 'extracellular matrix (ECM) organization' and 'cell adhesion' terms. The KEGG analysis results demonstrated the significant pathways included 'AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications', 'PI3K-Akt signaling pathway', 'ECM-receptor interaction' and 'cell adhesion molecules'. The top five hub genes obtained from the PPI network were JUN, PIK3R1, FOS, AGT and MYC, and the most enriched KEGG pathways associated with the four obtained modules were 'chemokine signaling pathway', 'cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction', 'allograft rejection', and 'complement and coagulation cascades'. In conclusion, bioinformatics analysis identified a number of potential biomarkers and relevant pathways that may represent key mechanisms involved in the development and progression of meningioma. However, these findings require verification in future experimental studies.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies, which causes serious financial burden worldwide. This study aims to investigate the potential mechanisms contributing to HCC and identify core biomarkers. The HCC gene expression profile GSE41804 was picked out to analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Gene ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were carried out using DAVID. We constructed a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network to visualize interactions of the DEGs. The survival analysis of these hub genes was conducted to evaluate their potential effects on HCC. In this analysis, 503 DEGs were captured (360 downregulated genes and 143 upregulated genes). Meanwhile, 15 hub genes were identified. GO analysis showed that the DEGs were mainly enriched in oxidative stress, cell cycle, and extracellular structure. KEGG analysis suggested the DEGs were enriched in the absorption, metabolism, and cell cycle pathway. PPI network disclosed that the top3 modules were mainly enriched in cell cycle, oxidative stress, and liver detoxification. In conclusion, our analysis uncovered that the alterations of oxidative stress and cell cycle are two major signatures of HCC. TOP2A, CCNB1, and KIF4A might promote the development of HCC, especially in proliferation and differentiation, which could be novel biomarkers and targets for diagnosis and treatment of HCC.
Project description:Infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene rearrangement (MLL-R) is considered a distinct leukemia from childhood or non-MLL-R infant ALL. To detect key genes and elucidate the molecular mechanisms of MLL-R infant ALL, microarray expression data were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between MLL-R and non-MLL-R infant ALL were identified. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were carried out. Then, we constructed a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and identified the hub genes. Finally, drug-gene interactions were mined. A total of 139 cases of MLL-R infant ALL including 77 (55.4%) fusions with AF4, 38 (27.3%) with ENL, 14 (10.1%) with AF9, and 10 (7.2%) other gene fusions were characterized. A total of 236 up-regulated and 84 down-regulated DEGs were identified. The up-regulated DEGs were mainly involved in homophilic cell adhesion, negative regulation of apoptotic process and cellular response to drug GO terms, while down-regulated DEGs were mainly enriched in extracellular matrix organization, protein kinase C signaling and neuron projection extension GO terms. The up-regulated DEGs were enriched in seven KEGG pathways, mainly involving transcriptional regulation and signaling pathways, and down-regulated DEGs were involved in three main KEGG pathways including Alzheimer's disease, TGF-beta signaling pathway, and hematopoietic cell lineage. The PPI network included 297 nodes and 410 edges, with MYC, ALB, CD44, PTPRC and TNF identified as hub genes. Twenty-three drug-gene interactions including four up-regulated hub genes and 24 drugs were constructed by Drug Gene Interaction database (DGIdb). In conclusion, MYC, ALB, CD44, PTPRC and TNF may be potential bio-markers for the diagnosis and therapy of MLL-R infant ALL.
Project description:Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is one of the most common subtypes of esophageal cancer, and is associated with a low 5-year survival rate. The present study aimed to identify key genes and pathways associated with EAC using bioinformatics analysis. The gene expression profiles of GSE92396, which includes 12 EAC samples and 9 normal esophageal samples, were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the EAC and normal samples were identified using the limma package in R language. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses of the identified DEGs were conducted using the online analysis tool, the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of the DEGs was constructed using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) database and Cytoscape software. Finally, module analysis was conducted for the PPI network using the MCODE plug-in in Cytoscape. Of the 386 DEGs identified, the 150 upregulated genes were mainly enriched in the KEGG pathways of complement and coagulation cascades, maturity onset diabetes of the young and protein digestion and absorption; and the 236 downregulated genes were mainly enriched in amoebiasis, retinol metabolism and drug metabolism-cytochrome P450. Based on information from the STRING database, a PPI network comprising of 369 nodes and 534 edges was constructed in Cytoscape. The top 10 hub nodes with the highest degrees were determined as interleukin-8, involucrin, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, fibronectin 1, serpin family E member 1, serpin family A member 1, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, secreted phosphoprotein 1, collagen type I alpha 1 chain and angiotensinogen. A total of 6 modules were detected from the PPI network that satisfied the criteria of MCODE score >4 and number of nodes >4. KEGG pathways enriched for the module DEGs were mainly within arachidonic acid metabolism, complement and coagulation cascades and rheumatoid arthritis. In conclusion, identification of these key genes and pathways may improve understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of EAC, and may be used as diagnostic and therapeutic targets in EAC.
Project description:Purpose:Uveal melanoma (UM) is a primary intraocular tumor in adults, with a high percentage of metastases to the liver. Identifying potential key genes may provide information for early detection and prognosis of UM metastasis. Patients and Methods:Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the GSE22138 dataset. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis was used to construct co-expression modules. Functional enrichment analysis was performed for DEGs and genes of key modules. Hub genes were screened by co-expression network and protein-protein interaction network (PPI), and validated by survival analysis in The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used to explore the potential metastasis mechanism of UM. Transient transfection was used to investigate the effect of TIMP1 on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of UM cells. Results:In total, 552 DEGs were identified between primary and metastatic UM and mainly enriched in extracellular matrix, cellular senescence and focal adhesion pathway. A weighted gene co?expression network was built to identify key gene modules associated with UM metastasis (n=36). The turquoise module is positively correlated with metastasis and genes in this module were mainly enriched in peptidyl-tyrosine autophosphorylation and regulation of organ growth. The hub gene TIMP1 was screened out by co-expression network and PPI analysis. High expression of TIMP1 was related to p53 pathway by GSEA and short overall survival time. Experimental results indicated that overexpression of TIMP1 inhibited the proliferation and migration, while it had no significant effect on invasion of UM cells. Conclusion:Our study indicates that TIMP1 might be associated with metastasis in UM, which might have important significance for identifying patients with high risk of metastasis and predicting the prognosis of UM.
Project description:Background:Bladder cancer is a malignant tumor in the urinary system with high mortality and recurrence rates. However, the causes and recurrence mechanism of bladder cancer are not fully understood. In this study, we used integrated bioinformatics to screen for key genes associated with the development of bladder cancer and reveal their potential molecular mechanisms. Methods:The GSE7476, GSE13507, GSE37815 and GSE65635 expression profiles were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, and these datasets contain 304 tissue samples, including 81 normal bladder tissue samples and 223 bladder cancer samples. The RobustRankAggreg (RRA) method was utilized to integrate and analyze the four datasets to obtain integrated differentially expressed genes (DEGs), and the gene ontology (GO) functional annotation and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were performed. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and module analyses were performed using Cytoscape software. The OncoLnc online tool was utilized to analyze the relationship between the expression of hub genes and the prognosis of bladder cancer. Results:In total, 343 DEGs, including 111 upregulated and 232 downregulated genes, were identified from the four datasets. GO analysis showed that the upregulated genes were mainly involved in mitotic nuclear division, the spindle and protein binding. The downregulated genes were mainly involved in cell adhesion, extracellular exosomes and calcium ion binding. The top five enriched pathways obtained in the KEGG pathway analysis were focal adhesion (FA), PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, proteoglycans in cancer, extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction and vascular smooth muscle contraction. The top 10 hub genes identified from the PPI network were vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), TOP2A, CCNB1, Cell division cycle 20 (CDC20), aurora kinase B, ACTA2, Aurora kinase A, UBE2C, CEP55 and CCNB2. Survival analysis revealed that the expression levels of ACTA2, CCNB1, CDC20 and VEGFA were related to the prognosis of patients with bladder cancer. In addition, a KEGG pathway analysis of the top 2 modules identified from the PPI network revealed that Module 1 mainly involved the cell cycle and oocyte meiosis, while the analysis in Module 2 mainly involved the complement and coagulation cascades, vascular smooth muscle contraction and FA. Conclusions:This study identified key genes and pathways in bladder cancer, which will improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development and progression of bladder cancer. These key genes might be potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers for the treatment of bladder cancer.