LncRNA MRUL Suppressed Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells Proliferation and Invasion by Targeting miR-17-5p/SRSF2 Axis.
ABSTRACT: The two broad histological subtypes of lung cancer are small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which are the leading causes of cancer-related death in the world. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been verified to be critical in the regulation of cancer development. The present study identified and elucidated the regulatory roles of a novel lncRNA MRUL in NSCLC. The results showed that MRUL was overexpressed in NSCLC samples and correlated with the poor prognosis of patients who had NSCLC. Moreover, this research has for the first time demonstrated that MRUL acted as an oncogenetic lncRNA in NSCLC. Knockdown of MRUL considerably repressed NSCLC cell proliferation, invasion, and migration. The bioinformatics analysis showed that MRUL was involved in regulating multiple RNA splicing and proliferation-related biological processes, such as mRNA splicing, RNA splicing, mRNA processing, mRNA 3'-end processing, mRNA splice site selection, and DNA replication. By combining bioinformatics analysis and experimental validation, we found that MRUL regulated NSCLC progression through promoting SRSF2 by sponging miR-17 in NSCLC cells. The discoveries indicated that MRUL could be a therapeutic target and a potential diagnostic for NSCLC.
Project description:Splicing abnormalities frequently occur in cancer. A key role as splice site choice regulator is played by the members of the SR (Ser/Arg-rich) family of proteins. We recently demonstrated that SRSF2 is involved in cisplatin-mediated apoptosis of human lung carcinoma cell lines. In this study, by using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate that the SR proteins SRSF1 and SRSF2 are overexpressed in 63% and 65% of lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) as well as in 68% and 91% of squamous cell lung carcinoma (SCC), respectively, compared to normal lung epithelial cells. In addition, we show that SRSF2 overexpression correlates with high level of phosphorylated SRSF2 in both ADC (p<0.0001) and SCC (p = 0.02), indicating that SRSF2 mostly accumulates under a phosphorylated form in lung tumors. Consistently, we further show that the SR-phosphorylating kinases SRPK1 and SRPK2 are upregulated in 92% and 94% of ADC as well as in 72% and 68% of SCC, respectively. P-SRSF2 and SRPK2 scores are correlated in ADC (p = 0.01). Using lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, we demonstrate that SRSF1 overexpression leads to a more invasive phenotype, evidenced by activation of PI3K/AKT and p42/44MAPK signaling pathways, increased growth capacity in soft agar, acquisition of mesenchymal markers such as E cadherin loss, vimentin and fibronectin gain, and increased resistance to chemotherapies. Finally, we provide evidence that high levels of SRSF1 and P-SRSF2 proteins are associated with extensive stage (III-IV) in ADC. Taken together, these results indicate that a global deregulation of pre-mRNA splicing regulators occurs during lung tumorigenesis and does not predict same outcome in both Non Small Cell Lung Carcinoma histological sub-types, likely contributing to a more aggressive phenotype in adenocarcinoma.
Project description:Oncogenic mutations in the RNA splicing factors SRSF2, SF3B1, and U2AF1 are the most frequent class of mutations in myelodysplastic syndromes and are also common in clonal hematopoiesis, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and a variety of solid tumors. They cause genome-wide splicing alterations that affect important regulators of hematopoiesis. Several mRNA isoforms promoted by the various splicing factor mutants comprise a premature termination codon (PTC) and are therefore potential targets of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). In light of the mechanistic relationship between splicing and NMD, we sought evidence for a specific role of mutant SRSF2 in NMD. We show that SRSF2 Pro95 hot spot mutations elicit enhanced mRNA decay, which is dependent on sequence-specific RNA binding and splicing. SRSF2 mutants enhance the deposition of exon junction complexes (EJCs) downstream from the PTC through RNA-mediated molecular interactions. This architecture then favors the association of key NMD factors to elicit mRNA decay. Gene-specific blocking of EJC deposition by antisense oligonucleotides circumvents aberrant NMD promoted by mutant SRSF2, restoring the expression of PTC-containing transcript. Our study uncovered critical effects of SRSF2 mutants in hematologic malignancies, reflecting the regulation at multiple levels of RNA metabolism, from splicing to decay.
Project description:The splice variant sVEGFR1-i13 is a truncated version of the cell membrane-spanning VEGFR1 receptor that is devoid of its transmembrane and tyrosine kinase domains. We recently showed the contribution of sVEGFR1-i13 to the progression and the response of squamous lung carcinoma to anti-angiogenic therapies. In this study, we identify VEGF165, a splice variant of VEGF-A, as a regulator of sVEGFR1-i13 expression in these tumors, and further show that VEGF165 cooperates with the transcription factor SOX2 and the splicing factor SRSF2 to control sVEGFR1-i13 expression. We also demonstrate that anti-angiogenic therapies up-regulate sVEGFR1-i13 protein level in squamous lung carcinoma cells by a mechanism involving the VEGF165/SOX2/SRSF2 network. Collectively, our results identify for the first time a signaling network that controls VEGFR1 pre-mRNA alternative splicing in cancer cells.
Project description:Mutations within genes encoding spliceosomal proteins are the most common class of mutations in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes, yet it is currently not well understood how these mutations impact hematopoiesis or RNA splicing. Here we report that mutations affecting the splicing factor SRSF2 alter its normal RNA recognition activity, resulting in impaired hematopoietic differentiation and myelodysplasia. Commonly occurring SRSF2 mutations impaired wildtype SRSF2’s normal RNA-binding avidity and preference for specific exonic splicing enhancer RNA motifs. Integration of murine and human transcriptome data identified recurrent mis-splicing of key transcriptional regulators in the presence of mutant SRSF2, including promotion of a highly conserved “poison” exon of EZH2 that results in nonsense-mediated decay and contributes to impaired hematopoiesis. These data provide a mechanistic basis for the enrichment of specific mutations in spliceosomal proteins in myelodysplasia, and suggest that altered RNA recognition activity is a novel mechanism of leukemogenesis. mRNA profiles of murine model and K562 cells expressing SRSF2 WT, mutants and knockdown of SRSF2 in TF-1 cells generated by deep sequencing.
Project description:Serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2 (SRSF2) is an RNA-binding protein that plays important roles in splicing of mRNA precursors. SRSF2 mutations are frequently found in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and certain leukemias, but how these mutations affect SRSF2 function has only begun to be examined. We used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease to introduce the P95H mutation to SRSF2 in K562 leukemia cells, generating an isogenic model so that splicing alterations can be attributed solely to mutant SRSF2. We found that SRSF2 (P95H) misregulates 548 splicing events (<1% of total). Of these events, 374 involved the inclusion of cassette exons, and the inclusion was either increased (206) or decreased (168). We detected a specific motif (UCCA/UG) enriched in the more-included exons and a distinct motif (UGGA/UG) in the more-excluded exons. RNA gel shift assays showed that a mutant SRSF2 derivative bound more tightly than its wild-type counterpart to RNA sites containing UCCAG but bound less tightly to UGGAG sites. Thus in most cases the pattern of exon inclusion or exclusion correlated with stronger or weaker RNA binding, respectively. We further show that the P95H mutation does not affect other functions of SRSF2, i.e., protein-protein interactions with key splicing factors. Our results thus demonstrate that the P95H mutation positively or negatively alters the binding affinity of SRSF2 for cognate RNA sites in target transcripts, leading to misregulation of exon inclusion. Our findings shed light on the mechanism of the disease-associated SRSF2 mutation in splicing regulation and also reveal a group of misspliced mRNA isoforms for potential therapeutic targeting.
Project description:SRSF2 is an RNA binding protein that plays important roles in splicing of mRNA precursors. Mutations in SRSF2 are frequently found in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and certain leukemias, but how they affect SRSF2 function has only begun to be examined. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 to introduce the P95H mutation to SRSF2 in K562 leukemia cells, generating an isogenic model so that splicing alterations can be attributed solely to mutant SRSF2. We found that SRSF2 (P95H) misregulates 548 splicing events (<1% of total). Of these, 374 involve the inclusion of cassette exons, and the inclusion was either increased (206) or decreased (168). We detected a specific motif (UCCA/UG) enriched in the more included exons and a distinct motif (UGGA/UG) in the more excluded exons. RNA gel shift assays showed that a mutant SRSF2 derivative bound more tightly than its wild-type counterpart to RNA sites containing UCCAG, but less tightly to UGGAG sites. The pattern of exon inclusion or exclusion thus correlated in most cases with stronger or weaker RNA binding, respectively. We further show that the P95H mutation does not affect other functions of SRSF2, i.e., protein-protein interactions with key splicing factors. Our results thus demonstrate that the P95H mutation positively or negatively alters the binding affinity of SRSF2 for cognate RNA sites in target transcripts, leading to misregulation of exon inclusion. Our findings not only shed light on the mechanism of the disease-associated SRSF2 mutation in splicing regulation, but also reveal a group of mis-spliced mRNA isoforms for potential therapeutic targeting. Examination of differentially spliced events in K562 CRISPR cell clones (with wild-type or mutant SRSF2) by RNA sequencing
Project description:SRSF2 is a serine/arginine-rich protein belonging to the family of SR proteins that are crucial regulators of constitutive and alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Although it is well known that phosphorylation inside RS domain controls activity of SR proteins, other post-translational modifications regulating SRSF2 functions have not been described to date. In this study, we provide the first evidence that the acetyltransferase Tip60 acetylates SRSF2 on its lysine 52 residue inside the RNA recognition motif, and promotes its proteasomal degradation. We also demonstrate that the deacetylase HDAC6 counters this acetylation and acts as a positive regulator of SRSF2 protein level. In addition, we show that Tip60 downregulates SRSF2 phosphorylation by inhibiting the nuclear translocation of both SRPK1 and SRPK2 kinases. Finally, we demonstrate that this acetylation/phosphorylation signalling network controls SRSF2 accumulation as well as caspase-8 pre-mRNA splicing in response to cisplatin and determines whether cells undergo apoptosis or G(2)/M cell cycle arrest. Taken together, these results unravel lysine acetylation as a crucial post-translational modification regulating SRSF2 protein level and activity in response to genotoxic stress.
Project description:Recurrent mutations in the splicing factor SRSF2 are associated with poor clinical outcomes in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Their high frequency suggests these mutations drive oncogenesis, yet the molecular explanation for this process is unclear. SRSF2 mutations could directly affect pre-mRNA splicing of a vital gene product; alternatively, a whole network of gene products could be affected. Here we determine how SRSF2 mutations globally affect RNA binding and splicing in vivo using HITS-CLIP. Remarkably, the majority of differential binding events do not translate into alternative splicing of exons with SRSF2P95H binding sites. Alternative splice alterations appear to be dominated by indirect effects. Importantly, SRSF2P95H targets are enriched in RNA processing and splicing genes, including several members of the hnRNP and SR families of proteins, suggesting a "splicing-cascade" phenotype wherein mutation of a single splicing factor leads to widespread modifications in multiple RNA processing and splicing proteins. We show that splice alteration of HNRNPA2B1, a splicing factor differentially bound and spliced by SRSF2P95H, impairs hematopoietic differentiation in vivo. Our data suggests a model whereby the recurrent mutations in splicing factors set off a cascade of gene regulatory events that together affect hematopoiesis and drive cancer.
Project description:The product of proto-oncogene Ron is a human receptor for the macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP). Upon activation, Ron is able to induce cell dissociation, migration and matrix invasion. Exon 11 skipping of Ron pre-mRNA produces Ron?165 protein that is constitutively active even in the absence of its ligand. Here we show that knockdown of SRSF2 promotes the decrease of exon 11 inclusion, whereas overexpression of SRSF2 promotes exon 11 inclusion. We demonstrate that SRSF2 promotes exon 11 inclusion through splicing and transcription procedure. We also present evidence that reduced expression of SRSF2 induces a decrease in the splicing of both introns 10 and 11; by contrast, overexpression of SRSF2 induces an increase in the splicing of introns 10 and 11. Through mutation analysis, we show that SRSF2 functionally targets and physically interacts with CGAG sequence on exon 11. In addition, we reveal that the weak strength of splice sites of exon 11 is not required for the function of SRSF2 on the splicing of Ron exon 11. Our results indicate that SRSF2 promotes exon 11 inclusion of Ron proto-oncogene through targeting exon 11. Our study provides a novel mechanism by which Ron is expressed.
Project description:The transcription factor E2F1 belongs to the E2F family and plays a crucial role during cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Ser/Arg-Rich (SR) proteins are a family of RNA-binding phosphoproteins that control both constitutive and alternative pre-mRNA splicing events. We previously identified the SR protein SRSF2 as a new transcriptional target of E2F1 and demonstrated that both proteins cooperate to induce apoptosis in non-small cell lung carcinoma. In this study, we postulated that SRSF2 is also involved in the proliferative functions of E2F1. Using IHC, we first demonstrate that SRSF2 and its phosphorylated form (P-SRSF2) are overexpressed in neuroendocrine lung tumors that are highly proliferative tumors expressing high levels of E2F1. Importantly, we show a direct correlation between cyclin E, an E2F1-target gene controlling S phase, and P-SRSF2 proteins levels (p = 0.0083), suggesting a role of SRSF2 in E2F1-mediated cellular proliferation. Accordingly, using neuroendocrine lung carcinoma cell lines, we demonstrate that SRSF2 is a cell cycle-regulated protein involved in entry and progression into S phase. We also provide evidence that SRSF2 interacts with E2F1 and stimulates its transcriptional control of cell cycle target genes such as cyclin E. Finally, we show that inhibition of AKT signaling pathway prevents SRSF2 phosphorylation and activity toward E2F1 transcriptional function. Taken together, these results identify a new role of SRSF2 in the control of cell cycle progression and reinforce the functional link between SRSF2 and E2F1 proteins.