Natural Catalytic IgGs Hydrolyzing Histones in Schizophrenia: Are They the Link between Humoral Immunity and Inflammation?
ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is known to be accompanied not only with an imbalance in the neurotransmitter systems but also with immune system dysregulation and chronic low-grade inflammation. Extracellular histones and nucleosomes as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) trigger systemic inflammatory and toxic reactions by activating Toll-like receptors. In this work, we obtained the first evidence that polyclonal IgGs of patients with schizophrenia effectively hydrolyze five histones (H1, H2a, H2b, H3, and H4). Several strict criteria were used to demonstrate that histone-hydrolyzing activity is a property of the analyzed IgGs. The IgGs histone-hydrolyzing activity level, depending on the type of histone (H1-H4), was statistically significantly 6.1-20.2 times higher than that of conditionally healthy donors. The investigated biochemical properties (pH and metal ion dependences, kinetic characteristics) of these natural catalytic IgGs differed markedly from canonical proteases. It was previously established that the generation of natural catalytic antibodies is an early and clear sign of impaired humoral immunity. One cannot, however, exclude that histone-hydrolyzing antibodies may play a positive role in schizophrenia pathogenesis because histone removal from circulation or the inflamed area minimizes the inflammatory responses. Thus, it can be assumed that histone-hydrolyzing antibodies are a link between humoral immunity and inflammatory responses in schizophrenia.
Project description:It was recently shown that IgGs from sera of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are active in the hydrolysis of DNA and myelin basic protein (MBP). We first analyzed the relative concentration of antibodies against five histones (H1, H2a, H2b, H3, and H4) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of patients with MS. The relative concentrations of blood and CSF IgGs against histones and their activity in the hydrolysis of five histones varied greatly from patient to patient. However, all 28 IgG preparations were hydrolyzed from one to five histones. Relative activities and correlation coefficients among the activities of IgGs from serum and CSF in the hydrolysis of five histones (H1, H2a, H2b, H3, and H4), DNA, and MBP were calculated. It was shown that auto-IgGs from CSF and sera of MS patients are extremely heterogeneous in their affinity to histones, MBP, and DNA. The heterogeneity of IgG-abzymes hydrolyzing DNA, MBP, and histones from CSF and sera was also demonstrated using their isoelectrofocusing. The isofocusing profiles DNase, MBP-, and histone-hydrolyzing activities of IgGs may be very different for various individuals, but the total IgG subfractions with all their activities are distributed from pH 3 to 10.
Project description:It is known that intranuclear histones can be pernicious after entering to the extracellular space. In addition, the immunization of animals with exogenous histones leads to systemic inflammatory and toxic reactions. Abzymes-autoantibodies with enzymatic activities-are the distinctive feature of autoimmune diseases and they can be especially dangerous to humans. Here, electrophoretically homogeneous IgGs were isolated from sera of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) by chromatography on several affinity sorbents. We present evidence that sera of all MS patients contain autoantibodies against histones and 73% of IgGs purified from the sera of 59 MS patients efficiently hydrolyze from one to five histones: H1, H2a, H2b, H3, and H4. The relative average efficiency of the histones hydrolysis was ~3.9-fold higher than that for healthy donors. The relative average activity of IgGs depends on the type of MS and decreased approximately in the following order: debut of MS, secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, remitting multiple sclerosis, remittent progressive multiple sclerosis. Similar to proteolytic abzymes of patients with several autoimmune diseases, histone-hydrolyzing IgGs from MS patients were inhibited in the presence of specific inhibitors of serine and of metal-dependent proteases, but an unexpected significant inhibition of the activity by inhibitors of thiol-like and especially acidic proteases was observed. Since IgGs can efficiently hydrolyze histones, a negative role of abzymes in the development of MS cannot be excluded.
Project description:There are overwhelming data supporting the inflammatory origin of some epilepsies (e.g., Rasmussen's encephalitis and limbic encephalitis). Inflammatory epilepsies with an autoimmune component are characterized by autoantibodies against membrane-bound, intracellular or secreted proteins (e.g., voltage gated potassium channels). Comparably, little is known regarding autoantibodies targeting nuclear antigen. We tested the hypothesis that in addition to known epilepsy-related autoantigens, the human brain tissue and serum from patients with epilepsy contain autoantibodies recognizing nuclear targets. We also determined the specific nuclear proteins acting as autoantigen in patients with epilepsy. Brain tissue samples were obtained from patients undergoing brain resections to treat refractory seizures, from the brain with arteriovenous malformations or from post-mortem multiple sclerosis brain. Patients with epilepsy had no known history of autoimmune disease and were not diagnosed with autoimmune epilepsy. Tissue was processed for immunohistochemical staining. We also obtained subcellular fractions to extract intracellular IgGs. After separating nuclear antibody-antigen complexes, the purified autoantigen was analyzed by mass spectrometry. Western blots using autoantigen or total histones were probed to detect the presence of antinuclear antibodies in the serum of patients with epilepsy. Additionally, HEp-2 assays and antinuclear antibody ELISA were used to detect the staining pattern and specific presence of antinuclear antibodies in the serum of patients with epilepsy. Brain regions from patients with epilepsy characterized by blood-brain barrier disruption (visualized by extravasated albumin) contained extravasated IgGs. Intracellular antibodies were found in epilepsy (n=13/13) but not in multiple sclerosis brain (n=4/4). In the brain from patients with epilepsy, neurons displayed higher levels of nuclear IgGs compared to glia. IgG colocalized with extravasated albumin. All subcellular fractions from brain resections of patients with epilepsy contained extravasated IgGs (n=10/10), but epileptogenic cortex, where seizures originated from, displayed the highest levels of chromatin-bound IgGs. In the nuclear IgG pool, anti-histone autoantibodies were identified by two independent immunodetection methods. HEp-2 assay and ELISA confirmed the presence of anti-histone (n=5/8) and anti-chromatin antibodies in the serum from patients with epilepsy. We developed a multi-step approach to unmask autoantigens in the brain and sera of patients with epilepsy. This approach revealed antigen-bound antinuclear antibodies in neurons and free antinuclear IgGs in the serum of patients with epilepsy. Conditions with blood-brain barrier disruption but not seizures, were characterized by extravasated but not chromatin-bound IgGs. Our results show that the pool of intracellular IgG in the brain of patients with epilepsy consists of nucleus-specific autoantibodies targeting chromatin and histones. Seizures may be the trigger of neuronal uptake of antinuclear antibodies.
Project description:Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) is one of the best-studied blood-stage malaria vaccine candidates. When an AMA1 vaccine was tested in a malaria naïve population, it induced functionally active antibodies judged by Growth Inhibition Assay (GIA). However, the same vaccine failed to induce higher growth-inhibitory activity in adults living in a malaria endemic area. Vaccination did induce functionally active antibodies in malaria-exposed children with less than 20% inhibition in GIA at baseline, but not in children with more than that level of baseline inhibition.Total IgGs were purified from plasmas collected from the pediatric trial before and after immunization and pools of total IgGs were made. Another set of total IgGs was purified from U.S. adults immunized with AMA1 (US-total IgG). From these total IgGs, AMA1-specific and non-AMA1 IgGs were affinity purified and the functional activity of these IgGs was evaluated by GIA. Competition ELISA was performed with the U.S.-total IgG and non-AMA1 IgGs from malaria-exposed children.AMA1-specific IgGs from malaria-exposed children and U.S. vaccinees showed similar growth-inhibitory activity at the same concentrations. When mixed with U.S.-total IgG, non-AMA1 IgGs from children showed an interference effect in GIA. Interestingly, the interference effect was higher with non-AMA1 IgGs from higher titer pools. The non-AMA1 IgGs did not compete with anti-AMA1 antibody in U.S.-total IgG in the competition ELISA.Children living in a malaria endemic area have a fraction of IgGs that interferes with the biological activity of anti-AMA1 antibody as judged by GIA. While the mechanism of interference is not resolved in this study, these results suggest it is not caused by direct competition between non-AMA1 IgG and AMA1 protein. This study indicates that anti-malaria IgGs induced by natural exposure may interfere with the biological effect of antibody induced by an AMA1-based vaccine in the target population.
Project description:Clinical immunity to pregnancy associated-malaria (PAM) in multigravida women has been attributed to antibodies that recognize VAR2CSA on the infected erythrocyte (IE) surface. The size and complexity of VAR2CSA have focused efforts on selecting one or more of its six Duffy binding-like (DBL) domains for vaccine development. Presently, however, there is no consensus as to which DBL domain(s) would be most effective in eliciting immunity. This is because antibodies to a number of the DBL domains have been found to block the adhesion of VAR2CSA-expressing erythrocytes to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA)-a major criterion for evaluating vaccine candidacy. Opsonization of IEs by cytophilic antibodies that recognize VAR2CSA represents an important yet understudied effector mechanism in acquired immunity to PAM. To date, no studies have sought to determine the targets of those antibodies. In this study, we found that IgGs from multigravida Malian women showed (i) higher reactivity to recombinant DBL domains by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), (ii) more binding to VAR2CSA-expressing IEs, and (iii) greater opsonization of these IEs by human monocytic cells than IgGs from malaria-exposed Malian men and malaria-naive American adults. Preincubation of IgGs from multigravida women with recombinant DBL2?, DBL3?, or DBL5? domains significantly diminished opsonization of VAR2CSA-expressing IEs by human monocytes. These data identify the DBL2?, DBL3?, and DBL5? domains as the primary targets of opsonizing IgGs for the first time. Our study introduces a new approach to determining the antigenic targets of opsonizing IgGs in phagocytosis assays.
Project description:Bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) are antibodies with two binding sites directed at different antigens, enabling therapeutic strategies not achievable with conventional monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Since bispecific antibodies are regarded as promising therapeutic agents, many different bispecific design modalities have been evaluated, but as many of them are small recombinant fragments, their utility could be limited. For some therapeutic applications, full-size IgGs may be the optimal format. Two challenges should be met to make bispecific IgGs; one is that each heavy chain will only pair with the heavy chain of the second specificity and that homodimerization be prevented. The second is that each heavy chain will only pair with the light chain of its own specificity and not with the light chain of the second specificity. The first solution to the first criterion (knobs into holes, KIH) was presented in 1996 by Paul Carter's group from Genentech. Additional solutions were presented later on. However, until recently, out of >120 published bsAb formats, only a handful of solutions for the second criterion that make it possible to produce a bispecific IgG by a single expressing cell were suggested. We present a solution for the second challenge-correct pairing of heavy and light chains of bispecific IgGs; an engineered (artificial) disulfide bond between the antibodies' variable domains that asymmetrically replaces the natural disulfide bond between CH1 and CL. We name antibodies produced according to this design "BIClonals". Bispecific IgGs where the artificial disulfide bond is placed in the CH1-CL interface are also presented. Briefly, we found that an artificial disulfide bond between VH position 44 to VL position 100 provides for effective and correct H-L chain pairing while also preventing the formation of wrong H-L chain pairs. When the artificial disulfide bond links the CH1 with the CL domain, effective H-L chain pairing also occurs, but in some cases, wrong H-L pairing is not totally prevented. We conclude that H-L chain pairing seems to be driven by VH-VL interfacial interactions that differ between different antibodies, hence, there is no single optimal solution for effective and precise assembly of bispecific IgGs, making it necessary to carefully evaluate the optimal solution for each new antibody.
Project description:The separation and purification of histone H1 from the sperm of the sea-urchin Sphaerechinus granularis is described. Physical studies were used to compare this histone H1 molecule with H1 histones from other species. C.d. and 270 MHz n.m.r. spectroscopy indicate that, despite significant compositional differences from other sea-urchin sperm H1 histones, their secondary and tertiary structures are very similar. A large difference in helicity was, however, found between S. granularis histone H1 and calf thymus histone H1, and their n.m.r. and fluorescence spectra also differ considerably. It is concluded that secondary structure and tertiary structure have not been conserved in the evolution of the H1 histone family.
Project description:Micrococcal-nuclease digestion of rat liver nuclei selectively released mononucleosomes associated with ADP-ribosylated [Caplan, Ord & Stocken (1978) Biochem. J.174, 475-483] histone H1. Two classes of mononucleosome were detected, those that leaked out during digestion and those that were subsequently released by 5mm-sodium phosphate buffer (pH6.8)/0.2mm-NaEDTA. The former, from which histone H1 had been dissociated, contained 140-base-pair-length DNA and core histones;the latter contained core particles and mononucleosomes with histone H1 and 200-base-pair-length DNA. When normal liver nuclei were phosphorylated with [gamma-(32)P]ATP, dissociated histone H1, which could be separated from core particles with Sephadex G-200, showed (32)P uptake. (32)P uptake into histones H2A and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated H3 was appreciable in core particles, but was less evident in nucleosomes still containing histone H1. When [(3)H]-thymidine was given to partially hepatectomized rats in S-phase, 5-10min pulses in animals of over 300g body wt. showed the presence of high-specific-radioactivity DNA in released core particles and mononucleosomes compared with DNA retained in the nuclear pellets. Mononucleosomes from rat livers in S-phase with new, [(3)H]lysine-containing histones, had higher (32)P incorporation in histones H1 and their core histones, than for di- or tri-nucleosomes. Thermal-denaturation properties of control and phosphorylated mononucleosomes and core particles were very similar; removal of histone H1 and non-histone chromosomal proteins in 0.5m-NaCl markedly increased the proportion of DNA ;melting' below 70 degrees C.
Project description:Linker histones play important roles in the genomic organization of mammalian cells. Of the linker histone variants, H1.X shows the most dynamic behavior in the nucleus. Recent research has suggested that the linker histone variants H1.X and H1.0 have different chromosomal binding site preferences. However, it remains unclear how the dynamics and binding site preferences of linker histones are determined. Here, we biochemically demonstrated that the DNA/nucleosome and histone chaperone binding activities of H1.X are significantly lower than those of other linker histones. This explains why H1.X moves more rapidly than other linker histones in vivo Domain swapping between H1.0 and H1.X suggests that the globular domain (GD) and C-terminal domain (CTD) of H1.X independently contribute to the dynamic behavior of H1.X. Our results also suggest that the N-terminal domain (NTD), GD, and CTD cooperatively determine the preferential binding sites, and the contribution of each domain for this determination is different depending on the target genes. We also found that linker histones accumulate in the nucleoli when the nucleosome binding activities of the GDs are weak. Our results contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms of dynamic behaviors, binding site selection, and localization of linker histones.
Project description:The uptake and clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages and other phagocytic cells, a process called efferocytosis, is a major component in the resolution of inflammation. Increased concentrations of extracellular histones are found during acute inflammatory states and appear to contribute to organ system dysfunction and mortality. In these studies, we examined the potential role of histones in modulating efferocytosis. We found that phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils or thymocytes by macrophages was significantly diminished in the presence of histones H3 or H4, but not histone H1. Histone H3 demonstrated direct binding to macrophages, an effect that was diminished by preincubation of macrophages with the opsonins growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) and milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor (EGF) 8 (MFG-E8). Incubation of histone H3 with soluble ?(v)?? integrin and Mer, but not with ?(v)??, diminished its binding to macrophages. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by alveolar macrophages in vivo was diminished in the presence of histone H3. Incubation of histone H3 with activated protein C, a treatment that degrades histones, abrogated its inhibitory effects on efferocytosis under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. The present studies demonstrate that histones have inhibitory effects on efferocytosis, suggesting a new mechanism by which extracellular histones contribute to acute inflammatory processes and tissue injury.