Novel Harmicines with Improved Potency against Plasmodium.
ABSTRACT: Harmicines represent hybrid compounds composed of ?-carboline alkaloid harmine and cinnamic acid derivatives (CADs). In this paper we report the synthesis of amide-type harmicines and the evaluation of their biological activity. N-harmicines 5a-f and O-harmicines 6a-h were prepared by a straightforward synthetic procedure, from harmine-based amines and CADs using standard coupling conditions, 1-[bis(dimethylamino)methylene]-1H-1,2,3-triazolo [4,5-b]pyridinium 3-oxid hexafluorophosphate (HATU) and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (DIEA). Amide-type harmicines exerted remarkable activity against the erythrocytic stage of P. falciparum, in low submicromolar concentrations, which was significantly more pronounced compared to their antiplasmodial activity against the hepatic stages of P. berghei. Furthermore, a cytotoxicity assay against the human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) revealed favorable selectivity indices of the most active harmicines. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated the binding of ligands within the ATP binding site of PfHsp90, while the calculated binding free energies confirmed higher activity of N-harmicines 5 over their O-substituted analogues 6. Amino acids predominantly affecting the binding were identified, which provided guidelines for the further derivatization of the harmine framework towards more efficient agents.
Project description:Previous studies have shown an antimalarial effect of total alkaloids extracted from leaves of Guiera senegalensis from Mali in West Africa. We independently observed that the beta-carboline alkaloid harmine obtained from a natural product library screen inhibited Plasmodium falciparum heat shock protein 90 (PfHsp90) ATP-binding domain. In this study, we confirmed harmine-PfHsp90-specific affinity using surface plasmon resonance analysis (dissociation constant [K(d)] of 40 ?M). In contrast, the related compound harmalol bound human Hsp90 (HsHsp90) (K(d) of 224 ?M) more tightly than PfHsp90 (K(d) of 7,010 ?M). Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that Arg98 in PfHsp90 is essential for harmine selectivity. In keeping with our model indicating that Hsp90 inhibition affords synergistic combinations with existing antimalarials, we demonstrated that harmine potentiates the effect of chloroquine and artemisinin in vitro and in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model. These findings have implications for the development of novel therapeutic combinations that are synergistic with existing antimalarials.
Project description:We have developed matrix pre-coated targets for imaging proteins in thin tissue sections by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Gold covered microscope slides were coated with sinapinic acid (SA) in batches in advance and were shown to be stable for over 6?months when kept in the dark. The sample preparation protocol using these SA pre-coated targets involves treatment with diisopropylethylamine (DIEA)-H2 O vapor, transforming the matrix layer to a viscous ionic liquid. This SA-DIEA ionic liquid layer extracts proteins and other analytes from tissue sections that are thaw mounted to this target. DIEA is removed by the immersion of the target into diluted acetic acid, allowing SA to co-crystallize with extracted analytes directly on the target. Ion images (3-70?kDa) of sections of mouse brain and rat kidney at spatial resolution down to 10?µm were obtained. Use of pre-coated slides greatly reduces sample preparation time for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging while providing high throughput, low cost and high spatial resolution images.
Project description:The selective O-benzylation of 2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridines plays a critical role in organic synthesis of natural products and biological active molecules. Herein we report a novel ternary system of ZnO, ZnCl? and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (DIEA), that is highly effective for selective O-benzylation of 2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridines using abundant substituted benzyl halides and related substituted 2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridines compounds. This process allows access to a variety of O-benzyl products under mild reaction conditions, which are important synthetic intermediates in the protection of functional groups, and represents a new method toward the development for the O-benzylation of 2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridines.
Project description:In this paper, we report the synthesis of novel hybrids 2-14 based on itaconic acid and fluoroaniline, pyridine, indole and quinoline scaffolds. Itaconic acid is a naturally occurring compound with a Michael acceptor moiety, a key structural feature in several anticancer and antiviral drugs, responsible for the covalent binding of a drug to the cysteine residue of a specific protein. Aromatic parts of the hybrids also come from the substances reported as anticancer or antiviral agents. The synthetic route employed to access the amido-ester hybrids 2-13 used monomethyl itaconate or monomethyl itaconyl chloride and corresponding amines as the starting materials. Dimers 14 and 15 with two aminoindole or mefloquine moieties were prepared from itaconic acid and corresponding amino derivative, using standard coupling conditions (HATU/DIEA). All hybrids exerted anticancer effects in vitro against almost all the tumour cell lines that were evaluated (MCF-7, HCT 116, H460, LN-229, Capan-1, DND-41, HL-60, K-562, Z-138). Solid tumour cells were, in general, more responsive than the haematological cancer cells. The MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cell line appeared the most sensitive. Amido-ester 12 with chloroquine core and mefloquine homodimer 15 showed the highest activity with GI50 values between 0.7 and 8.6 µM. In addition, compound 15 also exerted antiviral activity against Zika virus and Coxsackievirus B4 in low micromolar concentrations.
Project description:Platensimycin (PTM), produced by several strains of Streptomyces platensis, is a promising drug lead for infectious diseases and diabetes. The recent pilot-scale production of PTM from S. platensis SB12026 has set the stage for the facile semi-synthesis of a focused library of PTM analogues. In this study, gram-quantity of platensic acid (PTMA) was prepared by the sulfuric acid-catalyzed ethanolysis of PTM, followed by a mild hydrolysis in aqueous lithium hydroxide. Three PTMA esters were also obtained in near quantitative yields in a single step, suggesting a facile route to make PTMA aliphatic esters. 1-[Bis(dimethylamino)methylene]-1H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-b]pyridinium 3-oxid hexafluorophosphate (HATU)-catalyzed coupling of PTMA and 33 aminobenzoates resulted in the synthesis of 28 substituted aminobenzoate analogues of PTM, among which 26 of them were reported for the first time. Several of the PTM analogues showed weak antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Our study supported the potential utility to integrate natural product biosynthetic and semi-synthetic approaches for structure diversification.
Project description:Using a pharmacological inhibitor of Hsp90 in cultured malarial parasite, we have previously implicated Plasmodium falciparum Hsp90 (PfHsp90) as a drug target against malaria. In this study, we have biochemically characterized PfHsp90 in terms of its ATPase activity and interaction with its inhibitor geldanamycin (GA) and evaluated its potential as a drug target in a preclinical mouse model of malaria. In addition, we have explored the potential of Hsp90 inhibitors as drugs for the treatment of Trypanosoma infection in animals. Our studies with full-length PfHsp90 showed it to have the highest ATPase activity of all known Hsp90s; its ATPase activity was 6 times higher than that of human Hsp90. Also, GA brought about more robust inhibition of PfHsp90 ATPase activity as compared with human Hsp90. Mass spectrometric analysis of PfHsp90 expressed in P. falciparum identified a site of acetylation that overlapped with Aha1 and p23 binding domain, suggesting its role in modulating Hsp90 multichaperone complex assembly. Indeed, treatment of P. falciparum cultures with a histone deacetylase inhibitor resulted in a partial dissociation of PfHsp90 complex. Furthermore, we found a well known, semisynthetic Hsp90 inhibitor, namely 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, to be effective in attenuating parasite growth and prolonging survival in a mouse model of malaria. We also characterized GA binding to Hsp90 from another protozoan parasite, namely Trypanosoma evansi. We found 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin to potently inhibit T. evansi growth in a mouse model of trypanosomiasis. In all, our biochemical characterization, drug interaction, and animal studies supported Hsp90 as a drug target and its inhibitor as a potential drug against protozoan diseases.
Project description:In this paper design and synthesis of a scaffold comprising primaquine (PQ) motif and cinnamic acid derivatives (CADs) bound directly (compounds 3a-k) or via a spacer (compounds 7a-k) are reported. In the first series of compounds, PQ and various CADs were connected by amide bonds and in the second series by acylsemicarbazide functional groups built from the PQ amino group, CONHNH spacer and the carbonyl group originating from the CADs. PQ-CAD amides 3a-k were prepared by a simple one-step condensation reaction of PQ with a series of CAD chlorides (method A) or benzotriazolides 2 (method B). The synthesis of acylsemicarbazides 7a-k included activation of PQ with benzotriazole, preparation of PQ-semicarbazide 6 and its condensation with CAD chlorides 4. All synthesized PQ-CAD conjugates were evaluated for their anticancer, antiviral and antioxidative activities. Almost all compounds from series 3 were selective towards the MCF-7 cell line and active at micromolar concentrations. The o-fluoro derivative 3h showed high activity against HeLa, MCF-7 and in particular against the SW 620 cell line, while acylsemicarbazide 7f with a benzodioxole ring and 7c, 7g and especially 7j with methoxy-, chloro- or trifluoromethyl-substituents in the para position showed high selectivity and high inhibitory activity against MCF-7 cell line at micromolar (7c, 7f, 7g) and nanomolar (7j) levels. Acylsemicarbazide derivatives with trifluoromethyl group(s) 7i, 7j and 7k showed specific activity against human coronavirus (229E) at concentrations which did not alter the normal cell morphology. The same compounds exerted the most potent reducing activity in the DPPH test, together with 7d and 7g, while methoxy (compounds 7c-e), benzodioxole (7f), p-Cl (7g) and m-CF? (7i) acylsemicarbazides and amide 3f presented the highest LP inhibition (83%-89%). The dimethoxy derivative 7d was the most potent LOX inhibitor (IC50 = 10 ??). The performed biological tests gave evidence of acylsemicarbazide functional group as superior binding group in PQ-CAD conjugates.
Project description:Harmine is a β-carboline alkaloid. The compound is a potent inhibitor of dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (Dyrk1A), a kinase implicated in Down syndrome. In this study, we show that harmine functions as an ATP-competitive inhibitor against Dyrk1A. Our conclusion is supported by kinetic analysis of harmine inhibition as well as by the characterization of a Dyrk1A mutation conferring significant resistance to harmine. The mutation, V306A, is located next to the highly conserved D307 residue in kinases known to coordinate the phosphate groups of ATP through a Mg²+ ion. The V306A mutation offers harmine resistance by differentially altering Dyrk1A affinity for harmine and ATP. The V306A mutation causes no apparent alteration to Dyrk1A activity except for the reduction in ATP affinity. This deficiency could be fully compensated by supplying ATP with a concentration in the physiological range. Our results reveal that harmine inhibits Dyrk1A activity by interacting with residues in the ATP-binding pocket and displacing ATP. Our results also suggest that harmine will be a good lead compound for further designing of selective ATP-competitive Dyrk1A inhibitors through exploration of the ATP-binding pocket of Dyrk1A.
Project description:Drug resistance, absence of an effective vaccine, and inadequate public health measures are major impediments to controlling Plasmodium falciparum malaria worldwide. The development of antimalarials to which resistance is less likely is paramount. To this end, we have exploited the chaperone function of P. falciparum Hsp90 (PfHsp90) that serves to facilitate the expression of resistance determinants.The affinity and activity of a purine analogue Hsp90 inhibitor (PU-H71) on PfHsp90 was determined using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) studies and an ATPase activity assay, respectively. In vitro, antimalarial activity was quantified using flow cytometry. Interactors of PfHsp90 were determined by LC-MS/MS. In vivo studies were conducted using the Plasmodium berghei infection mouse model.PU-H71 exhibited antimalarial activity in the nanomolar range, displayed synergistic activity with chloroquine in vitro. Affinity studies reveal that the PfHsp90 interacts either directly or indirectly with the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) responsible for chloroquine resistance. PU-H71 synergized with chloroquine in the P.berghei mouse model of malaria to reduce parasitemia and improve survival.We propose that the interaction of PfHsp90 with PfCRT may account for the observed antimalarial synergy and that PU-H71 is an effective adjunct for combination therapy.
Project description:In this article a series of divalent and trivalent carbohydrate mimetics on the basis of an enantiopure aminopyran and of serinol is described. These aminopolyols are connected by amide bonds to carboxylic acid derived spacer units either by Schotten-Baumann acylation or by coupling employing HATU as reagent. The O-sulfation employing the SO3·DMF complex was optimized. It was crucial to follow this process by 700 MHz (1)H NMR spectroscopy to ensure full conversion and to use a refined neutralization and purification protocol. Many of the compounds could not be tested as L-selectin inhibitor by SPR due to their insolubility in water, nevertheless, a divalent and a trivalent amide showed surprisingly good activities with IC50 values in the low micromolar range.