USP52 regulates DNA end resection and chemosensitivity through removing inhibitory ubiquitination from CtIP.
ABSTRACT: Human C-terminal binding protein (CtBP)-interacting protein (CtIP) is a central regulator to initiate DNA end resection and homologous recombination (HR). Several studies have shown that post-translational modifications control the activity or expression of CtIP. However, it remains unclear whether and how cells restrain CtIP activity in unstressed cells and activate CtIP when needed. Here, we identify that USP52 directly interacts with and deubiquitinates CtIP, thereby promoting DNA end resection and HR. Mechanistically, USP52 removes the ubiquitination of CtIP to facilitate the phosphorylation and activation of CtIP at Thr-847. In addition, USP52 is phosphorylated by ATM at Ser-1003 after DNA damage, which enhances the catalytic activity of USP52. Furthermore, depletion of USP52 sensitizes cells to PARP inhibition in a CtIP-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, our findings reveal the key role of USP52 and the regulatory complexity of CtIP deubiquitination in DNA repair.
Project description:DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most severe type of DNA damage and are primarily repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) in the G1 and S/G2 phase, respectively. Although CtBP-interacting protein (CtIP) is crucial in DNA end resection during HR following DSBs, little is known about how CtIP levels increase in an S phase-specific manner. Here, we show that Serpine mRNA binding protein 1 (SERBP1) regulates CtIP expression at the translational level in S phase. In response to camptothecin-mediated DNA DSBs, CHK1 and RPA2 phosphorylation, which are hallmarks of HR activation, was abrogated in SERBP1-depleted cells. We identified CtIP mRNA as a binding target of SERBP1 using RNA immunoprecipitation-coupled RNA sequencing, and confirmed SERBP1 binding to CtIP mRNA in S phase. SERBP1 depletion resulted in reduction of polysome-associated CtIP mRNA and concomitant loss of CtIP expression in S phase. These effects were reversed by reconstituting cells with wild-type SERBP1, but not by SERBP1 ?RGG, an RNA binding defective mutant, suggesting regulation of CtIP translation by SERBP1 association with CtIP mRNA. These results indicate that SERBP1 affects HR-mediated DNA repair in response to DNA DSBs by regulation of CtIP translation in S phase.
Project description:Chromosomal rearrangements often occur at genomic loci with DNA secondary structures, such as common fragile sites (CFSs) and palindromic repeats. We developed assays in mammalian cells that revealed CFS-derived AT-rich sequences and inverted Alu repeats (Alu-IRs) are mitotic recombination hotspots, requiring the repair functions of carboxy-terminal binding protein (CtBP)-interacting protein (CtIP) and the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex (MRN). We also identified an endonuclease activity of CtIP that is dispensable for end resection and homologous recombination (HR) at I-SceI-generated "clean" double-strand breaks (DSBs) but is required for repair of DSBs occurring at CFS-derived AT-rich sequences. In addition, CtIP nuclease-defective mutants are impaired in Alu-IRs-induced mitotic recombination. These studies suggest that an end resection-independent CtIP function is important for processing DSB ends with secondary structures to promote HR. Furthermore, our studies uncover an important role of MRN, CtIP, and their associated nuclease activities in protecting CFSs in mammalian cells.
Project description:SIRT6 belongs to the sirtuin family of protein lysine deacetylases, which regulate aging and genome stability. We found that human SIRT6 has a role in promoting DNA end resection, a crucial step in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination. SIRT6 depletion impaired the accumulation of replication protein A and single-stranded DNA at DNA damage sites, reduced rates of homologous recombination, and sensitized cells to DSB-inducing agents. We identified the DSB resection protein CtIP [C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) interacting protein] as a SIRT6 interaction partner and showed that SIRT6-dependent CtIP deacetylation promotes resection. A nonacetylatable CtIP mutant alleviated the effect of SIRT6 depletion on resection, thus identifying CtIP as a key substrate by which SIRT6 facilitates DSB processing and homologous recombination. These findings further clarify how SIRT6 promotes genome stability.
Project description:The pleiotropic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) plays a role in homologous recombination (HR) repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). However, the precise mechanistic role of CTCF in HR remains largely unclear. Here, we show that CTCF engages in DNA end resection, which is the initial, crucial step in HR, through its interactions with MRE11 and CtIP. Depletion of CTCF profoundly impairs HR and attenuates CtIP recruitment at DSBs. CTCF physically interacts with MRE11 and CtIP and promotes CtIP recruitment to sites of DNA damage. Subsequently, CTCF facilitates DNA end resection to allow HR, in conjunction with MRE11-CtIP. Notably, the zinc finger domain of CTCF binds to both MRE11 and CtIP and enables proficient CtIP recruitment, DNA end resection, and HR. The N-terminus of CTCF is able to bind to only MRE11 and its C-terminus is incapable of binding to MRE11 and CtIP, thereby resulting in compromised CtIP recruitment, DSB resection, and HR. Overall, this suggests an important function of CTCF in DNA end resection through the recruitment of CtIP at DSBs. Collectively, our findings identify a critical role of CTCF at the first control point in selecting the HR repair pathway
Project description:The pleiotropic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) plays a role in homologous recombination (HR) repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). However, the precise mechanistic role of CTCF in HR remains largely unclear. Here, we show that CTCF engages in DNA end resection, which is the initial, crucial step in HR, through its interactions with MRE11 and CtIP. Depletion of CTCF profoundly impairs HR and attenuates CtIP recruitment at DSBs. CTCF physically interacts with MRE11 and CtIP and promotes CtIP recruitment to sites of DNA damage. Subsequently, CTCF facilitates DNA end resection to allow HR, in conjunction with MRE11-CtIP. Notably, the zinc finger domain of CTCF binds to both MRE11 and CtIP and enables proficient CtIP recruitment, DNA end resection and HR. The N-terminus of CTCF is able to bind to only MRE11 and its C-terminus is incapable of binding to MRE11 and CtIP, thereby resulting in compromised CtIP recruitment, DSB resection and HR. Overall, this suggests an important function of CTCF in DNA end resection through the recruitment of CtIP at DSBs. Collectively, our findings identify a critical role of CTCF at the first control point in selecting the HR repair pathway.
Project description:Topoisomerases class II (topoII) cleave and re-ligate the DNA double helix to allow the passage of an intact DNA strand through it. Chemotherapeutic drugs such as etoposide target topoII, interfere with the normal enzymatic cleavage/re-ligation reaction and create a DNA double-strand break (DSB) with the enzyme covalently bound to the 5'-end of the DNA. Such DSBs are repaired by one of the two major DSB repair pathways, non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination. However, prior to repair, the covalently bound topoII needs to be removed from the DNA end, a process requiring the MRX complex and ctp1 in fission yeast. CtIP, the mammalian ortholog of ctp1, is known to promote homologous recombination by resecting DSB ends. Here, we show that human cells arrested in G0/G1 repair etoposide-induced DSBs by NHEJ and, surprisingly, require the MRN complex (the ortholog of MRX) and CtIP. CtIP's function for repairing etoposide-induced DSBs by NHEJ in G0/G1 requires the Thr-847 but not the Ser-327 phosphorylation site, both of which are needed for resection during HR. This finding establishes that CtIP promotes NHEJ of etoposide-induced DSBs during G0/G1 phase with an end-processing function that is distinct to its resection function.
Project description:In G(0) and G(1), DNA double strand breaks are repaired by nonhomologous end joining, whereas in S and G(2), they are also repaired by homologous recombination. The human CtIP protein controls double strand break (DSB) resection, an event that occurs effectively only in S/G(2) and that promotes homologous recombination but not non-homologous end joining. Here, we mutate a highly conserved cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) target motif in CtIP and reveal that mutating Thr-847 to Ala impairs resection, whereas mutating it to Glu to mimic constitutive phosphorylation does not. Moreover, we show that unlike cells expressing wild-type CtIP, cells expressing the Thr-to-Glu mutant resect DSBs even after CDK inhibition. Finally, we establish that Thr-847 mutations to either Ala or Glu affect DSB repair efficiency, cause hypersensitivity toward DSB-generating agents, and affect the frequency and nature of radiation-induced chromosomal rearrangements. These results suggest that CDK-mediated control of resection in human cells operates by mechanisms similar to those recently established in yeast.
Project description:The carboxy-terminal binding protein (CtBP)-interacting protein (CtIP) is known to function in 5' strand resection during homologous recombination, similar to the budding yeast Sae2 protein, but its role in this process is unclear. Here, we characterize recombinant human CtIP and find that it exhibits 5' flap endonuclease activity on branched DNA structures, independent of the MRN complex. Phosphorylation of CtIP at known damage-dependent sites and other sites is essential for its catalytic activity, although the S327 and T847 phosphorylation sites are dispensable. A catalytic mutant of CtIP that is deficient in endonuclease activity exhibits wild-type levels of homologous recombination at restriction enzyme-generated breaks but is deficient in processing topoisomerase adducts and radiation-induced breaks in human cells, suggesting that the nuclease activity of CtIP is specifically required for the removal of DNA adducts at sites of DNA breaks.
Project description:In response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), cells sense the DNA lesions and then activate the protein kinase ATM. Subsequent DSB resection produces RPA-coated ssDNA that is essential for activation of the DNA damage checkpoint and DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR). However, the biochemical mechanism underlying the transition from DSB sensing to resection remains unclear. Using Xenopus egg extracts and human cells, we show that the tumor suppressor protein CtIP plays a critical role in this transition. We find that CtIP translocates to DSBs, a process dependent on the DSB sensor complex Mre11-Rad50-NBS1, the kinase activity of ATM, and a direct DNA-binding motif in CtIP, and then promotes DSB resection. Thus, CtIP facilitates the transition from DSB sensing to processing: it does so by binding to the DNA at DSBs after DSB sensing and ATM activation and then promoting DNA resection, leading to checkpoint activation and HR.
Project description:Human CtIP is a decisive factor in DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice by enabling DNA-end resection, the first step that differentiates homologous recombination (HR) from non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). To coordinate appropriate and timely execution of DNA-end resection, CtIP function is tightly controlled by multiple protein-protein interactions and post-translational modifications. Here, we identify the Cullin3 E3 ligase substrate adaptor Kelch-like protein 15 (KLHL15) as a new interaction partner of CtIP and show that KLHL15 promotes CtIP protein turnover via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. A tripeptide motif (FRY) conserved across vertebrate CtIP proteins is essential for KLHL15-binding; its mutation blocks KLHL15-dependent CtIP ubiquitination and degradation. Consequently, DNA-end resection is strongly attenuated in cells overexpressing KLHL15 but amplified in cells either expressing a CtIP-FRY mutant or lacking KLHL15, thus impacting the balance between HR and NHEJ. Collectively, our findings underline the key importance and high complexity of CtIP modulation for genome integrity.