Molecular Surgery: Proteomics of a Rare Genetic Disease Gives Insight into Common Causes of Blindness.
ABSTRACT: Rare diseases are an emerging global health priority. Although individually rare, the prevalence of rare "orphan" diseases is high, affecting approximately 300 million people worldwide. Treatments for these conditions are often inadequate, leaving the disease to progress unabated. Here, we review the clinical features and pathophysiology of neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (NIV), a rare inflammatory retinal disease caused by mutations in the CAPN5 gene. Although the prevalence of NIV is low (1 in 1,000,000 people), the disease mimics more common causes of blindness (e.g. uveitis, retinitis pigmentosa, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and proliferative vitreoretinopathy) at distinct clinical stages. There is no cure for NIV to date. We highlight how personalized proteomics helped identify potential stage-specific biomarkers and drug targets in liquid vitreous biopsies. The NIV vitreous proteome revealed enrichment of molecular pathways associated with common retinal pathologies and implicated superior targets for therapeutic drug repositioning. In addition, we review our pipeline for collecting, storing, and analyzing ophthalmic surgical samples. This approach can be adapted to treat a variety of rare genetic diseases.
Project description:CAPN5 Neovascular Inflammatory Vitreoretinopathy (CAPN5-NIV; OMIM 193235) is a poorly-understood rare, progressive inflammatory intraocular disease with limited therapeutic options. To profile disease effector proteins in CAPN5-NIV patient vitreous, liquid vitreous biopsies were collected from two groups: eyes from control subjects (n?=?4) with idiopathic macular holes (IMH) and eyes from test subjects (n?=?12) with different stages of CAPN5-NIV. Samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Protein expression changes were evaluated by principal component analysis, 1-way ANOVA (significant p-value?<?0.05), hierarchical clustering, gene ontology, and pathway representation. There were 216 differentially-expressed proteins (between CAPN5-NIV and control vitreous), including those unique to and abundant in each clinical stage. Gene ontology analysis revealed decreased synaptic signaling proteins in CAPN5-NIV vitreous compared to controls. Pathway analysis revealed that inflammatory mediators of the acute phase response and the complement cascade were highly-represented. The CAPN5-NIV vitreous proteome displayed characteristic enrichment of proteins and pathways previously-associated with non-infectious posterior uveitis, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). This study expands our knowledge of affected molecular pathways in CAPN5-NIV using unbiased, shotgun proteomic analysis rather than targeted detection platforms. The high-levels and representation of acute phase response proteins suggests a functional role for the innate immune system in CAPN5-NIV pathogenesis.
Project description:A single amino acid mutation near the active site of the CAPN5 protease was linked to the inherited blinding disorder, autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV, OMIM #193235). In homology modeling with other calpains, this R243L CAPN5 mutation was situated in a mobile loop that gates substrate access to the calcium-regulated active site. In in vitro activity assays, the mutation increased calpain protease activity and made it far more active at low concentrations of calcium. To test whether the disease allele could yield an animal model of ADNIV, we created transgenic mice expressing human (h) CAPN5(R243L) only in the retina. The resulting hCAPN5(R243L) transgenic mice developed a phenotype consistent with human uveitis and ADNIV, at the clinical, histological and molecular levels. The fundus of hCAPN5(R243L) mice showed enhanced autofluorescence (AF) and pigment changes indicative of reactive retinal pigment epithelial cells and photoreceptor degeneration. Electroretinography showed mutant mouse eyes had a selective loss of the b-wave indicating an inner-retina signaling defect. Histological analysis of mutant mouse eyes showed protein extravasation from dilated vessels into the anterior chamber and vitreous, vitreous inflammation, vitreous and retinal fibrosis and retinal degeneration. Analysis of gene expression changes in the hCAPN5(R243L) mouse retina showed upregulation of several markers, including members of the Toll-like receptor pathway, chemokines and cytokines, indicative of both an innate and adaptive immune response. Since many forms of uveitis share phenotypic characteristics of ADNIV, this mouse offers a model with therapeutic testing utility for ADNIV and uveitis patients.
Project description:Autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV) is an autoimmune condition of the eye that sequentially mimics uveitis, retinitis pigmentosa, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy as it progresses to complete blindness. We identified two different missense mutations in the CAPN5 gene in three ADNIV kindreds. CAPN5 encodes calpain-5, a calcium-activated cysteine protease that is expressed in retinal photoreceptor cells. Both mutations cause mislocalization from the cell membrane to the cytosol, and structural modeling reveals that both mutations lie within a calcium-sensitive domain near the active site. CAPN5 is only the second member of the large calpain gene family to cause a human Mendelian disorder, and this is the first report of a specific molecular cause for autoimmune eye disease. Further investigation of these mutations is likely to provide insight into the pathophysiologic mechanisms of common diseases ranging from autoimmune disorders to diabetic retinopathy.
Project description:Purpose:To characterize the phenotype of patients with mild calpain-5 Neovascular Inflammatory Vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV). Observations:The CAPN5 p.R243L mutation is typically associated with onset in the twenties and severe, progressive uveitis, retinal neovascularization, and intraocular fibrosis. Two subjects with this CAPN5 variant only showed mild peripheral retinal pigmentary degeneration and loss of the ERG b-wave at age 45 and 69, respectively, without signs of uveitis or neovascularization. Conclusions/Importance:The phenotypic penetrance of a specific variant in CAPN5-vitreoretinopathy may vary significantly in severity. Patients with pigmentary retinal dystrophy may consider CAPN5 gene testing.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To introduce a hybrid wide-angle viewing-endoscopic vitrectomy, which we have reported, using a 3D visualization system developed recently.<h4>Subjects and methods</h4>We report a single center, retrospective, consecutive surgical case series of 113 eyes that underwent 25 G vitrectomy (rhegmatogenous retinal detachment or proliferative vitreoretinopathy, 49 eyes; epiretinal membrane, 18 eyes; proliferative diabetic retinopathy, 17 eyes; vitreous opacity or vitreous hemorrhage, 11 eyes; macular hole, 11 eyes; vitreomacular traction syndrome, 4 eyes; and luxation of intraocular lens, 3 eyes).<h4>Results</h4>This system was successfully used to perform hybrid vitrectomy in the difficult cases, such as proliferative vitreoretinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Hybrid wide-angle viewing-endoscopic vitrectomy using a 3D visualization system appears to be a valuable and promising method for managing various types of vitreo-retinal disease.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Valuable insights into the complex process of retinal vascular development can be gained using models with abnormal retinal vasculature. Two such models are the recently described mouse lines with mutations in Lama1, an important component of the retinal internal limiting membrane (ILM). These mutants have a persistence of the fetal vasculature of vitreous (FVV) but lack a primary retinal vascular plexus. The present study provides a detailed analysis of astrocyte and vascular development in these Lama1 mutants.<h4>Results</h4>Although astrocytes and blood vessels initially migrate into Lama1 mutant retinas, both traverse the peripapillary ILM into the vitreous by P3. Once in the vitreous, blood vessels anastomose with vessels of the vasa hyaloidea propria, part of the FVV, and eventually re-enter the retina where they dive to form the inner and outer retinal capillary networks. Astrocytes continue proliferating within the vitreous to form a dense mesh that resembles epiretinal membranes associated with persistent fetal vasculature and proliferative vitreoretinopathy.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Lama1 and a fully intact ILM are required for normal retinal vascular development. Mutations in Lama1 allow developing retinal vessels to enter the vitreous where they anastomose with vessels of the hyaloid system which persist and expand. Together, these vessels branch into the retina to form fairly normal inner retinal vascular capillary plexi. The Lama1 mutants described in this report are potential models for studying the human conditions persistent fetal vasculature and proliferative vitreoretinopathy.
Project description:CAPN5 mutations have been linked to autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV), a blinding autoimmune eye disease. Here, we link a new CAPN5 mutation to ADNIV and model the three-dimensional structure of the resulting mutant protein. In our study, a kindred with inflammatory vitreoretinopathy was evaluated by clinical eye examinations, DNA sequencing, and protein structural modeling to investigate the disease-causing mutation. Two daughters of an affected mother demonstrated symptoms of stage III ADNIV, with posterior uveitis, cystoid macular edema, intraocular fibrosis, retinal neovascularization, retinal degeneration, and cataract. The women also harbored a novel guanine to thymine (c.750G>T, p.Lys250Asn) missense mutation in exon 6 of CAPN5, a gene that encodes a calcium-activated cysteine protease, calpain-5. Modeling based on the structures of all known calpains revealed the mutation falls within a calcium-sensitive flexible gating loop that controls access to the catalytic groove. Three-dimensional modeling placed the new mutation in a region adjacent to two previously identified disease-causing mutations, all three of which likely disrupt hydrogen bonding within the gating loop, yielding a CAPN5 with altered enzymatic activity. This is the third case of a CAPN5 mutation leading to inherited uveitis and neovascular vitreoretinopathy, suggesting patients with ADNIV features should be tested for CAPN5 mutations. Structural modeling of novel variants can be used to support mechanistic consequences of the disease-causing variants.
Project description:PURPOSE:To determine the preoperative characteristics, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and outcomes of eyes with posteriorly inserted vitreous base. METHODS:In this retrospective, observational, consecutive case series at 2 academic centers, 37 patients were studied who had posteriorly inserted vitreous base noted during vitrectomy. Posteriorly inserted vitreous base was defined as the insertion of the posterior hyaloid membrane being located posterior to the vortex veins. Fifteen eyes were analyzed in a histopathologic study of donor eyes to determine the average distance of the ora serrata from the vortex veins as this distance is uncertain. RESULTS:Posteriorly inserted vitreous base was identified during vitrectomy in 31 eyes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (84%), 4 with macular hole (11%), 1 with vitreous hemorrhage, and 1 with epiretinal membrane. Adjunctive buckle was used in 24%; 54% had 360° laser. Average number of tears seen preoperatively in those with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment was 3.1. Thirty percent had new breaks identified intraoperatively. Forty-one percent had lattice degeneration; new breaks were found in 40% of eyes with lattice. Thirteen percent of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments developed proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Average distance from the ora serrata to the vortex veins was 7.6 mm. CONCLUSION:Any eye undergoing vitrectomy may have posteriorly inserted vitreous base, but those with a high number of retinal breaks and lattice near the equator may be at highest risk. Redetachment and proliferative vitreoretinopathy still occur despite knowledge of the disorder and adjuvant treatments.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by post-transcriptional inhibition of mRNA translation. Dysregulation of miRNAs, including circulating miRNAs, has been reported to play an important role in the development of various diseases, including fibrotic diseases. Aberrant expression of miRNAs in the vitreous humor of vitreoretinal diseased eyes has been reported. However, the expression pattern of miRNAs present in the vitreous humor of proliferative vitreoretinal disease (PVD) patients, including proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), remains unknown. To investigate the factors important for the development of PVD, we characterized the miRNAs present in the vitreous humor of PVD patients and analyzed the expression profiles of 377 miRNAs using quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based miRNA arrays. The expression of a specific subset of miRNAs, previously reported to be associated with the development of angiogenesis and fibrosis, was significantly altered in the vitreous of PVD patients. Among these miRNAs, we identified miR-21 as a candidate fibrotic miRNA with an important role in the pathogenesis of PVD. Increased miR-21 levels in the vitreous were associated with retinal fibrosis, including PVR and PDR. Because epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPECs) plays a critical role in retinal fibrosis, the expression of miR-21 in human RPECs was determined. Its expression in RPECs was induced by transforming growth factor-?, a key growth factor involved in fibrogenesis, and was enhanced by high glucose culture conditions, suggesting that miR-21 expression positively correlates with disease progression. Gain- and loss-of-function studies revealed that miR-21 promoted cell proliferation and migration of ARPE-19 cells without affecting EMT-related gene expression. Together, our studies have identified miR-21 as a potential disease-modifying miRNA in the vitreous humor that is involved in the development of retinal fibrosis and may be a novel marker of PVD.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), which is regulated by growth factors and cytokines, is the leading cause of failure in vitreoretinal surgery. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of the human serum and vitreous inflammation-related factors in the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). METHODS:Blood and vitreous samples were obtained from patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy. Inflammation-related factors were detected using an immunology multiplex assay on a Luminex® xMAP® platform. Patients with PVR and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) were compared with macular hole (MH) or epiretinal membrane (ERM) patients without any other ocular or systemic disease. RESULTS:Thirty-six serum samples and 34 vitreous samples were obtained. Thirty-one different growth factors and cytokines were detected in serum samples. However, none of the circulating growth factors and cytokines were found to be different from the controls. Ten different growth factors and cytokines were measured in the vitreous samples. The concentration levels of PDGF-AA, TGF-?, VEGF, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF? were found to have significantly increased in the vitreous of PVR patients. CONCLUSION:Our study found that none of the circulating inflammation-related factors were changed in PVR or RRD patients, indicating the absence of a system inflammatory biomarkers to predict the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy. As a supplement to previous research, the concentrations of PDGF-AA, TGF-?, VEGF, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF? were significantly upregulated in the vitreous of PVR patients. These factors should be considered for preventing PVR.