Open Full-Thickness Quadriceps Tendon Autograft Harvest With Repair for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.
ABSTRACT: Historically, one of the most common graft choices for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in the pediatric population has been the hamstring autograft. Although pediatric ACL reconstructions with a hamstring autograft have allowed a majority of children and adolescents to return to athletics, it has been reported that anywhere between 6% and 38% of these patients will go on to experience subsequent graft rupture. The quadriceps tendon autograft is an alternative to the hamstring tendon autograft that demonstrates superior preliminary outcomes, and we currently recommend it for skeletally immature patients undergoing primary and revision ACL reconstruction. This paper aims to describe our technique for an open full-thickness quadriceps tendon harvest with repair.
Project description:Growing participation in youth athletics has resulted in increased numbers of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in skeletally immature patients. Use of autogenous graft material has been associated with improved graft survival. However, pediatric patients sometimes possess hamstring tendons that produce smaller-diameter grafts than those prepared with adult autogenous materials. Smaller-diameter grafts may predispose younger patients to graft failure. We describe a technique that increases the diameter of the ACL construct through the use of an 8-strand autologous hamstring tendon graft. The 8-strand ACL autograft is commonly used in all-inside ACL reconstruction surgery.
Project description:Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common among adolescent athletes and are rising with increased participation in higher level athletics at earlier ages. In these young patients, often with open physes, soft tissue grafts continue to be the primary graft choice for ACL reconstruction. Reinjury continues to be a concern in this high-risk age group, with failure rates 2 to 3 times higher than in adults. Recently, primary ACL reconstruction with suture tape augmentation/reinforcement has been described in both hamstring autografts and allografts. Purported advantages include protection of the graft during the revascularization and remodeling phase of incorporation. This Technical Note details a surgical technique of independent suture tape reinforcement during primary all soft tissue quadriceps tendon autograft ACL reconstruction using an all-inside technique.
Project description:Hamstring tendon autograft remains a popular graft choice for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Although there are a variety of autograft and allograft options available for ACL reconstruction, advantages of hamstring tendon autografts include decreased postoperative knee pain and an overall easier surgical recovery compared with bone patellar tendon bone autograft. In addition, 4-stranded (quadruple) hamstring grafts are among the strongest grafts biomechanically (at time equals zero). Although the technique of hamstring autograft harvest is relatively straightforward, it is critical to pay attention to several technical steps to avoid iatrogenic neurovascular damage as well as to avoid premature amputation of the graft while using a tendon stripper. In this Technical Note, we describe a technique of hamstring autograft harvest for ACL reconstruction for a quadruple (4-strand) hamstring graft using the gracilis and semitendinosus tendons.
Project description:Despite technical advances in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery, there remains a need to improve postoperative outcomes with respect to graft failure rates. Recently, it has been shown that combined ACL-anterolateral ligament (ALL) reconstruction (using a graft composed of a tripled semitendinosus and single-strand gracilis tendon) is associated with a significant reduction in graft rupture rates compared with isolated ACL reconstruction. It is recognized that the hamstring tendons are not always available (revision scenario) or are not always the primary ACL graft choice. Some surgeons prefer to use quadriceps tendon ACL grafts because of the suggestion that these grafts may be associated with equal or better functional scores. However, if surgeons wish to try to reduce the risk of graft failure by performing an ALL reconstruction, either a combined reconstruction or the use of an independent ALL graft, with a separate femoral socket, could be considered. The disadvantage of an independently performed extra-articular procedure is the risk of femoral socket collision with the femoral ACL tunnel. This Technical Note therefore describes the use of a combined ACL-ALL reconstruction using quadriceps tendon autograft (ACL graft), gracilis allograft (ALL graft), and a single femoral tunnel.
Project description:Conventional single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction cannot improve the rotational stability of the knee. Traditional double-bundle ACL reconstruction requires is demanding, complex, time- and implant consuming, and associated with a high incidence of complications. Double-bundle ACL reconstruction using a free quadriceps tendon autograft through 3 independent tunnels provides some advantage, but the antegrade graft passage, tibial tunnel confluence, and graft site morbidity represent disadvantages. This Technical Note describes a modification of double-bundle ACL reconstruction using the hamstring tendon autograft through a single branched tibial tunnel and a single femoral tunnel using 2 interference screws (Arthrex, Naples, FL). The gracilis tendon autograft is passed through tibial tunnel stem to the posterolateral tibial tunnel branch to the posterolateral position in the femoral tunnel. The semitendinosus tendon autograft is passed through the tibial tunnel stem to the anteromedial tibial tunnel branch to the anteromedial position in the femoral tunnel. Both grafts are fixed by 2 interference screws: 1 at the femoral tunnel and 1 at the tibial tunnel stem with the knee at 20° flexion.
Project description:Combined anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries are the most common type of combined ligamentous injury of the knee. The optimal treatment for these combined injuries is controversial. Combined ACL and MCL-posterior oblique ligament (POL) reconstruction avoids late anteromedial rotatory instability and chronic valgus instability of the knee and decreases the increased stress on the ACL graft. Graft choice (hamstring tendon autograft, quadriceps bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft, or Achilles tendon allograft) and anatomic restoration of the medial and posteromedial corner of the knee are challenges of this combined reconstruction. This article describes a technique that allows combined ACL and MCL-POL reconstruction. The hamstring tendons from the contralateral limb are tripled and used as the ACL graft. The gracilis tendon from the ipsilateral limb is doubled and used as the MCL-POL graft. The semitendinosus tendon of the ipsilateral limb is preserved. After ACL reconstruction, the MCL-POL graft is suspended on the ACL graft at the distal end of the tibial tunnel and the graft limbs are used for open reconstruction of the MCL and POL. Three interference screws (Arthrex, Naples, FL) and 1 metal staple are used for graft fixation of this combined reconstruction.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Bone-patellar tendon-bone (bone-tendon-bone) and four-strand hamstring tendon grafts (hamstring) are the most commonly utilized autografts for primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Existing clinical trials, registry studies, and meta-analyses offer conflicting opinions regarding the most favorable graft choice.<h4>Questions/purposes</h4>Which graft type for ACL reconstruction (bone-tendon-bone or hamstring) has a higher risk of (1) graft rupture and/or (2) graft laxity?<h4>Methods</h4>We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective cohort studies, and high-quality national registry studies to compare the outcomes of primary ACL reconstruction with bone-tendon-bone autograft or hamstring autograft. Studies that compared these graft types were identified through a comprehensive search of electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library). Two independent reviewers utilized the Jadad scale for RCT study quality and the Modified Coleman Methodology Score for prospective comparative and registry study quality. The included studies were analyzed for the primary outcome measure of graft rupture with or without revision ACL surgery. In surviving grafts, secondary outcomes of graft laxity were quantified by KT1000/2000™ testing, a positive pivot shift test, and a positive Lachman test. Meta-analysis was performed with Review Manager. A total of 47,613 ACL reconstructions (39,768 bone-tendon-bone and 7845 hamstring) from 14 RCTs, 10 prospective comparative studies, and one high-quality national registry study were included in this meta-analysis. Mean age was 28 years in both groups. Sixty-three percent of patients in the bone-tendon-bone cohort were men versus 57% of patients in the hamstring cohort. Mean followup was 68 ± 55 months.<h4>Results</h4>Two hundred twelve of 7560 (2.80%) bone-tendon-bone grafts ruptured compared with 1123 of 39,510 (2.84%) in the hamstring group (odds ratio = 0.83, 95% confidence interval, 0.72-0.96; p = 0.01). The number needed to treat analysis found that 235 patients would need to be treated with a bone-tendon-bone graft over a hamstring tendon graft to prevent one graft rupture. Instrumented laxity analysis showed that 22% (318 of 1433) of patients in the bone-tendon-bone group had laxity compared with 18% (869 of 4783) in the hamstring tendon group (odds ratio = 0.86; p = 0.16). Pivot shift analysis showed a positive pivot shift in 19% (291 of 1508) of the bone-tendon-bone group compared with 17% (844 of 5062) in the hamstring group (odds ratio = 0.89; p = 0.51). Lachman testing showed a positive Lachman in 25% (71 of 280) of patients receiving bone-tendon-bone grafts compared with 25% (73 of 288) in the hamstring group (odds ratio = 0.96; p = 0.84).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In this meta-analysis of short- to mid-term followup after primary ACL reconstruction, hamstring autografts failed at a higher rate than bone-tendon-bone autografts. However, failure rates were low in each group, the difference observed was small, and we observed few differences between graft types in terms of laxity. Both graft types remain viable options for primary ACL reconstruction, and the difference in failure rate should be one part of a larger conversation with each individual patient about graft selection that should also include potential differences in donor site morbidity, complication rates, and patient-reported outcome measures. Continued prospective collection of patient data will be important going forward as we attempt to further characterize the potential differences in outcomes attributable to graft selection.<h4>Level of evidence</h4>Level III, therapeutic study.
Project description:All-inside anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has recently gained popularity, in part because of its bone-sparing socket preparation and reported lower pain levels after surgery. However, because this technique uses suture loops and cortical suspension buttons for graft fixation, it has mostly been limited to looped graft constructs (e.g., hamstring autograft, peroneus longus allograft). Quadriceps tendon autograft offers several advantages in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction but, until recently, has not been compatible with suture-loop and cortical suspensory fixation. We describe a technique that allows a relatively short (<75 mm) quadriceps tendon autograft (without bone block) to be used with established all-inside anatomic techniques.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>The use of implant in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has been associated with several drawbacks including graft injury, implant osteolysis, implant migration and soft tissue irritation. Implant-free ACL reconstruction surgery offers additional benefits of cost-effective, improved graft incorporation and ease of revision surgery. Our study aimed to compare the functional outcome of ACL reconstruction by using bone-patellar tendon autograft with press-fit fixation technique and hamstring autografts with implant.<h4>Methods</h4>A prospective cohort study design was used. Between March 2013 and March 2014, 12 patients underwent patella tendon-bone graft fixated by press-fit fixation technique (implant-free), while 24 patients underwent ACL reconstruction using implant-fixated hamstring tendon graft. Objective functional outcome was measured by using rolimeter, and subjective functional outcome was measured according to the functional score of IKDC, Tegner-Lysholm and KOOS.<h4>Results</h4>Both techniques have shown no significant difference in terms of functional outcome, whether assessed by rolimeter measurement, IKDC score, Tegner-Lysholm, KOOS score between implant group and implant-free group, preoperatively and postoperatively.<h4>Discussion</h4>Our study results are in line with several other studies with various follow-up time and systematic review. With the right technique, graft harvesting of patella tendon-tibial tuberosity bone block can be successfully performed, and associated donor site morbidity can be avoided.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Patients who underwent ACL reconstruction using implant-free technique by press-fit fixation had comparable outcome with ACL reconstruction with implant, objectively and subjectively. This technique should be further revisited and reevaluated.
Project description:We present a technique for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using hamstring tendon autograft with preserved tibial insertions. The tendons, harvested with an open-ended tendon stripper while their tibial insertions are preserved, are looped around to prepare a quadrupled graft. The femoral tunnel is drilled independently through a transportal technique, whereas the tibial tunnel is drilled in a standard manner. The length of the quadrupled graft and loop of the RetroButton is adjusted so that it matches the calculated length of both tunnels and the intra-articular part of the proposed ACL graft. After the RetroButton is flipped, the graft is manually tensioned with maximal stretch on the free end, which is then sutured to the other end with preserved insertions. We propose that preserving the insertions is more biological and may provide better proprioception. The technique eliminates the need for a tibial-side fixation device, thus reducing the cost of surgery. Furthermore, tibial-side fixation of the free graft is the weakest link in the overall stiffness of the reconstructed ACL, and this technique circumvents this problem. Postoperative mechanical stability and functional outcome with this technique need to be explored and compared with those of ACL reconstruction using free hamstring autograft.