Neurite Outgrowth-Promoting Activity of Compounds in PC12 Cells from Sunflower Seeds.
ABSTRACT: In the current super-aging society, the establishment of methods for prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an urgent task. One of the causes of AD is thought to be a decrease in the revel of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the brain. Compounds showing NGF-mimicking activity and NGF-enhancing activity have been examined as possible agents for improving symptoms. In the present study, sunflower seed extract was found to have neurite outgrowth-promoting activity, which is an NGF-enhancing activity, in PC12 cells. To investigate neurite outgrowth-promoting compounds from sunflower seed extract, bioassay-guided purification was carried out. The purified active fraction was obtained by liquid-liquid partition followed by some column chromatographies. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the purified active fraction indicated that the fraction was a mixture of ?-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol, with ?-sitosterol being the main component. Neurite outgrowth-promoting activities of ?-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol and cholesterol were evaluated in PC12 cells. ?-Sitosterol and stigmasterol showed the strongest activity of the four sterol compounds (?-sitosterol ? stigmasterol > campesterol > cholesterol), and cholesterol did not show any activity. The results indicated that ?-sitosterol was the major component responsible for the neurite outgrowth-promoting activity of sunflower seeds. Results of immunostaining also showed that promotion by ?-sitosterol of neurite formation induced by NGF was accompanied by neurofilament expression. ?-Sitosterol, which showed NGF-enhancing activity, might be a candidate ingredient in food for prevention of AD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Phytosterols in soybean oil (SO) lipids likely contribute to parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) in infants. No characterization of phytosterol metabolism has been done in infants receiving SO lipids. METHODS:In a prospective cohort study, 45 neonates (36 SO lipid vs. 9 control) underwent serial blood sample measurements of sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol. Mathematical modeling was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters of phytosterol metabolism and phytosterol exposure. RESULTS:Compared to controls, SO lipid-exposed infants had significantly higher levels of sitosterol and campesterol (P < 0.01). During SO lipid infusion, sitosterol and campesterol reached half of steady-state plasma levels within 1.5 and 0.8 d, respectively. Steady-state level was highest for sitosterol (1.68?mg/dl), followed by campesterol (0.98?mg/dl), and lowest for stigmasterol (0.01?mg/dl). Infants born < 28?wk gestational age had higher sitosterol steady-state levels (P = 0.03) and higher area under the curve for sitosterol (P = 0.03) during the first 5 d of SO lipid (AUC5) than infants born ? 28?wk gestational age. CONCLUSION:Phytosterols in SO lipid accumulate rapidly in neonates. Very preterm infants receiving SO lipid have higher sitosterol exposure, and may have poorly developed mechanisms of eliminating phytosterols that may contribute to their vulnerability to PNALD.
Project description:Transient Receptor Potential Canonical (TRPC) channels are implicated in modulating neurite outgrowth. The expression pattern of TRPCs changes significantly during brain development, suggesting that fine-tuning TRPC expression may be important for orchestrating neuritogenesis. To study how alterations in the TRPC expression pattern affect neurite outgrowth, we used nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated rat pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cells, a model system for neuritogenesis. In PC12 cells, NGF markedly up-regulated TRPC1 and TRPC6 expression, but down-regulated TRPC5 expression while promoting neurite outgrowth. Overexpression of TRPC1 augmented, whereas TRPC5 overexpression decelerated NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. Conversely, shRNA-mediated knockdown of TRPC1 decreased, whereas shRNA-mediated knockdown of TRPC5 increased NGF-induced neurite extension. Endogenous TRPC1 attenuated the anti-neuritogenic effect of overexpressed TRPC5 in part by forming the heteromeric TRPC1-TRPC5 channels. Previous reports suggested that TRPC6 may facilitate neurite outgrowth. However, we found that TRPC6 overexpression slowed down neuritogenesis, whereas dominant negative TRPC6 (DN-TRPC6) facilitated neurite outgrowth in NGF-differentiated PC12 cells. Consistent with these findings, hyperforin, a neurite outgrowth promoting factor, decreased TRPC6 expression in NGF-differentiated PC12 cells. Using pharmacological and molecular biological approaches, we determined that NGF up-regulated TRPC1 and TRPC6 expression via a p75(NTR)-IKK(2)-dependent pathway that did not involve TrkA receptor signaling in PC12 cells. Similarly, NGF up-regulated TRPC1 and TRPC6 via an IKK(2) dependent pathway in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. Thus, our data suggest that a balance of TRPC1, TRPC5, and TRPC6 expression determines neurite extension rate in neural cells, with TRPC6 emerging as an NGF-dependent "molecular damper" maintaining a submaximal velocity of neurite extension.
Project description:Neuronal differentiation involves the formation and extension of neuronal processes. We have identified a novel regulator of neurite formation and extension, the neurite outgrowth multiadaptor, NOMA-GAP, which belongs to a new family of multiadaptor proteins with RhoGAP activity. We show that NOMA-GAP is essential for NGF-stimulated neuronal differentiation and for the regulation of the ERK5 MAP kinase and the Cdc42 signaling pathways downstream of NGF. NOMA-GAP binds directly to the NGF receptor, TrkA, and becomes tyrosine phosphorylated upon receptor activation, thus enabling recruitment and activation of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2. Recruitment of SHP2 is required for the stimulation of neuronal process extension and for sustained activation of ERK5 downstream of NOMA-GAP. In addition, we show that NOMA-GAP promotes neurite outgrowth by tempering activation of the Cdc42/PAK signaling pathway in response to NGF. NOMA-GAP, through its dual function as a multiadaptor and RhoGAP protein, thus plays an essential role downstream of NGF in promoting neurite outgrowth and extension.
Project description:A phytochemical study of leaves and twigs of Psychotria nuda resulted in 19 compounds, including five indole alkaloids, N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine, lyaloside, strictosamide, strictosidine, and 5?-carboxystrictosidine; two flavonolignans, cinchonain Ia and cinchonain Ib; an iridoid, roseoside; a sugar, lawsofructose; a coumarin, scopoletin; a diterpene, phytol; three triterpenes, pomolic acid, spinosic acid, and rotungenic acid; and five steroids, sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, ?-sitosterol-3-O-?-d-glucoside, and ?-stigmasterol-3-O-?-d-glucoside. Some compounds were evaluated for their in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their ability to inhibit NO production by macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The compounds pomolic acid, spinosic acid, strictosidine, and 5?-carboxystrictosidine displayed antimycobacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 7.1 to 19.2 µg/mL. These compounds showed promising inhibitory activity against NO production (IC50 3.22 to 25.5 ?g/mL). 5?-carboxystrictosidine did not show cytotoxicity against macrophages RAW264.7 up to a concentration of 100 µg/mL. With the exception of strictosamide, this is the first report of the occurrence of these substances in P. nuda.
Project description:Backgrounds/Aims:Many studies have explored the association between dietary phytosterols and cancer risk, but the results have been inconsistent. We aimed to provide a synopsis of the current understanding of phytosterol intake for cancer risk through a systematic evaluation of the results from previous studies. Methods:We performed a literature search of PUBMED, EMBASE, CNKI, and Wanfang, and studies published before May 2019 focusing on dietary total phytosterols, ?-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, ?-sitostanol, and campestanol, as well as their relationships with cancer risk, were included in this meta-analysis. Summaries of the relative risks from 11 case-control and case-cohort studies were eventually estimated by randomized or fixed effects models. Results:The summary relative risk for the highest versus the lowest intake was 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.49-0.81) for total phytosterols, 0.74 (95% CI = 0.54-1.02) for ?-sitosterol, 0.72 (95% CI = 0.51-1.00) for campesterol, 0.83 (95% CI = 0.60-1.16) for stigmasterol, 1.12 (95% CI = 0.96-1.32) for ?-sitostanol, and 0.77 (95% CI = 0.65-0.90) for campestanol. In a dose-response analysis, the results suggested a linear association for campesterol and a nonlinear association for total phytosterol intake. Conclusion:Our findings support the hypothesis that high phytosterol intake is inversely related to risk of cancer. Further studies with prospective designs that control for vital confounders and investigate the important anticancer effects of dietary phytosterols are warranted.
Project description:Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells have been used to investigate neurite outgrowth. Nerve growth factor (NGF) has been well known to induce neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells. RhoA belongs to Ras-related small GTP-binding proteins, which regulate a variety of cellular processes, including cell morphology alteration, actin dynamics, and cell migration. NGF suppressed GTP-RhoA levels after 12 h in PC12 cells and was consistently required for a long time to induce neurite outgrowth. Constitutively active (CA)-RhoA suppressed neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells in response to NGF, whereas dominant-negative (DN)-RhoA stimulated it, suggesting that RhoA inactivation is essential for neurite outgrowth. Here, we investigated the mechanism of RhoA inactivation. DN-p190RhoGAP abrogated neurite outgrowth, whereas wild-type (WT)-p190RhoGAP and WT-Src synergistically stimulated it along with accelerating RhoA inactivation, suggesting that p190RhoGAP, which can be activated by Src, is a major component in inhibiting RhoA in response to NGF in PC12 cells. Contrary to RhoA, Rap1 was activated by NGF, and DN-Rap1 suppressed neurite outgrowth, suggesting that Rap1 is also essential for neurite outgrowth. RhoA was co-immunoprecipitated with Rap1, suggesting that Rap1 interacts with RhoA. Furthermore, a DN-Rap-dependent RhoGAP (ARAP3) prevented RhoA inactivation, abolishing neurite formation from PC12 cells in response to NGF. These results suggest that NGF activates Rap1, which, in turn, up-regulates ARAP3 leading to RhoA inactivation and neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells. Taken together, p190RhoGAP and ARAP3 seem to be two main factors inhibiting RhoA activity during neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells in response to NGF.
Project description:Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule (FAIM) is a protein identified as an antagonist of Fas-induced cell death. We show that FAIM overexpression fails to rescue neurons from trophic factor deprivation, but exerts a marked neurite growth-promoting action in different neuronal systems. Whereas FAIM overexpression greatly enhanced neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells and sympathetic neurons grown with nerve growth factor (NGF), reduction of endogenous FAIM levels by RNAi decreased neurite outgrowth in these cells. FAIM overexpression promoted NF-kappa B activation, and blocking this activation by using a super-repressor I kappa B alpha or by carrying out experiments using cortical neurons from mice that lack the p65 NF-kappa B subunit prevented FAIM-induced neurite outgrowth. The effect of FAIM on neurite outgrowth was also blocked by inhibition of the Ras-ERK pathway. Finally, we show that FAIM interacts with both Trk and p75 neurotrophin receptor NGF receptors in a ligand-dependent manner. These results reveal a new function of FAIM in promoting neurite outgrowth by a mechanism involving activation of the Ras-ERK pathway and NF-kappa B.
Project description:The use of exocytosis for membrane expansion at nerve growth cones is critical for neurite outgrowth. TC10 is a Rho family GTPase that is essential for specific types of vesicular trafficking to the plasma membrane. Recent studies have shown that TC10 and its effector Exo70, a component of the exocyst tethering complex, contribute to neurite outgrowth. However, the molecular mechanisms of the neuritogenesis-promoting functions of TC10 remain to be established. Here, we propose that GTP hydrolysis of vesicular TC10 near the plasma membrane promotes neurite outgrowth by accelerating vesicle fusion by releasing Exo70. Using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors, we show that TC10 activity at the plasma membrane decreased at extending growth cones in hippocampal neurons and nerve growth factor (NGF)-treated PC12 cells. In neuronal cells, TC10 activity at vesicles was higher than its activity at the plasma membrane, and TC10-positive vesicles were found to fuse to the plasma membrane in NGF-treated PC12 cells. Therefore, activity of TC10 at vesicles is presumed to be inactivated near the plasma membrane during neuronal exocytosis. Our model is supported by functional evidence that constitutively active TC10 could not rescue decrease in NGF-induced neurite outgrowth induced by TC10 depletion. Furthermore, TC10 knockdown experiments and colocalization analyses confirmed the involvement of Exo70 in TC10-mediated trafficking in neuronal cells. TC10 frequently resided on vesicles containing Rab11, which is a key regulator of recycling pathways and implicated in neurite outgrowth. In growth cones, most of the vesicles containing the cell adhesion molecule L1 had TC10. Exocytosis of Rab11- and L1-positive vesicles may play a central role in TC10-mediated neurite outgrowth. The combination of this study and our previous work on the role of TC10 in EGF-induced exocytosis in HeLa cells suggests that the signaling machinery containing TC10 proposed here may be broadly used for exocytosis.
Project description:A convenient synthesis of sidechain-modified phytosterols is achieved via a temporary masking of the stigmasterol 5,6-alkene as an epoxide. Following performance of the desired modification, the alkene is regenerated through a mild deoxygenation. The approach is applied to the syntheses of beta-sitosterol and campesterol acetate, and suggests a facile route to the (Z)-isomers of Delta(22-23) phytosterols.
Project description:During primary infection, herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) replicates in epithelial cells and enters neurites to infect neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Growth factors and attractive and repulsive directional cues influence neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival. We hypothesized that HSV-2 modulates the activity of such cues to increase neurite outgrowth. To test this hypothesis, we exposed sensory neurons to nerve growth factor (NGF) and mock- or HSV-2-infected HEK-293T cells, since they express repellents of neurite outgrowth. We show that HEK-293T cells secrete factors that inhibit neurite outgrowth, while infection with HSV-2 strains MS and 333 reduces this repelling phenotype, increasing neurite numbers. The HSV-2-mediated restoration of neurite outgrowth required the activity of NGF. In the absence of infection, however, NGF did not overcome the repulsion mediated by HEK-293T cells. We previously showed that recombinant, soluble glycoprotein G of HSV-2 (rSgG2) binds and enhances NGF activity, increasing neurite outgrowth. However, the effect of gG2 during infection has not been investigated. Therefore, we addressed whether gG2 contributes to overcoming neurite outgrowth repulsion. To do so, we generated viruses lacking gG2 expression and complemented them by exogenous expression of gG2. Overall, our results suggest that HSV-2 infection of nonneuronal cells reduces their repelling effect on neurite outgrowth in an NGF-dependent manner. gG2 contributed to this phenotype, but it was not the only factor. The enhanced neurite outgrowth may facilitate HSV-2 spread from epithelial cells into neurons expressing NGF receptors and increase HSV-2-mediated pathogenesis.IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a prevalent human pathogen that establishes lifelong latency in neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Colonization of neurons is required for HSV-2 persistence and pathogenesis. The viral and cellular factors required for efficient infection of neurons are not fully understood. We show here that nonneuronal cells repel neurite outgrowth of sensory neurons, while HSV-2 infection overcomes this inhibition and, rather, stimulates neurite outgrowth. HSV-2 glycoprotein G and nerve growth factor contribute to this phenotype, which may attract neurites to sites of infection and facilitate virus spread to neurons. Understanding the mechanisms that modulate neurite outgrowth and facilitate HSV-2 infection of neurons might foster the development of therapeutics to reduce HSV-2 colonization of the nervous system and provide insights on neurite outgrowth and regeneration.