Reducing protein and supplementing crystalline amino acids, to alter dietary amino acid profiles in birds challenged for subclinical necrotic enteritis.
ABSTRACT: Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an infection of the gastrointestinal tract and is estimated to cost the global poultry industry billions of dollars annually. A study was conducted to examine whether reducing the crude protein might offset the severity of NE in broilers experimentally challenged with Eimeria spp. on day 9 and Clostridium perfringens on days 14 and 15. Furthermore, increasing the dietary amino acid (AA) density of the diet was also examined owing to identified benefits of improving performance compromised from low protein (LP) diets or NE. A 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments at 6 replicates per treatment was used with 972 Ross 308 cockerels fed wheat-sorghum-soy-based diets to 35 D. Factors were NE challenge: no or yes; protein: standard (SP) or LP; and AA density: 100% AA, 115% with only essential AA (115% EAA) increased, and 115% AA with both essential and nonessential AA (115% AA) increased. The performance was measured in grower (days 7-21), finisher (days 21-35), and overall (day 7-35) periods. In addition, on day 16, intestinal lesion score and cecal short-chain fatty acids were measured. Only in nonchallenged birds fed LP diets, 115% AA increased grower feed intake (P < 0.01) and body weight gain (P < 0.05) compared to 115% EAA treatments. Challenge increased jejunal lesions (P < 0.001) with no difference between dietary treatments. Finisher body weight gain was greater in nonchallenged birds fed the 115% AA diets than in challenged birds (P < 0.05). Feeding diets with higher nonessential AA encouraged faster recovery from NE challenge. When fed the SP diets, NE challenge increased cecal butyric acid (P < 0.01) and total short-chain fatty acids (P < 0.05). The nutrient matrix used in LP diets does not favor beneficial butyric acid-producing bacteria. Using LP diets to mitigate NE severity does not offset the predisposing effect of E. spp. when attacking the gastrointestinal tract, and NE recovery is favored when feeding SP diets or additional AA.
Project description:The tendency to reduce crude protein (CP) levels in pig diets to increase protein efficiency may increase the occurrence of damaging behaviours such as ear and tail biting, particularly for pigs kept under suboptimal health conditions. We studied, in a 2×2×2 factorial design, 576 tail-docked growing-finishing entire male pigs in 64 pens, subjected to low (LSC) vs. high sanitary conditions (HSC), and fed a normal CP (NP) vs. a low CP diet (LP, 80% of NP) ad libitum, with a basal amino acid (AA) profile or supplemented AA profile with extra threonine, tryptophan and methionine. The HSC pigs were vaccinated in the first nine weeks of life and received antibiotics at arrival at experimental farm at ten weeks, after which they were kept in a disinfected part of the farm with a strict hygiene protocol. The LSC pigs were kept on the same farm in non-disinfected pens to which manure from another pig farm was introduced fortnightly. At 15, 18, and 24 weeks of age, prevalence of tail and ear damage and of tail and ear wounds was scored. At 20 and 23 weeks of age, frequencies of biting behaviour and aggression were scored for 10×10 min per pen per week. The prevalence of ear damage during the finisher phase (47 vs. 32% of pigs, P < 0.0001) and the frequency of ear biting (1.3 vs. 1.2 times per hour, P = 0.03) were increased in LSC compared with HSC pigs. This effect on ear biting was diet dependent, however, the supplemented AA profile reduced ear biting only in LSC pigs by 18% (SC × AA profile, P < 0.01). The prevalence of tail wounds was lower for pigs in LSC (13 ± 0.02) than for pigs in HSC (0.22 ± 0.03) in the grower phase (P < 0.007). Regardless of AA profile or sanitary status, LP pigs showed more ear biting (+20%, P < 0.05), tail biting (+25%, P < 0.10), belly nosing (+152%, P < 0.01), other oral manipulation directed at pen mates (+13%, P < 0.05), and aggression (+30%, P < 0.01) than NP pigs, with no effect on ear or tail damage. In conclusion, both low sanitary conditions and a reduction of dietary protein increase the occurrence of damaging behaviours in pigs and therefore may negatively impact pig welfare. Attention should be paid to the impact of dietary nutrient composition on pig behaviour and welfare, particularly when pigs are kept under suboptimal (sanitary) conditions.
Project description:Dietary fiber content and composition affect microbial composition and activity in the gut, which in turn influence energetic contribution of fermentation products to the metabolic energy supply in pigs. This may affect feed efficiency (FE) in pigs. The present study investigated the relationship between the fecal microbial composition and FE in individual growing-finishing pigs. In addition, the effects of diet composition and sex on the fecal microbiome were studied. Fecal samples were collected of 154 grower-finisher pigs (3-way crossbreeds) the day before slaughter. Pigs were either fed a diet based on corn/soybean meal (CS) or a diet based on wheat/barley/by-products (WB). Fecal microbiome was characterized by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing, clustered by operational taxonomic unit (OTU), and results were subjected to a discriminant approach combined with principal component analysis to discriminate diets, sexes, and FE extreme groups (10 high and 10 low FE pigs for each diet by sex-combination). Pigs on different diets and males vs. females had a very distinct fecal microbiome, needing only 2 OTU for diet (P = 0.020) and 18 OTU for sex (P = 0.040) to separate the groups. The 2 most important OTU for diet, and the most important OTU for sex, were taxonomically classified as the same bacterium. In pigs fed the CS diet, there was no significant association between FE and fecal microbiota composition based on OTU (P > 0.05), but in pigs fed the WB diet differences in FE were associated with 17 OTU in males (P = 0.018) and to 7 OTU in females (P = 0.010), with 3 OTU in common for both sexes. In conclusion, our results showed a diet and sex-dependent relationship between FE and the fecal microbial composition at slaughter weight in grower-finisher pigs.
Project description:Four experiments were conducted to estimate the optimal standardized ileal digestible (SID) level of branched-chain amino acids in low-protein diets during the starter, grower, and finisher periods, using the response surface methodology, and to study their effects on performance and mRNA expression of genes involved in the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway of broiler chickens from 8 to 21 D of age. In experiments 1, 2, and 3, a total of 1,500 Cobb male broiler chickens were assigned to 15 diets of a central composite rotatable design (CCD) of response surface methodology containing 5 levels of SID Leu, Val, and Ile with 5 replicate pens of 20 birds each. A 3-factor, 5-level CCD platform was used to fit the second-order polynomial equation of broiler performance. In experiment 4, a total of 540 8-day-old Cobb male broiler chickens were distributed in a completely randomized 2 x 3 x 3 factorial arrangement with 2 SID Leu levels (1.28 or 1.83%), 3 SID Val levels (0.65, 0.90, or 1.20%), and 3 SID Ile levels (0.54, 0.79, or 1.09%) for a total of 18 treatments with 5 replicate cages of 6 birds each. High Leu levels impaired (P < 0.05) gain:feed when birds were fed marginal Val or Ile diets. However, gain:feed was restored when both Val and Ile were supplemented to reach adequate or high levels. High Leu levels increased (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of S6K1 and eEF2 genes only in birds fed high Ile levels. Dietary SID Leu, Val, and Ile levels required for gain:feed optimization in low-protein diets were estimated at 1.37, 0.94, and 0.87% during the starter period; 1.23, 0.82, and 0.75% during the grower period; and 1.15, 0.77, and 0.70% during the finisher phase, respectively. Higher Val and Ile levels are required to optimize the effect of Leu supplementation on mRNA expression of mTOR pathway genes in the pectoralis major muscle of broilers from day 1 to 21 after hatch.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bacillus spp. seem to be an alternative to antimicrobial growth promoters for improving animals' health and performance. However, there is little information on the effect of Bacillus spp. in combination with different dietary crude protein (CP) levels on the ileal digestibility and microbiota composition. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of Bacillus spp. supplementation to low- (LP) and high-protein diets (HP) on ileal CP and amino acid (AA) digestibility and intestinal microbiota composition. METHODS:Eight ileally cannulated pigs with an initial body weight of 28.5 kg were randomly allocated to a row-column design with 8 pigs and 3 periods of 16 d each. The assay diets were based on wheat-barley-soybean meal with two protein levels: LP (14% CP, as-fed) and HP diet (18% CP, as-fed). The LP and HP diets were supplemented with or without Bacillus spp. at a level of 0.04% (as-fed). The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was determined. Bacterial community composition from ileal digesta was analyzed by Illumina amplicon sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR. Data were analyzed as a 2?×?2 factorial design using the GLIMMIX procedures of SAS. RESULTS:The supplementation with Bacillus spp. did not affect both AID and SID of CP and AA in growing pigs. Moreover, there was no difference in AID of CP and AA between HP and LP diets, but SID of cystine, glutamic acid, glycine, and proline was lower (P?<?0.05) in pigs fed the HP diets. The HP diets increased abundance of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp., (P?<?0.05) and by amplicon sequencing the latter was identified as predominant genus in microbiota from HP with Bacillus spp., whereas dietary supplementation of Bacillus spp. increased (P?<?0.05) abundance of Roseburia spp.. CONCLUSIONS:The HP diet increased abundance of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp.. The supplementation of Bacillus spp. resulted in a higher abundance of healthy gut associated bacteria without affecting ileal CP and AA digestibility, whereas LP diet may reduce the flow of undigested protein to the large intestine of pigs.
Project description:Feeding pigs with very-low protein (VLP) diets while supplemented with limiting amino acids (AA) results in decreased growth. The objective of this study was to determine if supplementing VLP diets with branched-chain AA (BCAA) would reverse the negative effects of these diets on growth and whether this is associated with alterations in energy balance, blood metabolomics and fecal microbiota composition. Twenty-four nursery pigs were weight-matched, individually housed and allotted into following treatments (n?=?8/group): control (CON), low protein (LP) and LP supplemented with BCAA (LP?+?BCAA) for 4 weeks. Relative to CON, pigs fed with LP had lower feed intake (FI) and body weight (BW) throughout the study, but those fed with LP?+?BCAA improved overall FI computed for 4 weeks, tended to increase the overall average daily gain, delayed the FI and BW depression for?~?2 weeks and had transiently higher energy expenditure. Feeding pigs with LP?+?BCAA impacted the phenylalanine and protein metabolism and fatty acids synthesis pathways. Compared to CON, the LP?+?BCAA group had higher abundance of Paludibacteraceae and Synergistaceae and reduced populations of Streptococcaceae, Oxyphotobacteria_unclassified, Pseudomonadaceae and Shewanellaceae in their feces. Thus, supplementing VLP diets with BCAA temporarily annuls the adverse effects of these diets on growth, which is linked with alterations in energy balance and metabolic and gut microbiome profile.
Project description:The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a phytogenic water additive (PWA) on growth performance and underlying factors involved in pigs fed with low-protein (LP)/high-carbohydrate diets. Forty-eight weaned barrows were allotted to six treatments for 4 weeks: CON-NS, control (CON) diet-no PWA; CON-LS, CON diet-low dose PWA (4 mL/L); CON-HS, CON diet-high dose PWA (8 mL/L); LP-NS, LP diet-no PWA; LP-LS, LP diet-low dose PWA; LP-HS, LP diet-high dose PWA. Relative to CON-NS, pigs fed with CON-HS had increased average daily gain, body weight and serum calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) and had decreased mRNA abundance of solute carrier family 7 member 11 and solute carrier family 6 member 19 in jejunum. Compared to LP-NS, pigs fed with LP-HS had increased muscle lean%, decreased muscle fat%, decreased serum Ca and increased serum P. Compared to their NS counterparts, CON-LS, CON-HS, and LP-LS increased the concentration of plasma essential AA and those fed with CON-HS and LP-HS tended to reduce the abundance of the solute carrier family 7 member 1 transcript in skeletal muscle. Thus, PWA improved the performance of weaned pigs fed with protein-adequate diets likely through increased blood essential AA and affected the muscle composition when dietary protein was deficient.
Project description:Feed additives that promote gastrointestinal health may complement coccidiosis vaccination programs in antibiotic-free broiler production systems. This study examined the effects of a commercial feed additive blend (FA) on intestinal histomorphology and inflammatory biomarkers in vaccinated Ross 708 cockerels (N = 2,160). The study was a randomized complete block design (12 blocks) with 3 dietary treatments: CON (negative control), AGP (positive control: 55 ppm of bacitracin methylene disalicylate), and FA (1.5 kg/MT in starter; 1.0 kg/MT in grower; and 0.5 kg/MT in finisher). Birds were reared on re-used litter and fed a 3-phase feeding program (starter, 0 to 14 D; grower, 15 to 28 D; finisher, 29 to 36 D). One master batch of basal feed for each feeding phase was prepared and final experimental diets were manufactured by mixing the basal feed with the respective test ingredient prior to pelleting. Growth measurements, including pen body weight and feed intakes, and fresh fecal samples were taken throughout the study. On day 20, samples of intestinal tissue were collected from a subset of birds (n = 72, 1 block) for histomorphology and mRNA expression of tight junction and inflammatory genes. In the duodenum, the ratio of villi length to crypt depth was significantly lower in FA (and AGP) fed birds than those consuming the CON diet. Relative mRNA expressions of iNOS, IFN?, and claudin-1 were upregulated in the jejunum of FA and AGP treatment groups compared to those in the CON group; the response in the FA was of lesser magnitude than AGP. Together, these results demonstrated that the FA treatment altered the microstructure of the duodenum and affected the expression of inflammatory genes in the jejunum. The timing of these changes coincided with peak oocyte shedding in feces and an observed reduction in feed efficiency in all dietary treatment groups.
Project description:Microbiota play an important role in total tract nutrient digestion, especially when fibrous diets are fed to pigs. This study aimed to use metagenomics to predict faecal nutrient digestibility in grower-finisher pigs. The study design consisted of 160 three-way crossbreed grower-finisher pigs (80 female and 80 male) which were either fed a diet based on corn/soybean meal or a more fibrous diet based on wheat/barley/by-products. On the day before slaughter, faecal samples were collected and used to determine faecal digestibility of dry matter, ash, organic matter, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and non-starch polysaccharides. The faecal samples were also sequenced for the 16S hypervariable region of bacteria (V3/V4) to profile the faecal microbiome. With these data, we calculated the between-animal variation in faecal nutrient digestibility associated with variation in the faecal microbiome, that is the "microbiability". The microbiability values were significantly greater than zero for dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crude fibre and non-starch polysaccharides, ranging from 0.58 to 0.93, as well as for crude fat with a value of 0.37, but not significantly different from zero for ash. Using leave-one-out cross-validation, we estimated the accuracy of predicting digestibility values of individual pigs based on their faecal microbiota composition. The accuracies of prediction for crude fat and ash digestibility were virtually 0, and for the other nutrients, the accuracies ranged from 0.42 to 0.63. In conclusion, the faecal microbiota composition gave high microbiability values for faecal digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crude fibre and non-starch polysaccharides. The accuracies of prediction are relatively low if the interest is in precisely predicting faecal nutrient digestibility of individual pigs, but are promising from the perspective of ranking animals in a genetic selection context.
Project description:In Iberian pig outdoor production, pigs are fed equilibrated diets until the final fattening period when grazing pigs consume mainly acorns from oak trees. Acorns are rich in energy but poor in crude protein where lysine is the first limiting amino acid (AA). Net portal appearance (NPA) is very useful to ascertain AA available for liver and peripheral tissues. The aim of this study was to determine NPA of AA in Iberian gilts fed with acorns and to ascertain if there was an effect of acorn feeding over time. Two sampling periods were carried out (after one day and after one week of acorn feeding) with six gilts (34 kg average BW) set up with three catheters: in carotid artery and portal vein for blood sampling, and ileal vein for a marker infusion to measure portal plasma flow (PPF). Pigs were fed at 2.5 × ME for maintenance a standard diet in two meals, at 09:00 (0.25) and 15:00 h (the remaining 0.75). The day previous to first sampling, pig diet was replaced by 2.4 kg of acorn. A serial blood collection was done at -5 min, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 5 and 6 h after feeding 0.25 of total daily acorn ration. Following identical protocol, one week later the second sampling was done. NPA of sum of essential AA (EAA) was poor. Although increased NPA of histidine (P < 0.001), leucine, phenylalanine and valine (0.05 < P < 0.08) was found after one week of acorn consumption, the sum of EAA did not change. Furthermore, fractional absorption (NPA/AA intake) of EAA, non-essential AA (NEAA) and total AA was 97, 44 and 49% lower, respectively, at the beginning of eating acorn than a week later. Supplementation, with some of the EAA and NEAA to Iberian pigs during the grazing period would be beneficial to overcome the increased portal-drained viscera (PDV) utilization of AA observed in the present study.
Project description:The present study investigated the effects of supplementing a low protein (LP) diet supplemented with key essential amino acids (AA) to broilers on growth performance, intestinal tract function, blood metabolites, and nitrogen excretion when the animals were maintained under various sanitary conditions for 35 D after hatching. Three hundred eighty-four one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) were randomly allotted to groups that received one of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (i.e., 2 environmental conditions and 3 dietary treatments) to give 8 replicates per treatment. Broilers were challenged with 2 environmental conditions (sanitary vs. poor sanitary). The dietary treatments were (1) high protein (HP) diet, (2) LP diet, and (3) LP diet with synthetic key essential AA (LPA): the LP diet was supplemented with synthetic AA up to the required levels for broilers. On day 14, birds consumed the LP diet impaired growth performance compared with those fed the HP diet, while the average daily weight gain-to-feed conversion ratio of birds fed the LPA diet improved to the level of birds fed the HP diet under poor sanitary conditions (P < 0.05). Broilers raised under poor sanitary conditions and fed the LP diet displayed higher (P < 0.05) zonula occludens (ZO-1) expression on day 14 than broilers fed either the HP or LPA diet. Under sanitary conditions, birds fed HP and LPA diets showed higher villus height and crypt depth compared with those of broilers fed the LP diet on day 35. Moreover, broilers raised in the poor sanitary environment had higher (P < 0.05) serum endotoxins than those raised in the sanitary environment. Broilers fed the LPA diet showed reduced (P < 0.05) nitrogen excretion on days 14 and 35 compared with those fed the LP and HP diets independent of the environment. In conclusion, the LPA diet did not impair growth performance under poor sanitary conditions for 14 D after hatch while resulting in lower nitrogen excretion in any environment conditions throughout the experiment.