Constructing 3-Dimensional Atomic-Resolution Models of Nonsulfated Glycosaminoglycans with Arbitrary Lengths Using Conformations from Molecular Dynamics.
ABSTRACT: Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are the linear carbohydrate components of proteoglycans (PGs) and are key mediators in the bioactivity of PGs in animal tissue. GAGs are heterogeneous, conformationally complex, and polydisperse, containing up to 200 monosaccharide units. These complexities make studying GAG conformation a challenge for existing experimental and computational methods. We previously described an algorithm we developed that applies conformational parameters (i.e., all bond lengths, bond angles, and dihedral angles) from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of nonsulfated chondroitin GAG 20-mers to construct 3-D atomic-resolution models of nonsulfated chondroitin GAGs of arbitrary length. In the current study, we applied our algorithm to other GAGs, including hyaluronan and nonsulfated forms of dermatan, keratan, and heparan and expanded our database of MD-generated GAG conformations. Here, we show that individual glycosidic linkages and monosaccharide rings in 10- and 20-mers of hyaluronan and nonsulfated dermatan, keratan, and heparan behave randomly and independently in MD simulation and, therefore, using a database of MD-generated 20-mer conformations, that our algorithm can construct conformational ensembles of 10- and 20-mers of various GAG types that accurately represent the backbone flexibility seen in MD simulations. Furthermore, our algorithm efficiently constructs conformational ensembles of GAG 200-mers that we would reasonably expect from MD simulations.
Project description:In the present study, the distribution of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the developing vertebral column of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at 700, 900, 1100 and 1400 d° was examined by light microscopy. The mineralization pattern was outlined by Alizarin red S and soft structures by Alcian blue. The temporal and spatial distribution patterns of different types of GAGs: chondroitin-4-sulphate/dermatan sulphate, chondroitin-6-sulphate, chondroitin-0-sulphate and keratan sulphate were addressed by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against the different GAGs. The specific pattern obtained with the different antibodies suggests a unique role of the different GAG types in pattern formation and mineralization. In addition, the distribution of the different GAG types in normal and malformed vertebral columns from 15 g salmon was compared. A changed expression pattern of GAGs was found in the malformed vertebrae, indicating the involvement of these molecules during the pathogenesis. The molecular size of proteoglycans (PGs) in the vertebrae carrying GAGs was analysed with western blotting, and mRNA transcription of the PGs aggrecan, decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin and lumican by real-time qPCR. Our study reveals the importance of GAGs in development of vertebral column also in Atlantic salmon and indicates that a more comprehensive approach is necessary to completely understand the processes involved.
Project description:Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are sulfated glycans capable of regulating various biological and medical functions. Heparin, heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate and hyaluronan are the principal classes of GAGs found in animals. Although GAGs are all composed of disaccharide repeating building blocks, the sulfation patterns and the composing alternating monosaccharides vary among classes. Interestingly, GAGs from marine organisms can present structures clearly distinct from terrestrial animals even considering the same class of GAG. The holothurian fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, the dermatan sulfates with distinct sulfation patterns extracted from ascidian species, the sulfated glucuronic acid-containing heparan sulfate isolated from the gastropode Nodipecten nodosum, and the hybrid heparin/heparan sulfate molecule obtained from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei are some typical examples. Besides being a rich source of structurally unique GAGs, the sea is also a wealthy environment of GAG-resembling sulfated glycans. Examples of these mimetics are the sulfated fucans and sulfated galactans found in brown, red and green algae, sea urchins and sea cucumbers. For adequate visualization, representations of all discussed molecules are given in both Haworth projections and 3D models.
Project description:Proteoglycans (PGs) in bovine corneal stroma were stained with Cupromeronic Blue in 'critical-electrolyte-concentration' (CEC) methods for electron microscopy, and were located vis-à-vis collagen fibril a-e banding patterns. Keratanase and chondroitin ABC lyase digestion showed that a + c-band- and d + e-band-associated PGs were keratan sulphate-rich and chondroitin (dermatan) sulphate-rich respectively. The CEC pattern proved that the keratan sulphate PGs at the a and c bands differed. Comparison of their CECs with their behaviour on anion-exchange chromatography confirmed previous (indirect) attempts at identification [Scott & Haigh (1985) Biosci. Rep. 5, 765-774]. Similar arguments were applied to the dermatan sulphate PGs at the d and e bands. These results strongly support the one-PG-one-binding-site hypothesis [e.g. Scott (1988) Biochem. J. 252, 313-323]. Remarkable inter-species variations in the keratan sulphate PG patterns contrast with the relatively constant picture of dermatan sulphate PG-collagen fibril interactions.
Project description:A capillary zone electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence detection (CZE-LIF) method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of disaccharides derived from heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate, hyaluronan, and keratan sulfate. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were first depolymerized with the mixture of GAG lyases (heparinase I, II, III and chondroitinase ABC and chondroitinase AC II) and GAG endohydrolase (keratinase II) and the resulting disaccharides were derivatized by reductive amination with 2-aminoacridone. Nineteen fluorescently labeled disaccharides were separated using 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.3) under reversed polarity at 25 kV. Using these conditions, all the disaccharides examined were baseline separated in less then 25 min. This CZE-LIF method gave good reproducibility for both migration time (?1.03% for intraday and ?4.4% for interday) and the peak area values (?5.6% for intra- and ?8.69% for interday). This CZE-LIF method was used for profiling and quantification of GAG derivative disaccharides in bovine cornea. The results show that the current CZE-LIF method offers fast, simple, sensitive, reproducible determination of disaccharides derived from total GAGs in a single run.
Project description:Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear, structurally diverse, conformationally complex carbohydrate polymers that may contain up to 200 monosaccharides. These characteristics present a challenge for studying GAG conformational thermodynamics at atomic resolution using existing experimental methods. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can overcome this challenge but are only feasible for short GAG polymers. To address this problem, we developed an algorithm that applies all conformational parameters contributing to GAG backbone flexibility (i.e., bond lengths, bond angles, and dihedral angles) from unbiased all-atom explicit-solvent MD simulations of short GAG polymers to rapidly construct models of GAGs of arbitrary length. The algorithm was used to generate non-sulfated chondroitin 10- and 20-mer ensembles which were compared to MD-generated ensembles for internal validation. End-to-end distance distributions in constructed and MD-generated ensembles have minimal differences, suggesting that our algorithm produces conformational ensembles that mimic the backbone flexibility seen in simulation. Non-sulfated chondroitin 100- and 200-mer ensembles were constructed within a day, demonstrating the efficiency of the algorithm and reduction in time and computational cost compared to simulation.
Project description:Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are key natural biopolymers that exhibit a range of biological functions including growth and differentiation. Despite this multiplicity of function, natural GAG sequences have not yielded drugs because of problems of heterogeneity and synthesis. Recently, several homogenous non-saccharide glycosaminoglycan mimetics (NSGMs) have been reported as agents displaying major therapeutic promise. Yet, it remains unclear whether sulfated NSGMs structurally mimic sulfated GAGs. To address this, we developed a three-step molecular dynamics (MD)-based algorithm to compare sulfated NSGMs with GAGs. In the first step of this algorithm, parameters related to the range of conformations sampled by the two highly sulfated molecules as free entities in water were compared. The second step compared identity of binding site geometries and the final step evaluated comparable dynamics and interactions in the protein-bound state. Using a test case of interactions with fibroblast growth factor-related proteins, we show that this three-step algorithm effectively predicts the GAG structure mimicking property of NSGMs. Specifically, we show that two unique dimeric NSGMs mimic hexameric GAG sequences in the protein-bound state. In contrast, closely related monomeric and trimeric NSGMs do not mimic GAG in either the free or bound states. These results correspond well with the functional properties of NSGMs. The results show for the first time that appropriately designed sulfated NSGMs can be good structural mimetics of GAGs and the incorporation of a MD-based strategy at the NSGM library screening stage can identify promising mimetics of targeted GAG sequences.
Project description:Glycomics represents one of the last frontiers and most challenging in omic analysis. Glycosylation occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi organelle and its control is neither well-understood nor predictable based on proteomic or genomic analysis. One of the most structurally complex classes of glycoconjugates is the proteoglycans (PGs) and their glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains. Previously, our laboratory solved the structure of the chondroitin sulfate chain of the bikunin PG. The current study examines the much more complex structure of the dermatan sulfate GAG chain of decorin PG. By utilizing sophisticated separation methods followed by compositional analysis, domain mapping, and tandem mass spectrometry coupled with analysis by a modified genetic algorithm approach, the structural motif for the decorin dermatan sulfate chain was determined. This represents the second example of a GAG with a prominent structural motif, suggesting that the structural variability of this class of glycoconjugates is somewhat simpler than had been expected.
Project description:The present study reports the perplexing results that came about because of seriously impure commercially available reagents. Commercial reagents and chemicals are routinely ordered by scientists and expected to have been rigorously assessed for their purity. Unfortunately, we found this assumption to be risky. Extensive work was carried out within our laboratory using commercially sourced preparations of the small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs), decorin and biglycan, to investigate their influence on nerve cell growth. Unusual results compelled us to analyse the composition and purity of both preparations of these proteoglycans (PGs) using both mass spectrometry (MS) and Western blotting, with and without various enzymatic deglycosylations. Commercial 'decorin' and 'biglycan' were found to contain a mixture of PGs including not only both decorin and biglycan but also fibromodulin and aggrecan. The unexpected effects of 'decorin' and 'biglycan' on nerve cell growth could be explained by these impurities. Decorin and biglycan contain either chondroitin or dermatan sulfate glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains whereas fibromodulin only contains keratan sulfate and the large (>2500 kDa), highly glycosylated aggrecan contains both keratan and chondroitin sulfate. The different structure, molecular weight and composition of these impurities significantly affected our work and any conclusions that could be made. These findings beg the question as to whether scientists need to verify the purity of each commercially obtained reagent used in their experiments. The implications of these findings are vast, since the effects of these impurities may already have led to inaccurate conclusions and reports in the literature with concomitant loss of researchers' funds and time.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is caused by the deficiency of a specific hydrolytic enzyme that catalyzes the step-wise degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). In this study, we propose an empirical method to calculate levels of GAG-derived disaccharides based on the quantity (peak areas) of chondroitin sulfate (CS) with the aim of making a diagnosis of MPS more accurate and reducing the occurrence of false positive and false negative results. In this study, levels of urinary GAG-derived disaccharides were measured in 67 patients with different types of MPS and 165 controls without MPS using a tandem mass spectrometry assay. Two different methods of reporting GAG-derived disaccharides were assessed; normalization to urinary CS (in μg/mL), and normalization to μg/mg creatinine. CS-normalization yielded more consistent values than creatinine-normalization. In particular, levels of urinary dermatan sulfate (DS), heparan sulfate (HS), and keratan sulfate (KS) significantly varied because of changes in urine creatinine levels, which were proportional to age but inversely proportional to DS, HS, and KS measurements. Using CS-normalization revealed the actual status of DS, HS, and KS without the influence of factors such as age, urine creatinine, and other physiological conditions. It could discriminate between the patients with MPS and controls without MPS, and also to evaluate changes in GAG levels pre- and post-enzyme replacement therapy.