Grubbs Metathesis Enabled by a Light-Driven gem-Hydrogenation of Internal Alkynes.
ABSTRACT: [(NHC)(cymene)RuCl2 ] (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) complexes instigate a light-driven gem-hydrogenation of internal alkynes with concomitant formation of discrete Grubbs-type ruthenium carbene species. This unorthodox reactivity mode is harnessed in the form of a "hydrogenative metathesis" reaction, which converts an enyne substrate into a cyclic alkene. The intervention of ruthenium carbenes formed in the actual gem-hydrogenation step was proven by the isolation and crystallographic characterization of a rather unusual representative of this series carrying an unconfined alkyl group on a disubstituted carbene center.
Project description:Enynes with a tethered carbonyl substituent are converted into substituted furan derivatives upon hydrogenation using [Cp*RuCl]<sub>4</sub> as the catalyst. Paradoxically, this transformation can occur along two distinct pathways, each of which proceeds via discrete pianostool ruthenium carbenes. In the first case, hydrogenation and carbene formation are synchronized ("gem-hydrogenation"), whereas the second pathway comprises carbene formation by carbophilic activation of the triple bond, followed by hydrogenative catalyst recycling. Representative carbene intermediates of either route were characterized by X-ray crystallography; the structural data prove that the attack of the carbonyl group on the electrophilic carbene center follows a Bürgi-Dunitz trajectory.
Project description:The only recently discovered gem-hydrogenation of internal alkynes is a fundamentally new transformation, in which both H atoms of dihydrogen are transferred to the same C atom of a triple bond while the other position transforms into a discrete metal carbene complex. [Cp*RuCl]4 is presently the catalyst of choice: the resulting piano-stool ruthenium carbenes can engage a tethered alkene into either cyclopropanation or metathesis, and a prototypical example of such a reactive intermediate with an olefin ligated to the ruthenium center has been isolated and characterized by X-ray diffraction. It is the substitution pattern of the olefin that determines whether metathesis or cyclopropanation takes place: a systematic survey using alkenes of largely different character in combination with a computational study of the mechanism at the local coupled cluster level of theory allowed the preparative results to be sorted and an intuitive model with predictive power to be proposed. This model links the course of the reaction to the polarization of the double bond as well as to the stability of the secondary carbene complex formed, if metathesis were to take place. The first application of "hydrogenative metathesis" to the total synthesis of sinularones E and F concurred with this interpretation and allowed the proposed structure of these marine natural products to be confirmed. During this synthesis, it was found that gem-hydrogenation also provides opportunities for C-H functionalization. Moreover, silylated alkynes are shown to participate well in hydrogenative metathesis, which opens a new entry into valuable allylsilane building blocks. Crystallographic evidence suggests that the polarized [Ru-Cl] bond of the catalyst interacts with the neighboring R3Si group. Since attractive interligand Cl/R3Si contacts had already previously been invoked to explain the outcome of various ruthenium-catalyzed reactions, including trans-hydrosilylation, the experimental confirmation provided herein has implications beyond the present case.
Project description:The novel dicationic metathesis catalyst [(RuCl2(H2ITapMe2)(=CH-2-(2-PrO)-C6H4))(2+) (OTf(-))2] (Ru-2, H2ITapMe2 = 1,3-bis(2',6'-dimethyl-4'-trimethylammoniumphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene, OTf(-) = CF3SO3 (-)) based on a dicationic N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand was prepared. The reactivity was tested in ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) under biphasic conditions using a nonpolar organic solvent (toluene) and the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BDMIM(+)][BF4 (-)]. The structure of Ru-2 was confirmed by single crystal X-ray analysis.
Project description:gem-Hydrogenation of propargyl alcohol derivatives with [Cp<sup>X</sup> Ru(MeCN)<sub>3</sub> ]PF<sub>6</sub> (Cp<sup>X</sup> =substituted cyclopentadienyl) as catalysts affords cationic pianostool ruthenium carbene complexes which are so electrophilic that they attack a tethered olefin to furnish cyclopentene products; cyclopropanation or metathesis do not compete with this novel transformation. If the transient carbenes carry appropriate propargylic substituents, however, they engage in ([2,3]-sigmatropic) rearrangements to give enol esters (carbonates, carbamates, sulfonates) or alkenyl halides. Both pathways are unprecedented in the vast hydrogenation literature. The proposed mechanistic scenarios are in line with labeling experiments and spectroscopic data; most notably, PHIP NMR spectroscopy (PHIP=parahydrogen induced polarization) provides compelling evidence that the reactions are indeed triggered by highly unorthodox gem-hydrogenation events.
Project description:The newly discovered light-driven gem hydrogenation of alkynes opens an unconventional yet efficient entry into five-coordinate Grubbs-type ruthenium carbene complexes with cis-disposed chloride ligands. Representatives of this class featuring a chelate substructure formed by an iodo-substituted benzylidene unit react with (substituted) 2-isopropoxystyrene to give prototypical "second-generation" Grubbs-Hoveyda complexes for olefin metathesis. The new approach to this venerable catalyst family is safe and versatile as it uses a triple bond rather than phenyldiazomethane as the ultimate carbene source and does not require any sacrificial phosphines.
Project description:Hydrogenation reactions can be used to store energy in chemical bonds, and if these reactions are reversible, that energy can be released on demand. Some of the most effective transition metal catalysts for CO2 hydrogenation have featured pyridin-2-ol-based ligands (e.g., 6,6'-dihydroxybipyridine (6,6'-dhbp)) for both their proton-responsive features and for metal-ligand bifunctional catalysis. We aimed to compare bidentate pyridin-2-ol based ligands with a new scaffold featuring an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) bound to pyridin-2-ol. Toward this aim, we have synthesized a series of [Cp*Ir(NHC-pyOR)Cl]OTf complexes where R = t Bu (1), H (2), or Me (3). For comparison, we tested analogous bipy-derived iridium complexes as catalysts, specifically [Cp*Ir(6,6'-dxbp)Cl]OTf, where x = hydroxy (4Ir ) or methoxy (5Ir ); 4Ir was reported previously, but 5Ir is new. The analogous ruthenium complexes were also tested using [(?6-cymene)Ru(6,6'-dxbp)Cl]OTf, where x = hydroxy (4Ru ) or methoxy (5Ru ); 4Ru and 5Ru were both reported previously. All new complexes were fully characterized by spectroscopic and analytical methods and by single-crystal X-ray diffraction for 1, 2, 3, 5Ir , and for two [Ag(NHC-pyOR)2]OTf complexes 6 (R = t Bu) and 7 (R = Me). The aqueous catalytic studies of both CO2 hydrogenation and formic acid dehydrogenation were performed with catalysts 1-5. In general, NHC-pyOR complexes 1-3 were modest precatalysts for both reactions. NHC complexes 1-3 all underwent transformations under basic CO2 hydrogenation conditions, and for 3, we trapped a product of its transformation, 3SP , which we characterized crystallographically. For CO2 hydrogenation with base and dxbp-based catalysts, we observed that x = hydroxy (4Ir ) is 5-8 times more active than x = methoxy (5Ir ). Notably, ruthenium complex 4Ru showed 95% of the activity of 4Ir . For formic acid dehydrogenation, the trends were quite different with catalytic activity showing 4Ir ? 4Ru and 4Ir ? 5Ir . Secondary coordination sphere effects are important under basic hydrogenation conditions where the OH groups of 6,6'-dhbp are deprotonated and alkali metals can bind and help to activate CO2. Computational DFT studies have confirmed these trends and have been used to study the mechanisms of both CO2 hydrogenation and formic acid dehydrogenation.
Project description:A novel ruthenium complex binding to two subtly different aminophosphine ligands, (o-PPh2C6H4CH2NH2)(o-PPh2C6H4NH2)RuCl2, was successfully isolated. This bis(aminophosphine)-ruthenium complex shows efficient activity in both dimethyl oxalate (DMO) and methyl benzoate (MB) hydrogenation. On the contrast, similar complexes (o-PPh2C6H4NH2)2RuCl2 and (o-PPh2C6H4CH2NH2)2RuCl2, can only effectively catalyze the hydrogenation of DMO and MB, respectively. Our experimental studies in combination of theoretical calculations reveal that the remarkable substrate selectivity in the hydrogenation of esters arises from the nonbonding interactions operated by the CH2 linkage of the ligand.
Project description:The synthesis of a ruthenium complex containing an N-heterocylic carbene (NHC) and a mesoionic carbene (MIC) is described wherein addition of a Brønsted acid results in protonolysis of the Ru-MIC bond to generate an extremely active metathesis catalyst. Mechanistic studies implicated a rate-determining protonation step in the generation of the metathesis-active species. The activity of the NHC/MIC catalyst was found to exceed those of current commercial ruthenium catalysts.
Project description:Critical to advancing the uptake of olefin metathesis in leading contexts, including pharmaceutical manufacturing, is identification of highly active catalysts that resist decomposition. Amines constitute an aggressive challenge to ruthenium metathesis catalysts. Examined here is the impact of 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU), morpholine, n-butylamine, and triethylamine on Ru metathesis catalysts that represent the current state of the art, including cyclic alkyl amino carbene (CAAC) and N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes. Accordingly, the amine-tolerance of the nitro-Grela catalyst RuCl2(H2IMes)(=CHAr) (nG; Ar = C6H4-2-O i Pr-5-NO2) is compared with that of its CAAC analogues nGC1 and nGC2, and the Hoveyda-class catalyst RuCl2(C2)(=CHAr') HC2 (Ar' = C6H4-2-O i Pr). In C1, the carbene carbon is flanked by an N-2,6-Et2C6H3 group and a CMePh quaternary carbon; in C2, by an N-2- i Pr-6-MeC6H3 group and a CMe2 quaternary carbon. The impact of 1 equiv amine per Ru on turnover numbers (TONs) in ring-closing metathesis of diethyl diallylmalonate was assessed at 9 ppm Ru, at RT and 70 °C. The deleterious impact of amines followed the trend NEt3 ? NH2 n Bu ? DBU ? morpholine. Morpholine is shown to decompose nGC1 by nucleophilic abstraction of the methylidene ligand; DBU, by proton abstraction from the metallacyclobutane. Decomposition was minimized at 70 °C, at which nGC1 enabled TONs of ca. 60?000 even in the presence of morpholine or DBU, vs ca. 80?000 in the absence of base. Unexpectedly, H2IMes catalyst nG delivered 70-90% of the performance of nGC1 at high temperatures, and underwent decomposition by Brønsted base at a similar rate. Density functional theory (DFT) analysis shows that this similarity is due to comparable net electron donation by the H2IMes and C1 ligands. Catalysts bearing the smaller C2 ligand were comparatively insensitive to amines, owing to rapid, preferential bimolecular decomposition.
Project description:We combine multicomponent reactions, catalytic performance studies and predictive modelling to find transfer hydrogenation catalysts. An initial set of 18 ruthenium-carbene complexes were synthesized and screened in the transfer hydrogenation of furfural to furfurol with isopropyl alcohol complexes gave varied yields, from 62% up to >99.9%, with no obvious structure/activity correlations. Control experiments proved that the carbene ligand remains coordinated to the ruthenium centre throughout the reaction. Deuterium-labelling studies showed a secondary isotope effect (k(H):k(D)=1.5). Further mechanistic studies showed that this transfer hydrogenation follows the so-called monohydride pathway. Using these data, we built a predictive model for 13 of the catalysts, based on 2D and 3D molecular descriptors. We tested and validated the model using the remaining five catalysts (cross-validation, R(2)=0.913). Then, with this model, the conversion and selectivity were predicted for four completely new ruthenium-carbene complexes. These four catalysts were then synthesized and tested. The results were within 3% of the model's predictions, demonstrating the validity and value of predictive modelling in catalyst optimization.