Development of Silica-Based Biodegradable Submicrometric Carriers and Investigating Their Characteristics as in Vitro Delivery Vehicles.
ABSTRACT: Nanostructured silica (SiO2)-based materials are attractive carriers for the delivery of bioactive compounds into cells. In this study, we developed hollow submicrometric particles composed of SiO2 capsules that were separately loaded with various bioactive molecules such as dextran, proteins, and nucleic acids. The structural characterization of the reported carriers was conducted using transmission and scanning electron microscopies (TEM/SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Moreover, the interaction of the developed carriers with cell lines was studied using standard viability, proliferation, and uptake assays. The submicrometric SiO2-based capsules loaded with DNA plasmid encoding green fluorescence proteins (GFP) were used to transfect cell lines. The obtained results were compared with studies made with similar capsules composed of polymers and show that SiO2-based capsules provide better transfection rates on the costs of higher toxicity.
Project description:Multifunctional SiO2?·?Re2O3 (Re?=?Y, Eu, La, Sm, Tb, Pr) hollow spheres (HSs) have been fabricated using an acidic Re3+ ion solution. Under ultraviolet radiation, functional HSs emit different colors of light according to the different rare-earth ions embedded into the shell of SiO2 hollow spheres. The as-prepared hollow capsules were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectrometry. Drug loading and release experiments have been carried out using SiO2?·?Eu2O3 HSs that acted as drug carriers. The results demonstrate that the multifunctional HSs exhibit a high storage capacity and the ability of retaining drug stability and activity, which indicates that the as-synthesized fluorescent hollow capsules are a potential candidate as drug delivery materials.
Project description:Towards the goal of development of a generic nanomaterial delivery system and delivery of the 'as prepared' nanoparticles without 'further surface modification' in a generic way, we have fabricated a hybrid polymer capsule as a delivery vehicle in which nanoparticles are loaded within their cavity. To this end, a generic approach to prepare nanomaterials-loaded polyelectrolyte multilayered (PEM) capsules has been reported, where polystyrene sulfonate (PSS)/polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) polymer capsules were employed as nano/microreactors to synthesize variety of nanomaterials (metal nanoparticles; lanthanide doped inorganic nanoparticles; gadolinium based nanoparticles, cadmium based nanoparticles; different shapes of nanoparticles; co-loading of two types of nanoparticles) in their hollow cavity. These nanoparticles-loaded capsules were employed to demonstrate generic delivery of payload of nanoparticles intracellularly (HeLa cells), without the need of individual nanoparticle surface modification. Validation of intracellular internalization of nanoparticles-loaded capsules by HeLa cells was ascertained by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The green emission from Tb(3+) was observed after internalization of LaF(3):Tb(3+)(5%) nanoparticles-loaded capsules by HeLa cells, which suggests that nanoparticles in hybrid capsules retain their functionality within the cells. In vitro cytotoxicity studies of these nanoparticles-loaded capsules showed less/no cytotoxicity in comparison to blank capsules or untreated cells, thus offering a way of evading direct contact of nanoparticles with cells because of the presence of biocompatible polymeric shell of capsules. The proposed hybrid delivery system can be potentially developed to avoid a series of biological barriers and deliver multiple cargoes (both simultaneous and individual delivery) without the need of individual cargo design/modification.
Project description:Amphiphilic gold nanoparticles (amph-NPs), composed of gold cores surrounded by an amphiphilic mixed organic ligand shell, are capable of embedding within and traversing lipid membranes. Here we describe a strategy using crosslink-stabilized lipid nanocapsules (NCs) as carriers to transport such membrane-penetrating particles into tumor cells and promote their transfer to intracellular membranes for enhanced radiotherapy of cancer. We synthesized and characterized interbilayer-crosslinked multilamellar lipid vesicles (ICMVs) carrying amph-NPs embedded in the capsule walls, forming Au-NCs. Confocal and electron microscopies revealed that the intracellular distribution of amph-NPs within melanoma and breast tumor cells following uptake of free particles vs Au-NCs was quite distinct and that amph-NPs initially delivered into endosomes by Au-NCs transferred over a period of hours to intracellular membranes through tumor cells, with greater intracellular spread in melanoma cells than breast carcinoma cells. Clonogenic assays revealed that Au-NCs enhanced radiotherapeutic killing of melanoma cells. Thus, multilamellar lipid capsules may serve as an effective carrier to deliver amphiphilic gold nanoparticles to tumors, where the membrane-penetrating properties of these materials can significantly enhance the efficacy of frontline radiotherapy treatments.
Project description:The encapsulation ?-carotene in whey protein concentrate (WPC) capsules through the emulsion electrospraying technique was studied, using deep eutectic solvents (DES) as solvents. These novel solvents are characterized by negligible volatility, a liquid state far below 0 °C, a broad range of polarity, high solubilization power strength for a wide range of compounds, especially poorly water-soluble compounds, high extraction ability, and high stabilization ability for some natural products. Four DES formulations were used, based on mixtures of choline chloride with water, propanediol, glucose, glycerol, or butanediol. ?-Carotene was successfully encapsulated in a solubilized form within WPC capsules; as a DES formulation with choline chloride and butanediol, the formulation produced capsules with the highest carotenoid loading capacity. SEM micrographs demonstrated that round and smooth capsules with sizes around 2 µm were obtained. ATR-FTIR results showed the presence of DES in the WPC capsules, which indirectly anticipated the presence of ?-carotene in the WPC capsules. Stability against photo-oxidation studies confirmed the expected presence of the bioactive and revealed that solubilized ?-carotene loaded WPC capsules presented excellent photo-oxidation stability compared with free ?-carotene. The capsules developed here clearly show the significant potential of the combination of DES and electrospraying for the encapsulation and stabilization of highly insoluble bioactive compounds.
Project description:A pH and thermal dual-responsive nanocarrier with silica as the core and block copolymer composed of poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) as the shell was prepared by surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (SI-RAFT) polymerization. The resulting SiO2-PMAA-b-PNIPAM particles dispersed individually in an aqueous solution at a high pH and a low temperature but reversibly agglomerated under acidic conditions or at elevated temperatures. These dual-responsive nanoparticles were used as carriers to deliver the model drug doxorubicin (DOX) with unusually high entrapment efficiency and loading content, which is due to the small size (15 nm), light weight of the cores, and high graft density (0.619 chains/nm2) achieved by SI-RAFT polymerization. The release rate was controlled by both the pH and temperature of the surrounding medium. Moreover, these particles selectively precipitated at acidic conditions with increased temperature, which may enhance their ability to accumulate at tumor sites. Cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that DOX-loaded nanoparticles are highly active against Hela cells and more effective than free DOX of an equivalent dose. A cellular uptake study revealed that SiO2-PMAA-b-PNIPAM nanoparticles could successfully deliver DOX molecules into the nuclei of Hela cells. All these features indicated that SiO2-PMAA-b-PNIPAM nanoparticles are a promising candidate for therapeutic applications.
Project description:Nanoassembled capsules (NACs) that incorporate a polymer aggregate inside a silica shell may be loaded with agents that are of particular interest for therapeutic or diagnostic applications. NACs formed using the MRI contrast agent GdDOTP(5-) in the internal polymer aggregate are reported herein, the smaller of which show promise as potential MRI contrast agents. Unlike many other nanoencapsulated systems, water access to the inner core of these NACs does not appear to be limited and consequently the water relaxivity per Gd(3+) agent can reach as high as 24 mM(-1) s(-1). Robust, spherical capsules were formed using polyallylamine or poly-L-lysine ranging from 0.2 to 5 microm in diameter. The greatest gains in relaxivity were observed for smaller NACs, for which water accessibility remained high but molecular rotation of the Gd(3+) chelate was effectively restricted. Larger NACs did not afford such large gains in relaxivity, the result of poorer water accessibility combined with less-effective rotational restriction.
Project description:We demonstrate a novel approach to the controlled loading of inorganic nanoparticles and proteins into submicron- and micron-sized porous particles. The approach is based on freezing/thawing cycles, which lead to high loading densities. The process was tested for the inclusion of Au, magnetite nanoparticles, and bovine serum albumin in biocompatible vaterite carriers of micron and submicron sizes. The amounts of loaded nanoparticles or substances were adjusted by the number of freezing/thawing cycles. Our method afforded at least a three times higher loading of magnetite nanoparticles and a four times higher loading of protein for micron vaterite particles, in comparison with conventional methods such as adsorption and coprecipitation. The capsules loaded with magnetite nanoparticles by the freezing-induced loading method moved faster in a magnetic field gradient than did the capsules loaded by adsorption or coprecipitation. Our approach allows the preparation of multicomponent nanocomposite materials with designed properties such as remote control (e.g. via the application of an electromagnetic or acoustic field) and cargo unloading. Such materials could be used as multimodal contrast agents, drug delivery systems, and sensors.
Project description:The photocatalytic degradation of organic molecules is one of the effective ways for water purification. At this point, photocatalytic microreactor systems seem to be promising to enhance the versatility of the photoassisted degradation approach. Herein, we propose photoresponsive microcapsules prepared via layer-by-layer assembly of polyelectrolytes on the novel CaCO3/TiO2 composite template cores. The preparation of CaCO3/TiO2 composite particles is challenging because of the poor compatibility of TiO2 and CaCO3 in an aqueous medium. To prepare stable CaCO3/TiO2 composites, TiO2 nanoparticles were loaded into mesoporous CaCO3 microparticles with a freezing-induced loading technique. The inclusion of TiO2 nanoparticles into CaCO3 templates was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis with respect to their type, concentration, and number of loading iterations. Upon polyelectrolyte shell assembly, the CaCO3 matrix was dissolved, resulting in microreactor capsules loaded with TiO2 nanoparticles. The photoresponsive properties of the resulted capsules were tested by photoinduced degradation of the low-molecule dye rhodamine B in aqueous solution and fluorescently labeled polymer molecules absorbed on the capsule surface under UV light. The exposure of the capsules to UV light resulted in a pronounced degradation of rhodamine B in capsule microvolume and fluorescent molecules on the capsule surface. Finally, the versatility of preparation of multifunctional photocatalytic and magnetically responsive capsules was demonstrated by iterative freezing-induced loading of TiO2 and magnetite Fe3O4 nanoparticles into CaCO3 templates.
Project description:Poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) is a bioresorbable synthetic polyester with numerous biomedical applications. PCL membranes show great potential in guided tissue regeneration because they are biocompatible, occlusive and space maintaining, but lack osteoconductivity. Therefore, two different types of mesoporous bioactive glasses (SiO2-CaO-P2O5 and SiO2-SrO-P2O5) were synthesized and incorporated in PCL thin membranes by spin coating. To enhance the osteogenic effect of resulting membranes, the bioglasses were loaded with the bisphosphonate drug ibandronate prior to their incorporation in the polymeric matrix. The effect of the composition of the bioglasses as well as the presence of absorbed ibandronate on the physicochemical, cell attachment and differentiation properties of the PCL membranes was evaluated. Both fillers led to a decrease of the crystallinity of PCL, along with an increase in its hydrophilicity and a noticeable increase in its bioactivity. Bioactivity was further increased in the presence of a Sr substituted bioglass loaded with ibandronate. The membranes exhibited excellent biocompatibility upon estimation of their cytotoxicity on Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (WJ-SCs), while they presented higher osteogenic potential in comparison with neat PCL after WJ-SCs induced differentiation towards bone cells, which was enhanced by a possible synergistic effect of Sr and ibandronate.
Project description:The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic-abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) "on the fly" programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients.