Modulation of Biliary Cancer Chemo-Resistance Through MicroRNA-Mediated Rewiring of the Expansion of CD133+ Cells.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Changes in single microRNA (miRNA) expression have been associated with chemo-resistance in biliary tract cancers (BTCs). However, a global assessment of the dynamic role of the microRNome has never been performed to identify potential therapeutic targets that are functionally relevant in the BTC cell response to chemotherapy. APPROACH AND RESULTS:High-throughput screening (HTS) of 997 locked nucleic acid miRNA inhibitors was performed in six cholangiocarcinoma cell lines treated with cisplatin and gemcitabine (CG) seeking changes in cell viability. Validation experiments were performed with mirVana probes. MicroRNA and gene expression was assessed by TaqMan assay, RNA-sequencing, and in situ hybridization in four independent cohorts of human BTCs. Knockout of microRNA was achieved by CRISPR-CAS9 in CCLP cells (MIR1249KO) and tested for effects on chemotherapy sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. HTS revealed that MIR1249 inhibition enhanced chemotherapy sensitivity across all cell lines. MIR1249 expression was increased in 41% of cases in human BTCs. In validation experiments, MIR1249 inhibition did not alter cell viability in untreated or dimethyl sulfoxide-treated cells; however, it did increase the CG effect. MIR1249 expression was increased in CD133+ biliary cancer cells freshly isolated from the stem cell niche of human BTCs as well as in CD133+ chemo-resistant CCLP cells. MIR1249 modulated the chemotherapy-induced enrichment of CD133+ cells by controlling their clonal expansion through the Wnt-regulator FZD8. MIR1249KO cells had impaired expansion of the CD133+ subclone and its enrichment after chemotherapy, reduced expression of cancer stem cell markers, and increased chemosensitivity. MIR1249KO xenograft BTC models showed tumor shrinkage after exposure to weekly CG, whereas wild-type models showed only stable disease over treatment. CONCLUSIONS:MIR1249 mediates resistance to CG in BTCs and may be tested as a target for therapeutics.
Project description:Purpose: Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) carry a very poor prognosis and have no approved targeted therapies. Recent genomic profiling of primary BTCs identified a number of potentially actionable drug targets, however accurate model systems to evaluate these targets are currently lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the genomic landscape of commonly used BTC cell lines to primary BTCs, and to utilize these models for drug target evaluation. Design: Twenty BTC cell lines were profiled by RNA-seq analysis. Results: Transcriptomic profiling of BTC cell lines identified two subtypes, enriched for epithelial and mesenchymal genes respectively, which were also identified in primary BTC. Conclusions: Cell lines harbor similar genomic alterations to primary BTCs. Integration of cell line and primary cancer data identify novel molecular subsets, and highlight specific molecular vulnerabilities in BTC. Overall design: 20 biliary tract cancer cell lines were profiled by RNA-seq analysis.
Project description:Gemcitabine-based chemotherapy is the current standard treatment for biliary tract cancers (BTCs) and resistance to gemcitabine remains the clinical challenge. TP53 mutation has been shown to be associated with poor clinicopathologic characteristics and survival in patients with BTCs, indicating that p53 plays an important role in the treatment of these cancers. Herein, we comprehensively reviewed previous BTC preclinical research and early clinical trials in terms of p53, as well as novel p53-targeted treatment, alone or in combination with either chemotherapy or other targeted therapies in BTCs. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that p53 mutations in BTCs are associated with enhanced gemcitabine resistance, therefore targeting p53 may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of BTCs. Directly targeting mutant p53 by p53 activators, or indirectly by targeting cell cycle checkpoint proteins (Chk1, ataxia telangiectasia related (ATR), and Wee1) leading to synthetic lethality, may be potential future strategies for gemcitabine-resistant p53 mutated BTCs. In contrast, for wild-type p53 BTCs, activation of p53 by inhibition of its negative regulators (MDM2 and wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (WIP1)) may be alternative options. Combination therapies consisting of standard cytotoxic drugs and novel small molecules targeting p53 and related signaling pathways may be the future key standard approach to beat cancer.
Project description:Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) currently have no approved targeted therapies. Although genomic profiling of primary BTCs has identified multiple potential drug targets, accurate models are needed for their evaluation. Genomic profiling of 22 BTC cell lines revealed they harbor similar mutational signatures, recurrently mutated genes, and genomic alterations to primary tumors. Transcriptomic profiling identified two major subtypes, enriched for epithelial and mesenchymal genes, which were also evident in patient-derived organoids and primary tumors. Interrogating these models revealed multiple mechanisms of MAPK signaling activation in BTC, including co-occurrence of low-activity BRAF and MEK mutations with receptor tyrosine kinase overexpression. Finally, BTC cell lines with altered ERBB2 or FGFRs were exquisitely sensitive to specific targeted agents, whereas surprisingly, IDH1-mutant lines did not respond to IDH1 inhibitors in vitro. These findings establish BTC cell lines as robust models of primary disease, reveal specific molecular disease subsets, and highlight specific molecular vulnerabilities in these cancers.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the association between statin use and risk of biliary tract cancers (BTC). DESIGN:This is a nested case-control study conducted in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We included cases diagnosed with incident primary BTCs, including cancers of the gall bladder, bile duct (ie, both intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma), ampulla of Vater and mixed type, between 1990 and 2017. For each case, we selected five controls who did not develop BTCs at the time of case diagnosis, matched by sex, year of birth, calendar time and years of enrolment in the general practice using incidence density sampling. Exposures were defined as two or more prescription records of statins 1?year prior to BTC diagnosis or control selection. ORs and 95% CIs for associations between statins and BTC overall and by subtypes were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for relevant confounders. RESULTS:We included 3118 BTC cases and 15?519 cancer-free controls. Current statin use versus non-use was associated with a reduced risk of all BTCs combined (adjusted OR=0.88, 95%?CI 0.79 to 0.98). The reduced risks were most pronounced among long-term users, as indicated by increasing number of prescriptions (ptrend=0.016) and cumulative dose of statins (ptrend=0.008). The magnitude of association was similar for statin use and risk of individual types of BTCs. The reduced risk of BTCs associated with a record of current statin use versus non-use was more pronounced among persons with diabetes (adjusted OR=0.72, 95%?CI 0.57 to 0.91). Among non-diabetics, the adjusted OR for current statin use versus non-use was 0.91 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.03, pheterogeneity=0.007). CONCLUSION:Compared with non-use of statins, current statin use is associated with 12% lower risk of BTCs; no association found with former statin use. If replicated, particularly in countries with a high incidence of BTCs, our findings could pave the way for evaluating the value of statins for BTC chemoprevention.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) include cholangiocarcinomas and gallbladder cancers usually present at an advanced stage, which are considered resectable in less than 20% of cases and characterised by poor prognosis. METHODS:In this review, we discussed the most recent therapeutic options on the basis of the most updated and complete reviews and recent prospective studies in selected BTC patients. RESULTS:Due to the high recurrence rate of BTCs, we suggest the new recommendations that have been made on adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment after surgery. New chemotherapy combinations in advanced-stage patients allow a better survival benefit than the standard treatment. Furthermore, the revelation of complex molecular events and their interactions and relationships with some risk factors allowed the development of targeted/toxic agents alone or combination with chemotherapy that is really promising. In unresectable patients, hepatic arterial infusion of high-dose chemotherapy or selective internal radiotherapy could offer a primary mass volume reduction or its resection with the maintenance of liver function. CONCLUSIONS:The therapeutic landscape for BTCs is blooming again, the knowledge of their biology is still growing, but the available data on chemotherapy, radiotherapy, locoregional treatments, and target therapies have added hopes to improve patient survival.
Project description:Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) are a heterogeneous group of adenocarcinomas that originate from the epithelial lining of the biliary tree. BTCs are characterized by presentation with advanced disease precluding curative surgery, rising global incidence, and a poor prognosis. Chemotherapy is the mainstay of the current treatment, which results in a median overall survival of less than one year, underscoring the need for novel therapeutic agents and strategies. Next-generation sequencing-based molecular profiling has shed light on the underpinnings of the complex pathophysiology of BTC and has uncovered numerous actionable targets, leading to the discovery of new therapies tailored to the molecular targets. Therapies targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) fusion, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family, DNA damage repair (DDR) pathways, and BRAF mutations have produced early encouraging results in selected patients. Current clinical trials evaluating targeted therapies, as monotherapies and in combination with other agents, are paving the way for novel treatment options. Genomic profiling of cell-free circulating tumor DNA that can assist in the identification of an actionable target is another exciting area of development. In this review, we provide a contemporaneous appraisal of the evolving targeted therapies and the ongoing clinical trials that will likely transform the therapeutic paradigm of BTC.
Project description:Biliary tract cancers (BTC) is a group of malignancies that arise from the epithelial cells of the biliary tree. These cancers are typically classified by anatomic site of origin: intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC) and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHCC), and gallbladder cancer (GBC). To date, complete surgical resection remains the mainstay of treatment especially for earlier stage disease. Unfortunately, most patients present with advanced or metastatic disease, when systemic chemotherapy is the only treatment option. Due to the paucity of effective treatments, BTCs have a dismal prognosis. There is a tremendous need to better understand the disease biology, discover new therapies, and improve clinical outcomes for this challenging disease. Next-generation sequencing has produced a more accurate and detailed picture of the molecular signatures in BTCs. The three BTC histologic subtypes are, in fact, quite molecularly distinct. IHCC commonly contain FGFR2 fusions and IDH 1 and 2 mutations, whereas EHCC and GBC tend to carry mutations in EGFR, HER2, and MAPK pathway. In light of this emerging knowledge, clinical trials have become more biomarker-driven, which allows capturing of subsets of patients that are most likely to respond to certain therapies. Many new and promising targeted therapeutics are currently in the pipeline. Here we review the genetic landscape of BTCs while focusing on new molecular targets and targeted therapeutics currently being investigated in biomarker-driven clinical trials.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Advanced biliary tract cancers (BTCs) have a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. This exploratory phase II study aimed to evaluate the activity of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in advanced BTC and explore prognostic biomarkers. METHODS:Patients with advanced BTCs, who had not received chemotherapy for advanced disease, were enroled to receive everolimus (10 mg daily). The primary endpoint was disease control rate (DCR) at 12 weeks. Secondary endpoints included overall response rate, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and adverse events. Activation status of the RAS and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR pathways was assessed by DNA sequencing and immunohistochemistry on archival tumour tissue. RESULTS:The study enroled 27 patients and the DCR at 12 weeks was 48%. Median PFS was 5.5 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1-10.0 months) and median OS was 9.5 months (95% CI: 5.5-16.6 months). DCR at 12 weeks was significantly worse for gall bladder carcinoma compared to other anatomical sites, and there was a trend towards a worsened PFS and OS. Treatment was well tolerated. KRAS (12%) and PIK3CA mutations (12%) were uncommon. Immunohistochemical staining for PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways did not significantly correlate with outcome. CONCLUSION:In unselected patients, everolimus demonstrated clinical activity as first-line monotherapy in advanced BTC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) are known to have a dismal prognosis. A number of chemokines play important roles in the progress of BTCs. However, the serum levels of chemokines in BTCs have not yet been explored. METHODS:The sera of healthy donors (n = 8) and patients with BTCs who were enrolled in second line sunitinib trials (n = 27) were collected. The concentrations of three kinds of chemokines (CXCL5, CXCL8 and CXCL12) were measured using ELISA assay. The median concentrations of chemokines were compared between healthy donors and BTC patients and the role of chemokines as a prognostic biomarker was examined. RESULTS:BTC patients generally had higher serum levels of CXCL5 and CXCL12 compared to healthy donors. Patients with cholangiocarcinoma showed significantly higher levels of serum CXCL12 than patients with gallbladder cancer. In survival analysis, only CXCL12 level showed a prognostic impact on overall survival (median OS: 6.9 vs. 0.9 months in low CXCL12 vs. high CXCL12, respectively; P = .008). High CXCL5 levels were also correlated with poor survival without statistical insignificance (median OS: 6.2 vs. 2.0 months in low CXCL5 vs. high CXCL5, respectively; P = .070). CONCLUSIONS:There was a significant difference in OS according to the level of CXCL12, suggesting that serum CXCL12 levels may be a useful surrogate marker for clinical outcome in advanced BTCs.
Project description:Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNA genes have been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, survival and response to treatment. Conflicting results are available on the association between rs4919510, a SNP in mature miR-608 and clinical outcome in CRC. Here, we analyzed the association between rs4919510 and benefit from perioperative treatment in a randomised phase II trial of neoadjuvant Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin (CAPOX) followed by chemo-radiotherapy, surgery and adjuvant CAPOX ± Cetuximab in high-risk locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). A total of 155/164 (94.5%) patients were assessable. 95 (61.3%) were homozygous for CC, 55 (35.5%) heterozygous (CG) and 5 (3.2%) homozygous for GG. Median follow-up was 64.9 months. In the CAPOX arm the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 54.6% and 60.7% for CC and 82.0% and 82.1% for CG/GG, respectively (HR PFS 0.13, 95% CI: 0.12-0.83, P = 0.02; HR OS 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14-1.01, P = 0.05). In the CAPOX-C arm PFS and OS were 73.2 and 82.2%, respectively for CC carriers and 64.6 and 73.1% for CG/GG carriers (HR PFS 1.38, 95% CI: 0.61-3.13, P = 0.44; HR OS 1.34, 95% CI: 0.52-3.48, P = 0.55). An interaction was found between study treatment and rs4919510 genotype for both PFS (P = 0.02) and OS (P = 0.07). This is the first study investigating rs4919510 in LARC. The CC genotype appeared to be associated with worse prognosis compared to the CG/GG genotype in patients treated with chemotherapy and chemo-radiotherapy alone. Addition of Cetuximab to chemotherapy and chemo-radiotherapy in CC carriers appeared to improve clinical outcome.