Effect of body mass index on response to neo-adjuvant therapy in HER2-positive breast cancer: an exploratory analysis of the NeoALTTO trial.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer (BC) development, recurrence, and death. In view of this, we aimed to investigate the clinical value of obesity in BC patients treated with anti-HER2 therapies in the NeoALTTO trial, which randomized 455 patients to neo-adjuvant lapatinib, trastuzumab, or their combination plus paclitaxel. METHODS:Patients were classified according to their basal body mass index (BMI) into underweight (
Project description:The prognostic implications of very low body mass index (BMI) values remain unclear in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). This study aimed to investigate the prognostic impact of BMI classification based on the World Health Organization criteria in patients with ADHF. Among 3509 patients with ADHF and available BMI data at discharge in 19 participating hospitals in Japan between October 2014 and March 2016, the study population was divided into five groups; (1) Severely underweight: BMI?<?16 kg/m2, (2) Underweight: BMI???16 kg/m2 and?<?18.5 kg/m2, (3) Normal weight: BMI???18.5 kg/m2 and?<?25 kg/m2, (4) Overweight: BMI???25 kg/m2 and?<?30 kg/m2 (5) Obese: BMI???30 kg/m2. The primary outcome measure was all-cause death. The median follow-up duration was 471 days, with 96.4% follow up at 1-year. The cumulative 1-year incidence of all-cause death was higher in underweight groups, and lower in overweight groups (Severely underweight: 36.3%, Underweight: 23.9%, Normal weight: 14.4%, Overweight: 7.9%, and Obese: 9.0%, P?<?0.001). After adjusting confounders, the excess mortality risk remained significant in the severely underweight group (HR, 2.32; 95%CI, 1.83–2.94; P?<?0.001), and in the underweight group (HR, 1.31; 95%CI, 1.08–1.59; P?=?0.005) relative to the normal weight group, while the lower mortality risk was no longer significant in the overweight group (HR, 0.82; 95%CI, 0.62–1.10; P?=?0.18) and in the obese group (HR, 1.09; 95%CI, 0.65–1.85; P?=?0.74). Very low BMI was associated with a higher risk for one-year mortality after discharge in patients with ADHF.
Project description:The relation between obesity and stroke outcome has been disputed. This study was aimed to determine the association of body mass index (BMI) with mortality and functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Data were from a national, multi-centre, prospective, hospital-based register: the ChinaQUEST (Quality Evaluation of Stroke Care and Treatment) study. Of 4782 acute ischemic stroke patients, 282 were underweight (BMI?<?18.5?kg/m2), 2306 were normal-weight (BMI 18.5 to?<?24?kg/m2), 1677 were overweight (BMI 24 to <28?kg/m2) and 517 were obese (BMI???28?kg/m2). The risks of death at 12 months and death or high dependency at 3 and 12 months in overweight (HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.78-1.20; OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.80-1.09; OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.81-1.12) and obese patients (HR: 1.07, 95% CI: 0.78-1.48; OR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.75-1.22; OR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.83-1.35) did not differ from normal-weight patients significantly after adjusting for baseline characteristics. Underweight patients had significantly increased risks of these three outcomes. In ischemic stroke patients, being overweight or obese was not associated with decreased mortality or better functional recovery but being underweight predicted unfavourable outcomes.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in a multiethnic South East Asian population. SETTING:Fifteen participating cardiology centres contributed to the Malaysian National Cardiovascular Disease Database-Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (NCVD-PCI) registry. PARTICIPANTS:28?742 patients from the NCVD-PCI registry who had their first PCI between January 2007 and December 2014 were included. Those without their BMI recorded or BMI <11?kg/m2 or >70?kg/m2 were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:In-hospital death, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), vascular complications between different BMI groups were examined. Multivariable-adjusted HRs for 1-year mortality after PCI among the BMI groups were also calculated. RESULTS:The patients were divided into four groups; underweight (BMI <18.5?kg/m2), normal BMI (BMI 18.5 to <23?kg/m2), overweight (BMI 23 to <27.5?kg/m2) and obese (BMI ?27.5?kg/m2). Comparison of their baseline characteristics showed that the obese group was younger, had lower prevalence of smoking but higher prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia. There was no difference found in terms of in-hospital death, MACE and vascular complications after PCI. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed that compared with normal BMI group the underweight group had a non-significant difference (HR 1.02, p=0.952), while the overweight group had significantly lower risk of 1-year mortality (HR 0.71, p=0.005). The obese group also showed lower HR but this was non-significant (HR 0.78, p=0.056). CONCLUSIONS:Using Asian-specific BMI cut-off points, the overweight group in our study population was independently associated with lower risk of 1-year mortality after PCI compared with the normal BMI group.
Project description:Obese breast cancer patients have worse prognosis than normal weight patients, but the level at which obesity is prognostically unfavorable is unclear.This retrospective analysis was performed using data from the SUCCESS A trial, in which 3754 patients with high-risk early breast cancer were randomized to anthracycline- and taxane-based chemotherapy with or without gemcitabine. Patients were classified as underweight/normal weight (body mass index (BMI) < 25.0), overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9), slightly obese (BMI 30.0-34.9), moderately obese (BMI 35.0-39.9) and severely obese (BMI ≥ 40.0), and the effect of BMI on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) was evaluated (median follow-up 65 months). In addition, subgroup analyses were conducted to assess the effect of BMI in luminal A-like, luminal B-like, HER2 (human epidermal growth factor 2)-positive and triple-negative tumors.Multivariate analyses revealed an independent prognostic effect of BMI on DFS (p = 0.001) and OS (p = 0.005). Compared with underweight/normal weight patients, severely obese patients had worse DFS (hazard ratio (HR) 2.70, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.71-4.28, p < 0.001) and OS (HR 2.79, 95 % CI 1.63-4.77, p < 0.001), while moderately obese, slightly obese and overweight patients did not differ from underweight/normal weight patients with regard to DFS or OS. Subgroup analyses showed a similar significant effect of BMI on DFS and OS in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), but not in patients with other tumor subtypes.Severe obesity (BMI ≥ 40) significantly worsens prognosis in early breast cancer patients, particularly for triple-negative tumors.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02181101 . Registered September 2005.
Project description:Individuals entering US Army service are generally young and healthy, but many are overweight, which may impact cardiometabolic risk despite physical activity and fitness requirements. This analysis examines the association between Soldiers' BMI at accession and incident cardiometabolic risk factors (CRF) using longitudinal data from 731,014 Soldiers (17.0% female; age: 21.6 [3.9] years; BMI: 24.7 [3.8] kg/m2) who were assessed at Army accession, 2001-2011. CRF were defined as incident diagnoses through 2011, by ICD-9 code, of metabolic syndrome, glucose/insulin disorder, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or overweight/obesity (in those not initially overweight/obese). Multivariable-adjusted proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between BMI categories at accession and CRF. Initially underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2) were 2.4% of Soldiers, 53.5% were normal weight (18.5-<25), 34.2% were overweight (25-<30), and 10.0% were obese (?30). Mean age range at CRF diagnosis was 24-29 years old, with generally low CRF incidence: 228 with metabolic syndrome, 3,880 with a glucose/insulin disorder, 26,373 with hypertension, and 13,404 with dyslipidemia. Of the Soldiers who were not overweight or obese at accession, 5,361 were eventually diagnosed as overweight or obese. Relative to Soldiers who were normal weight at accession, those who were overweight or obese, respectively, had significantly higher risk of developing each CRF after multivariable adjustment (HR [95% CI]: metabolic syndrome: 4.13 [2.87-5.94], 13.36 [9.00-19.83]; glucose/insulin disorder: 1.39 [1.30-1.50], 2.76 [2.52-3.04]; hypertension: 1.85 [1.80-1.90], 3.31 [3.20-3.42]; dyslipidemia: 1.81 [1.75-1.89], 3.19 [3.04-3.35]). Risk of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and overweight/obesity in initially underweight Soldiers was 40%, 31%, and 79% lower, respectively, versus normal-weight Soldiers. BMI in early adulthood has important implications for cardiometabolic health, even within young, physically active populations.
Project description:The relationship between body mass index (BMI) with mortality risk, in particular the BMI category associated with the lowest all-cause and CVD-and-stroke mortality and the BMI threshold for defining overweight or obesity in older persons is controversial. This study investigated the age-dependent associations of BMI categories with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke mortality.Prospective cohort study (Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Studies) of older adults aged 55 and above, followed up from 2003 to 2011. Participants were 2605 Chinese with baseline BMI and other variables. Outcome Measurement: Mortality hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause and CVD and stroke mortality.Overall, BMI showed a U-shaped relationship with all-cause and CVD and stroke mortality, being lowest at Normal Weight-II category (BMI 23.0-24.9 kg/m2). Most evidently among the middle-aged (55-64 years), all-cause mortality risks relative to Normal Weight-II were elevated for underweight (<BMI 18.5; HR = 4.92, p<0.0138), Normal Weight-I (BMI 18.5-22.9; HR = 3.41, p = 0.0149), and Overweight-Obese (BMI>30.0; HR = 4.05,p = 0.0423). Among the old (≥65 years), however, Overweight and Obese categories were not significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality (HR from 0.98 to 1.29), but Overweight-Obese was associated with increased CVD and stroke mortality (HR = 10.0, p = 0.0086).BMI showed a U-shaped relationship with mortality. Among older persons aged 65 and above, the overweight-or-obese category of BMI was not associated with excess all-cause mortality.
Project description:<label>BACKGROUND</label>Obesity or overweight is related to worse outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) following catheter ablation (CA). The role of being underweight in relation to recurrent arrhythmias post AF ablation is less certain. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the association of body mass index (BMI) with arrhythmia outcomes in AF patients undergoing CA.<label>METHODS</label>In a cohort of 1410 AF patients (mean age 57.2?±?11.6?years; 68% male) undergoing single CA, the association between BMI and AF ablation outcome was analyzed using BMI as a continuous variable and by four BMI categories (<18.5?kg/m2, 18.5-24?kg/m2, 25-29?kg/m2, and???30?kg/m2).<label>RESULT</label>We observed a positive association between a cut off value of BMI and risk of AF recurrence post AF ablation. BMI ?26.36?kg/m2 was related to more AF recurrence (c-statistic 0.55, 95%CI 0.51-0.58; P?<?0.01) with 50% increased risk of AF recurrence (HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.22-1.86; P?<?0.01). Recurrence rates in the four BMI categories were 33.3%, 23.2%, 27.2 and 41.8%, respectively (P?<?0.01). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that BMI categories of <18.5?kg/m2 and???30?kg/m2 were all associated with more AF recurrence (P?=?0.01). Both underweight (HR 1.85, 95%CI 1.12-3.08; P?=?0.02) and obesity (HR 1.78, 95%CI 1.17-2.72; P?=?0.01) significantly increased the risk of AF recurrence in a Cox proportional hazard model.<label>CONCLUSION</label>BMI had good predictive value for AF ablation outcomes with a cut off value of ?26.36?kg/m2. Apart from being obese/overweight, being underweight might also be a risk factor for AF recurrence post ablation.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To study the magnitude and predictors of underweight, incident underweight and recovery from underweight among rural Indian adults. DESIGN:Prospective cohort study. Each participant's BMI was measured in 2008 and 2012 and categorized as underweight (BMI<18·5 kg/m2), normal (BMI=18·5-22·9 kg/m2) or overweight/obese (BMI ?23·0 kg/m2). Incident underweight was defined as a transition from normal weight or overweight/obese in 2008 to underweight in 2012, and recovery from underweight as a transition from underweight in 2008 to normal weight in 2012. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed. SETTING:The Birbhum Health and Demographic Surveillance System, West Bengal, India. SUBJECTS:Predominantly rural individuals (n 6732) aged ?18 years enrolled in 2008 were followed up in 2012. RESULTS:In 2008, the prevalence of underweight was 46·5 %. From 2008 to 2012, 25·8 % of underweight persons transitioned to normal BMI, 12·9 % of normal-weight persons became underweight and 0·1 % of overweight/obese persons became underweight. Multivariable models reveal that people aged 25-49 years, educated and wealthier people, and non-smokers had lower odds of underweight in 2008 and lower odds of incident underweight. Odds of recovery from underweight were lower among people aged ?36 years and higher among educated (Grade 6 or higher) individuals. CONCLUSIONS:The current study highlights a high incidence of underweight and important risk factors and modifiable predictors of underweight in rural India, which may inform the design of local nutrition interventions.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the correlates of the double burden of malnutrition (DBM) among women in five sub-Saharan African countries. DESIGN:Secondary analysis of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). The outcome variable was body mass index (BMI), a measure of DBM. The BMI was classified into underweight (BMI <18.50 kg/m2), normal weight (18.50-24.99 kg/m2), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2) and obesity (≥30.0 kg/m2). SETTINGS:Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Mozambique and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). SUBJECTS:Women aged 15-49 years (n=64698). RESULTS:Compared with normal weight women, number of years of formal education was associated with the likelihood of being overweight and obese in Ghana, Mozambique and Nigeria, while associated with the likelihood of being underweight in Kenya and Nigeria. Older age was associated with the likelihood of being underweight, overweight and obese in all countries. Positive associations were also observed between living in better-off households and overweight and obesity, while a negative association was observed for underweight. Breastfeeding was associated with less likelihood of underweight in DRC and Nigeria, obesity in DRC and Ghana, overweight in Kenya and overweight and obesity in Mozambique and Nigeria relative to normal weight. CONCLUSIONS:Our analysis reveals that in all the countries, women who are breastfeeding are less likely to be underweight, overweight and obese. Education, age and household wealth index tend to associate with a higher likelihood of DBM among women. Interventions to address DBM should take into account the variations in the effects of these correlates.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A number of previous studies have suggested that overweight or obese patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) may have lower morbidity and mortality than their leaner counterparts. Few studies have addressed possible gender differences, and the results are conflicting. We examined the association between body mass index (BMI) and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), cardiovascular (CV) death and all-cause mortality in men and women with suspected stable angina pectoris. METHOD:The cohort included 4164 patients with suspected stable angina undergoing elective coronary angiography between 2000 and 2004. Events were registered until the end of 2006. Hazard ratios (HR) (95% confidence intervals) were estimated using Cox regression by comparing normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2) with overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2) and obese (?30 kg/m2) patients. Underweight (<18.5 kg/m2) patients were excluded from the study. RESULTS:Of 4131 patients with complete data, 72% were males and 75% were diagnosed with significant CAD. The mean (standard deviation (SD)) age in the total population was 62 (10) years. Mean (SD) BMI was 26.8 (3.9) kg/m2, 34% was normal weight, 48% overweight and 19% obese. During follow up, a total of 337 (8.2%) experienced an AMI and 302 (7.3%) patients died, of whom 165 (4.0%) died from cardiovascular causes. We observed a significant interaction between BMI groups and gender with regards to risk of AMI (p?=?0.011) and CV death (p?=?0.031), but not to risk of all-cause mortality; obese men had a multivariate adjusted increased risk of AMI (HR 1.80 (1.28, 2.52)) and CV death (HR 1.60 (1.00, 2.55)) compared to normal weight men. By contrast, overweight women had a decreased risk of AMI (HR 0.56 (0.33, 0.98)) compared to normal weight women. The risk of all-cause mortality did not differ between BMI categories. CONCLUSION:Compared with normal weight subjects, obese men had an increased risk of AMI and CV death, while overweight women had a decreased risk of AMI. These findings may potentially explain some of the result variation in previous studies reporting on the obesity paradox.