Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is regulated by HIF-1? and cAMP and promotes renal cyst cell proliferation in a macrophage-independent manner.
ABSTRACT: Progressive cyst growth leads to decline of renal function in polycystic kidney disease. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was found to be upregulated in cyst-lining cells in a mouse model of polycystic kidney disease and to promote cyst growth. In addition, MIF can be secreted by tubular cells and may contribute to cyst growth in an autocrine manner. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to induction of MIF in cyst-lining cells remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF) 1? upregulates MIF in cyst-lining cells in a tubule-specific PKD1 knockout mouse. Pharmacological stabilization of HIF-1? resulted in significant increase of MIF in cyst epithelial cells whereas tubule-specific knockout of HIF-1? prevented MIF upregulation. Identical regulation could be found for ABCA1, which has been shown to act as a transport protein for MIF. Furthermore, we show that MIF and ABCA1 are direct target genes of HIF-1? in human primary tubular cells. Next to HIF-1? and hypoxia, we found MIF being additionally regulated by cAMP which is a strong promotor of cyst growth. In line with these findings, HIF-1?- and cAMP-dependent in vitro cyst growth could be decreased by the MIF-inhibitor ISO-1 which resulted in reduced cyst cell proliferation. In conclusion, HIF-1? and cAMP regulate MIF in primary tubular cells and cyst-lining epithelial cells, and MIF promotes cyst growth in the absence of macrophages. In line with these findings, the MIF inhibitor ISO-1 attenuates HIF-1?- and cAMP-dependent in vitro cyst enlargement. KEY MESSAGES: • MIF is upregulated in cyst-lining cells in a polycystic kidney disease mouse model. • MIF upregulation is mediated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF) 1?. • ABCA1, transport protein for MIF, is also regulated by HIF-1? in vitro and in vivo. • MIF is additionally regulated by cAMP, a strong promotor of cyst growth. • MIF-inhibitor ISO-1 reduces HIF-1?- and cAMP-dependent cyst growth.
Project description:Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by renal cyst formation, inflammation, and fibrosis. Macrophages infiltrate cystic kidneys, but the role of these and other inflammatory factors in disease progression are poorly understood. Here, we identified macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) as an important regulator of cyst growth in ADPKD. MIF was upregulated in cyst-lining epithelial cells in polycystin-1-deficient murine kidneys and accumulated in cyst fluid of human ADPKD kidneys. MIF promoted cystic epithelial cell proliferation by activating ERK, mTOR, and Rb/E2F pathways and by increasing glucose uptake and ATP production, which inhibited AMP-activated protein kinase signaling. MIF also regulated cystic renal epithelial cell apoptosis through p53-dependent signaling. In polycystin-1-deficient mice, MIF was required for recruitment and retention of renal macrophages, which promoted cyst expansion, and Mif deletion or pharmacologic inhibition delayed cyst growth in multiple murine ADPKD models. MIF-dependent macrophage recruitment was associated with upregulation of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and inflammatory cytokine TNF-?. TNF-? induced MIF expression, and MIF subsequently exacerbated TNF-? expression in renal epithelial cells, suggesting a positive feedback loop between TNF-? and MIF during cyst development. Our study indicates MIF is a central and upstream regulator of ADPKD pathogenesis and provides a rationale for further exploration of MIF as a therapeutic target for ADPKD.
Project description:Polycystic kidney diseases are characterized by numerous renal cysts that continuously enlarge resulting in compression of intact nephrons and tissue hypoxia. Recently, we have shown that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? promotes secretion-dependent cyst expansion, presumably by transcriptional regulation of proteins that are involved in calcium-activated chloride secretion. Here, we report that HIF-1? directly activates expression of the purinergic receptor P2Y2R in human primary renal tubular cells. In addition, we found that P2Y2R is highly expressed in cyst-lining cells of human ADPKD kidneys as well as PKD1 orthologous mouse kidneys. Knockdown of P2Y2R in renal collecting duct cells inhibited calcium-dependent chloride secretion in Ussing chamber analyses. In line with these findings, knockdown of P2Y2R retarded cyst expansion in vitro and prevented ATP- and HIF-1?-dependent cyst growth. In conclusion, P2Y2R mediates ATP-dependent cyst growth and is transcriptionally regulated by HIF-1?. These findings provide further mechanistic evidence on how hypoxia promotes cyst growth.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Genetic defects in polycystin-1 or -2 (PC1 or PC2) cause polycystic liver disease associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PLD-ADPKD). Progressive cyst growth is sustained by a cAMP-dependent Ras/ERK/HIF? pathway, leading to increased vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) signaling. In PC2-defective cholangiocytes, cAMP production in response to [Ca2+]ER depletion is increased, while store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), intracellular and endoplasmic reticulum [Ca2+]ER levels are reduced. We investigated whether the adenylyl cyclases, AC5 and AC6, which can be inhibited by Ca2+, are activated by the ER chaperone STIM1. This would result in cAMP/PKA-dependent Ras/ERK/HIF? pathway activation in PC2-defective cells, in response to [Ca2+]ER depletion. METHODS:PC2/AC6 double conditional knockout (KO) mice were generated (Pkd2/AC6 KO) and compared to Pkd2 KO mice. The AC5 inhibitor SQ22,536 or AC5 siRNA were used in isolated cholangiocytes while the inhibitor was used in biliary organoid and animals; liver tissues were harvested for histochemical analysis. RESULTS:When comparing Pkd2/AC6 KO to Pkd2 KO mice, no decrease in liver cyst size was found, and cellular cAMP after [Ca2+]ER depletion only decreased by 12%. Conversely, in PC2-defective cells, inhibition of AC5 significantly reduced cAMP production, pERK1/2 expression and VEGF-A secretion. AC5 inhibitors significantly reduced growth of biliary organoids derived from Pkd2 KO and Pkd2/AC6 KO mice. In vivo treatment with SQ22,536 significantly reduced liver cystic area and cell proliferation in PC2-defective mice. After [Ca2+]ER depletion in PC2-defective cells, STIM1 interacts with AC5 but not with Orai1, the Ca2+ channel that mediates SOCE. CONCLUSION:[Ca2+]ER depletion in PC2-defective cells activates AC5 and results in stimulation of cAMP/ERK1-2 signaling, VEGF production and cyst growth. This mechanism may represent a novel therapeutic target. LAY SUMMARY:Polycystic liver diseases are characterized by progressive cyst growth until their complications mandate surgery or liver transplantation. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that inhibiting cell proliferation, which is induced by increased levels of cAMP, may represent a novel therapeutic target to slow the progression of the disease.
Project description:Polycystin-1 (PC1) mutations result in proliferative renal cyst growth and progression to renal failure in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The transcription factor STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) was shown to be activated in cyst-lining cells in ADPKD and PKD mouse models and may drive renal cyst growth, but the mechanisms leading to persistent STAT3 activation are unknown. A proteolytic fragment of PC1 corresponding to the cytoplasmic tail, PC1-p30, is overexpressed in ADPKD. Here, we show that PC1-p30 interacts with the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Src, resulting in Src-dependent activation of STAT3 by tyrosine phosphorylation. The PC1-p30-mediated activation of Src/STAT3 was independent of JAK family kinases and insensitive to the STAT3 inhibitor suppressor of cytokine signaling 3. Signaling by the EGF receptor (EGFR) or cAMP amplified the activation of Src/STAT3 by PC1-p30. Expression of PC1-p30 changed the cellular response to cAMP signaling. In the absence of PC1-p30, cAMP dampened EGFR- or IL-6-dependent activation of STAT3; in the presence of PC1-p30, cAMP amplified Src-dependent activation of STAT3. In the polycystic kidney (PCK) rat model, activation of STAT3 in renal cystic cells depended on vasopressin receptor 2 (V2R) signaling, which increased cAMP levels. Genetic inhibition of vasopressin expression or treatment with a pharmacologic V2R inhibitor strongly suppressed STAT3 activation and reduced renal cyst growth. These results suggest that PC1, via its cleaved cytoplasmic tail, integrates signaling inputs from EGFR and cAMP, resulting in Src-dependent activation of STAT3 and a proliferative response.
Project description:Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is caused by mutation of PKD1 or PKD2, which encode polycystin 1 and 2, respectively. The polycystins localize to primary cilia and the functional loss of the polycystin complex leads to the formation and progressive growth of fluid-filled cysts in the kidney. The pathogenesis of ADPKD is complex and molecular mechanisms connecting ciliary dysfunction to renal cystogenesis are unclear. Primary cilia mediate Hedgehog signaling, which modulates cell proliferation and differentiation in a tissue-dependent manner. Previously, we showed that Hedgehog signaling was increased in cystic kidneys of several PKD mouse models and that Hedgehog inhibition prevented cyst formation in embryonic PKD mouse kidneys treated with cAMP. Here, we show that in human ADPKD tissue, Hedgehog target and activator, Glioma 1, was elevated and localized to cyst-lining epithelial cells and to interstitial cells, suggesting increased autocrine and paracrine Hedgehog signaling in ADPKD, respectively. Further, Hedgehog inhibitors reduced basal and cAMP-induced proliferation of ADPKD cells and cyst formation in vitro. These data suggest that Hedgehog signaling is increased in human ADPKD and that suppression of Hedgehog signaling can counter cellular processes that promote cyst growth in vitro.
Project description:Abnormal proliferation of cyst-lining epithelium and increased intracystic fluid secretion via the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) are thought to contribute to cyst growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) expression and activity are increased in certain cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, and in Pkd1-mutant renal epithelial cells. Inhibition of HDAC6 activity with specific inhibitors slows cancer growth. Here we studied the effect of tubacin, a specific HDAC6 inhibitor, on cyst growth in polycystic kidney disease. Treatment with tubacin prevented cyst formation in MDCK cells, an in vitro model of cystogenesis. Cyclic AMP stimulates cell proliferation and activates intracystic CFTR-mediated chloride secretion in ADPKD. Treatment with tubacin downregulated cyclic AMP levels, inhibited cell proliferation, and inhibited cyclic AMP-activated CFTR chloride currents in MDCK cells. We also found that tubacin reduced cyst growth by inhibiting proliferation of cyst-lining epithelial cells, downregulated cyclic AMP levels, and improved renal function in a Pkd1-conditional mouse model of ADPKD. Thus, HDAC6 could play a role in cyst formation and could serve as a potential therapeutic target in ADPKD.
Project description:Hepatic cystogenesis in polycystic liver disease is associated with increased levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in cholangiocytes lining liver cysts. Takeda G protein receptor 5 (TGR5), a G protein-coupled bile acid receptor, is linked to cAMP and expressed in cholangiocytes. Therefore, we hypothesized that TGR5 might contribute to disease progression. We examined expression of TGR5 and G? proteins in cultured cholangiocytes and in livers of animal models and humans with polycystic liver disease. In vitro, we assessed cholangiocyte proliferation, cAMP levels, and cyst growth in response to (1) TGR5 agonists (taurolithocholic acid, oleanolic acid [OA], and two synthetic compounds), (2) a novel TGR5 antagonist (m-tolyl 5-chloro-2-[ethylsulfonyl] pyrimidine-4-carboxylate [SBI-115]), and (3) a combination of SBI-115 and pasireotide, a somatostatin receptor analogue. In vivo, we examined hepatic cystogenesis in OA-treated polycystic kidney rats and after genetic elimination of TGR5 in double mutant TGR5-/- ;Pkhd1del2/del2 mice. Compared to control, expression of TGR5 and G?s (but not G?i and G?q ) proteins was increased 2-fold to 3-fold in cystic cholangiocytes in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, TGR5 stimulation enhanced cAMP production, cell proliferation, and cyst growth by ?40%; these effects were abolished after TGR5 reduction by short hairpin RNA. OA increased cystogenesis in polycystic kidney rats by 35%; in contrast, hepatic cystic areas were decreased by 45% in TGR5-deficient TGR5-/- ;Pkhd1del2/del2 mice. TGR5 expression and its colocalization with G?s were increased ?2-fold upon OA treatment. Levels of cAMP, cell proliferation, and cyst growth in vitro were decreased by ?30% in cystic cholangiocytes after treatment with SBI-115 alone and by ?50% when SBI-115 was combined with pasireotide. CONCLUSION:TGR5 contributes to hepatic cystogenesis by increasing cAMP and enhancing cholangiocyte proliferation; our data suggest that a TGR5 antagonist alone or concurrently with somatostatin receptor agonists represents a potential therapeutic approach in polycystic liver disease. (Hepatology 2017;66:1197-1218).
Project description:Cyst expansion in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) results in localized hypoxia in the kidney that may activate hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?). HIF-1? and autophagy, a form of programmed cell repair, are induced by hypoxia. The purposes were to determine HIF-1? expression and autophagy in rat and mouse models of PKD. HIF-1? was detected by electrochemiluminescence. Autophagy was visualized by electron microscopy (EM). LC3 and beclin-1, markers of autophagy, were detected by immunoblotting. Eight-week-old male heterozygous (Cy/+) and 4-wk-old homozygous (Cy/Cy) Han:SPRD rats, 4-wk-old cpk mice, and 112-day-old Pkd2WS25/- mice with a mutation in the Pkd2 gene were studied. HIF-1? was significantly increased in massive Cy/Cy and cpk kidneys and not smaller Cy/+ and Pkd2WS25/- kidneys. On EM, features of autophagy were seen in wild-type (+/+), Cy/+, and cpk kidneys: autophagosomes, mitophagy, and autolysosomes. Specifically, autophagosomes were found on EM in the tubular cells lining the cysts in cpk mice. The increase in LC3-II, a marker of autophagosome production and beclin, a regulator of autophagy, in Cy/Cy and cpk kidneys, followed the same pattern of increase as HIF-1?. To determine the role of HIF-1? in cyst formation and/or growth, Cy/+ rats, Cy/Cy rats, and cpk mice were treated with the HIF-1? inhibitor 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2). 2ME2 had no significant effect on kidney volume or cyst volume density. In summary, HIF-1? is highly expressed in the late stages of PKD and is associated with an increase in LC3-II and beclin-1. The first demonstration of autophagosomes in PKD kidneys is reported. Inhibition of HIF-1? did not have a therapeutic effect.
Project description:Polycystic kidney diseases are characterized by numerous bilateral renal cysts that continuously enlarge and, through compression of intact nephrons, lead to a decline in kidney function over time. We previously showed that cyst enlargement is accompanied by regional hypoxia, which results in the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1? (HIF-1?) in the cyst epithelium. Here we demonstrate a correlation between cyst size and the expression of the HIF-1?-target gene, glucose transporter 1, and report that HIF-1? promotes renal cyst growth in two in vitro cyst models-principal-like MDCK cells (plMDCKs) within a collagen matrix and cultured embryonic mouse kidneys stimulated with forskolin. In both models, augmenting HIF-1? levels with the prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor 2-(1-chloro-4-hydroxyisoquinoline-3-carboxamido) acetate enhanced cyst growth. In addition, inhibition of HIF-1? degradation through tubule-specific knockdown of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor increased cyst size in the embryonic kidney cyst model. In contrast, inhibition of HIF-1? by chetomin and knockdown of HIF-1? both decreased cyst growth in these models. Consistent with previous reports, plMDCK cyst enlargement was driven largely by transepithelial chloride secretion, which consists, in part, of a calcium-activated chloride conductance. plMDCKs deficient for HIF-1? almost completely lacked calcium-activated chloride secretion. We conclude that regional hypoxia in renal cysts contributes to cyst growth, primarily due to HIF-1?-dependent calcium-activated chloride secretion. These findings identify the HIF system as a novel target for inhibition of cyst growth.
Project description:In polycystic kidney disease (PKD), erythropoietin (EPO) production and interstitial vascularization are increased compared with other kidney diseases. EPO and several angiogenic factors are controlled by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs), which are composed of a constitutive beta-subunit and two alternative alpha-subunits (HIF-1alpha, HIF-2alpha). We hypothesized that cyst expansion may result in pericystic hypoxia and consecutive up-regulation of HIF and thus examined the expression of HIF-alpha and HIF target genes in human PKD and in a rodent PKD model. HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha were found to be up-regulated in cyst epithelium and cells of cyst walls, respectively. The distinct expression pattern of the HIF-alpha isoforms closely resembles the respective pattern in normal kidneys under systemic hypoxia. Pimonidazole staining, a marker for tissue hypoxia, confirmed the existence of regional hypoxia in polycystic kidneys. Immunohistochemistry for selected target genes implicated a role for HIF-1alpha in vascular endothelial growth factor and Glut-1 activation and HIF-2alpha in endoglin and EPO stimulation. Polycystin-deficient cells showed physiological, oxygen-dependent HIF-alpha modulation, excluding a direct influence of polycystin deficiency on HIF-alpha regulation. In conclusion, HIF accumulation in human and rat PKD seems to be responsible for increased EPO production and pericystic hypervascularity and may have an impact on progression of PKD.