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Defining the structural basis for human leukocyte antigen reactivity in clinical transplantation.


ABSTRACT: The current state-of-the-art technology employed to assess anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies (Anti-HLA Ab) for donor-recipient matching and patient risk stratification in renal transplantation is the single antigen bead (SAB) assay. However, there are limitations to the SAB assay as it is not quantitative and due to variations in techniques and reagents, there is no standardization across laboratories. In this study, a structurally-defined human monoclonal alloantibody was employed to provide a mechanistic explanation for how fundamental alloantibody biology influences the readout from the SAB assay. Performance of the clinical SAB assay was evaluated by altering Anti-HLA Ab concentration, subclass, and detection reagents. Tests were conducted in parallel by two internationally accredited laboratories using standardized protocols and reagents. We show that alloantibody concentration, subclass, laboratory-specific detection devices, subclass-specific detection reagents all contribute to a significant degree of variation in the readout. We report a significant prozone effect affecting HLA alleles that are bound strongly by the test alloantibody as opposed to those bound weakly and this phenomenon is independent of complement. These data highlight the importance for establishing international standards for SAB assay calibration and have significant implications for our understanding of discordance in previous studies that have analyzed its clinical relevance.

SUBMITTER: Gu Y 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC7591533 | BioStudies | 2020-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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