Defining the structural basis for human leukocyte antigen reactivity in clinical transplantation.
ABSTRACT: The current state-of-the-art technology employed to assess anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies (Anti-HLA Ab) for donor-recipient matching and patient risk stratification in renal transplantation is the single antigen bead (SAB) assay. However, there are limitations to the SAB assay as it is not quantitative and due to variations in techniques and reagents, there is no standardization across laboratories. In this study, a structurally-defined human monoclonal alloantibody was employed to provide a mechanistic explanation for how fundamental alloantibody biology influences the readout from the SAB assay. Performance of the clinical SAB assay was evaluated by altering Anti-HLA Ab concentration, subclass, and detection reagents. Tests were conducted in parallel by two internationally accredited laboratories using standardized protocols and reagents. We show that alloantibody concentration, subclass, laboratory-specific detection devices, subclass-specific detection reagents all contribute to a significant degree of variation in the readout. We report a significant prozone effect affecting HLA alleles that are bound strongly by the test alloantibody as opposed to those bound weakly and this phenomenon is independent of complement. These data highlight the importance for establishing international standards for SAB assay calibration and have significant implications for our understanding of discordance in previous studies that have analyzed its clinical relevance.
Project description:Humoral alloimmunity, particularly that triggered by preformed antibodies against human leukocyte antigens (HLA), is associated with an increased prevalence of rejection and reduced transplant survival. The high sensitivity of solid phase assays, based on microbeads coated with single antigens (SAB), consolidated them as the gold-standard method to characterize anti-HLA antibodies, ensuring a successful allograft allocation. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) provided by SAB is regularly used to stratify the immunological risk, assuming it as a reliable estimation of the antibody-level, but it is often limited by artifacts. Beyond MFI, other properties, such as the complement-binding ability or the IgG1-4 subclass profile have been examined to more accurately define the clinical relevance of antibodies and clarify their functional properties. However, there are still unresolved issues. Neat serum-samples from 20 highly-sensitized patients were analyzed by SAB-panIgG, SAB-IgG1-4 subclass and SAB-C1q assays. All 1:16 diluted serum-samples were additionally analyzed by SAB-panIgG and SAB-IgG1-4 subclass assays. A total of 1,285 anti-HLA antibodies were identified as positive, 473 (36.8%) of which were C1q-binding. As expected, serum-dilution enhanced the correlation between the C1q-binding ability and the antibody-strength, measured as the MFI (rneat = 0.248 vs. rdiluted = 0.817). SAB-subclass assay revealed at least one IgG1-4 subclass in 1,012 (78.8%) positive antibody-specificities. Among them, strong complement-binding subclasses, mainly IgG1, were particularly frequent (98.9%) and no differences were found between C1q- and non-C1q-binding antibodies regarding their presence (99.4 vs. 98.5%; p = 0.193). In contrast, weak or non-C1q-binding subclasses (IgG2/IgG4) were more commonly detected in C1q-binding antibodies (78.9 vs. 38.6%; p < 0.001). Interestingly, a strong association was found between the C1q-binding ability and the IgG1 strength (rIgG1dil = 0.796). Though lower, the correlation between the IgG2 strength and the C1q-binding ability was also strong (rIgG2dil = 0.758), being both subclasses closely related (rIgG1-IgG2 = 0.817). We did not find any correlation with the C1q-binding ability considering the remaining subclasses. In conclusion, we demonstrate that a particular profile of IgG subclasses (IgG1/IgG3) itself does not determine at all the ability to bind complement of anti-HLA antibodies assessed by SAB-C1q assay. It is the IgG subclass strength, mainly of IgG1, which usually appears in combination with IgG2, that best correlates with it.
Project description:Solid-phase assays to distinguish complement binding from noncomplement binding HLA-specific antibodies have been introduced, but technical limitations may compromise their interpretation. We have examined the extent to which C1q-binding to HLA-class I single-antigen beads (SAB) is influenced by denatured HLA on SAB, antibody titre, and complement interference that causes a misleading low assessment of HLA-specific antibody levels.Sera from 25 highly sensitized patients were tested using Luminex IgG-SAB and C1q-SAB assays. Sera were tested undiluted, at 1:20 dilution to detect high-level IgG, and after ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid treatment to obviate complement interference. Conformational HLA and denatured HLA protein levels on SAB were determined using W6/32 and HC-10 monoclonal antibodies, respectively. Denatured HLA was expressed as HC-10 binding to untreated SAB as a percentage of maximal binding to acid-treated SAB.For undiluted sera, Luminex mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) values for IgG-SAB and C1q-SAB correlated poorly (r = 0.42). ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid and serum dilution improved the correlation (r = 0.57 and 0.77, respectively). Increasing levels of denatured HLA interfered with the detection of C1q binding. Consequently, the correlation between IgG-SAB MFI and C1q-SAB MFI was lowest using undiluted sera and SAB with greater than 30% denatured HLA (r = 0.40) and highest using diluted sera and SAB with 30% or less denatured HLA (r = 0.86).Antibody level, complement interference, and denatured HLA class I on SAB may all affect the clinical interpretation of the C1q-SAB assay. The C1q-SAB assay represents a substantial additional cost for routine clinical use, and we question its justification given the potential uncertainty about its interpretation.
Project description:Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) of solid organ transplants (SOT) is characterized by damage triggered by donor-specific antibodies (DSA) binding donor Class I and II HLA (HLA-I and HLA-II) expressed on endothelial cells. While F(ab')2 portions of DSA cause cellular activation and proliferation, Fc regions activate the classical complement cascade, resulting in complement deposition and leukocyte recruitment, both hallmark features of AMR. We characterized the ability of an anti-C1s monoclonal antibody, TNT003, to inhibit HLA antibody (HLA-Ab)-induced complement activation. Complement deposition induced by HLA-Ab was evaluated using novel cell- and bead-based assays. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) were cultured with HLA-Ab and human complement; production of activated complement proteins was measured by flow cytometry. Additionally, C3d deposition was measured on single antigen beads (SAB) mixed with HLA-Ab and human complement. TNT003 inhibited HLA-Ab mediated complement deposition on HAEC in a concentration-dependent manner; C3a, C4a and C5a anaphylatoxin production was also diminished by TNT003. Finally, TNT003 blocked C3d deposition induced by Class I (HLAI-Ab)- and Class II (HLAII-Ab)-specific antibodies on SAB. These data suggest TNT003 may be useful for modulating the effects of DSA, as TNT003 inhibits complement deposition and split product formation generated by HLA-I/II-Ab in vitro.
Project description:The consolidation of single antigen beads (SAB-panIgG) assay in the detection of preformed anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies has improved transplantation success. However, its high sensitivity has limited the allograft allocation for sensitized patients, increasing their waiting time. A modification of the standard SAB-panIgG assay allows the detection of that subset of antibodies capable of binding C1q (SAB-C1q assay). However, the clinical usefulness of SAB-C1q assay for determining the unacceptable mismatches is under discussion. We retrospectively analyzed the impact of preformed donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSA) according to the C1q-binding ability on allograft outcome, examining 389 single-kidney transplanted patients from deceased donors. Recipients with preformed C1q-binding DSA showed the lowest allograft survival up to 7?years (40.7%) compared to patients with preformed non-C1q-binding DSA (73.4%; p?=?0.001) and without DSA (79.1%; p?<?0.001). Allograft survival rate was similar between patients with preformed non-C1q-binding DSA and patients without preformed DSA (p?=?0.403). Interestingly, among the high-mean fluorescence intensity DSA (?10,000) population (n?=?46), those patients whose DSA were further capable of binding C1q showed a poorer allograft outcome (38.4 vs. 68.9%; p?=?0.041). Moreover, in our multivariate predictive model for assessing the risk of allograft loss, the presence of C1q-binding DSA (HR 4.012; CI 95% 2.326-6.919; p?<?0.001) but not of non-C1q-binding DSA (HR 1.389; CI 95% 0.784-2.461; p?=?0.260) remained an independent predictor after stratifying the DSA population according to the C1q-binding ability and adjusting the model for other pre-transplantation predictive factors including donor age, cold-ischemia time, and HLA-DR mismatches. In conclusion, the unacceptable mismatch definition according to the SAB-C1q assay would improve the risk stratification of allograft loss and increase the limited allograft allocation of highly sensitized patients, shortening their waiting time.
Project description:Solid phase multiplex-bead arrays for the detection and characterization of HLA antibodies provide increased sensitivity and specificity compared to conventional lymphocyte-based assays. Assay variability due to inconsistencies in commercial kits and differences in standard operating procedures (SOP) hamper comparison of results between laboratories. The Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation Antibody Core Laboratories investigated sources of assay variation and determined if reproducibility improved through utilization of SOP, common reagents and normalization algorithms. Ten commercial kits from two manufacturers were assessed in each of seven laboratories using 20 HLA reference sera. Implementation of a standardized (vs. a nonstandardized) operating procedure greatly reduced MFI variation from 62% to 25%. Although laboratory agreements exceeded 90% (R(2) ), small systematic differences were observed suggesting center specific factors still contribute to variation. MFI varied according to manufacturer, kit, bead type and lot. ROC analyses showed excellent consistency in antibody assignments between manufacturers (AUC > 0.9) and suggested optimal cutoffs from 1000 to 1500 MFI. Global normalization further reduced MFI variation to levels near 20%. Standardization and normalization of solid phase HLA antibody tests will enable comparison of data across laboratories for clinical trials and diagnostic testing.
Project description:BACKGROUND:HLA mismatches are the primary cause of alloantibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in organ transplantation. To delineate antigenic and immunogenic potentials among individual HLA mismatches, information regarding antibody specificity at the epitope level, instead of the allelic level, is needed. METHODS:This study explores a direct screening method for HLA linear epitopes in kidney transplant patients. We custom synthesized a large panel of 15-residue HLA peptides in an array format and measured alloantibody reactivity to these peptides from the sera of post and/or pretransplant patients. Two design concepts for the arrays were followed: a standard array of a fixed panel of peptides or personalized arrays. The standard array contains 420 peptides derived from a predetermined set of HLA-DQ allelic antigens based on templates also used in the single-antigen beads assay. RESULTS:The array detected distinct antiserum patterns among transplant subjects and revealed epitope levels of specificity largely in accordance with the single-antigen results. Two personalized arrays that each included donor-derived peptides of HLA-A, -B, -C, -DQ, and -DR sequences were separately designed for 2 transplant subjects. The personalized arrays detected de novo antibodies following transplantation. The new method also showed superior sensitivity to a single-antigen assay in one of the cases whose pathological diagnosis of AMR occurred before single-antigen assay could detect antibodies. CONCLUSIONS:This pilot study proved the feasibility of using personalized peptide arrays to achieve detection of alloantibodies for linear HLA epitopes associated with distinct donor-recipient mismatches. Single or multiple reactive epitopes may occur on an individual HLA molecule, and donor-specific HLA-DQ-reactivity among 5 kidney transplant subjects revealed patterns of shared epitopes.
Project description:Background Complement-fixing antibodies against donor HLA are considered a contraindication for kidney transplant. A modification of the IgG single-antigen bead (SAB) assay allows detection of anti-HLA antibodies that bind C3d. Because early humoral graft rejection is considered to be complement mediated, this SAB-based technique may provide a valuable tool in the pretransplant risk stratification of kidney transplant recipients.Methods Previously, we established that pretransplant donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs) are associated with increased risk for long-term graft failure in complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch-negative transplants. In this study, we further characterized the DSA-positive serum samples using the C3d SAB assay.Results Among 567 pretransplant DSA-positive serum samples, 97 (17%) contained at least one C3d-fixing DSA, whereas 470 (83%) had non-C3d-fixing DSA. At 10 years after transplant, patients with C3d-fixing antibodies had a death-censored, covariate-adjusted graft survival of 60%, whereas patients with non-C3d-fixing DSA had a graft survival of 64% (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.70 to 1.48 for C3d-fixing DSA compared with non-C3d-fixing DSA; P=0.93). Patients without DSA had a 10-year graft survival of 78%.Conclusions The C3d-fixing ability of pretransplant DSA is not associated with increased risk for graft failure.
Project description:Ab-mediated rejection (AMR) of solid organ transplants is characterized by intragraft macrophages. It is incompletely understood how donor-specific Ab binding to graft endothelium promotes monocyte adhesion, and what, if any, contribution is made by the Fc region of the Ab. We investigated the mechanisms underlying monocyte recruitment by HLA class I (HLA I) Ab-activated endothelium. We used a panel of murine mAbs of different subclasses to crosslink HLA I on human aortic, venous, and microvascular endothelial cells and measured the binding of human monocytic cell lines and peripheral blood monocytes. Both anti-HLA I murine (m)IgG1 and mIgG2a induced endothelial P-selectin, which was required for monocyte adhesion to endothelium irrespective of subclass. mIgG2a but not mIgG1 could bind human Fc?Rs. Accordingly, HLA I mIgG2a but not mIgG1 treatment of endothelial cells significantly augmented recruitment, predominantly through Fc?RI, and, to a lesser extent, Fc?RIIa. Moreover, HLA I mIgG2a promoted firm adhesion of monocytes to ICAM-1 through Mac-1, which may explain the prominence of monocytes during AMR. We confirmed these observations using human HLA allele-specific mAbs and IgG purified from transplant patient sera. HLA I Abs universally elicit endothelial exocytosis leading to monocyte adherence, implying that P-selectin is a putative therapeutic target to prevent macrophage infiltration during AMR. Importantly, the subclass of donor-specific Ab may influence its pathogenesis. These results imply that human IgG1 and human IgG3 should have a greater capacity to trigger monocyte infiltration into the graft than IgG2 or IgG4 due to enhancement by Fc?R interactions.
Project description:The Luminex-based single antigen bead (SAB) assay is widely used to detect HLA antibody in transplant recipients. However, one limitation of the SAB assay is the prozone effect, which occurs mostly as a result of complement interference. We investigated the efficacy of EDTA treatment for overcoming the prozone effect and predicting C1q binding of HLA antibody. We subjected 27 non-treated (naïve) and EDTA-treated serum samples from highly sensitized patients to IgG-SAB assays, and we confirmed the prozone effect in 53% and 31% of class I and class II antibody tests, respectively, after EDTA treatment. When we conducted additional assays after dithiothreitol treatment and serum dilution, EDTA was the most efficacious in eliminating the prozone effect. Reducing the prozone effect by EDTA treatment strengthened the correlation between IgG mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) and C1q MFI values (ρ=0.825) as compared with the naïve sera (ρ=0.068). Although C1q positivity was dependent on the concentration of HLA antibody in EDTA-treated sera, the correlations varied individually. Overall, our results confirmed the efficacy of EDTA treatment for overcoming the prozone effect. EDTA treatment showed a positive effect on the correlation between IgG MFI and C1q MFI values.
Project description:Magnetic microbeads exhibit rapid separation characteristics and are widely employed for biomolecule and cell isolations in research laboratories, clinical diagnostics assays, and cell therapy manufacturing. However, micrometer particle diameters compromise biomarker recognition, which leads to long incubation times and significant reagent demands. Here, a stimuli-responsive binary reagent system is presented that combines the nanoscale benefits of efficient biomarker recognition and the microscale benefits of rapid magnetic separation. This system comprises magnetic nanoparticles and polymer-antibody (Ab) conjugates that transition from hydrophilic nanoscale reagents to microscale aggregates in response to temperature stimuli. The binary reagent system was benchmarked against Ab-labeled Dynabeads in terms of biomarker isolation kinetics, assay speed, and reagent needs. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements showed that polymer conjugation did not significantly alter the Ab's binding affinity or kinetics. ELISA analysis showed that the unconjugated Ab, polymer-Ab conjugates, and Ab-labeled Dynabeads exhibited similar equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd), ?2 nM. However, the binary reagent system isolated HIV p24 antigen from spiked serum specimens (150 pg/mL) much more quickly than Dynabeads, which resulted in shorter binding times by tens of minutes, or about 30-50% shorter overall assay times. The binary reagent system showed improved performance because the Ab molecules were not conjugated to large, solid microparticle surfaces. This stimuli-responsive binary reagent system illustrates the potential advantages of nanoscale reagents in molecule and cell isolations for both research and clinical applications.