Novel strategy for manufacturing autologous dendritic cell/allogeneic tumor lysate vaccines for glioblastoma.
ABSTRACT: Background:Glioblastoma, the most common primary malignant brain tumor, is nearly universally fatal by 5 years. Dendritic cell vaccines are promising but often limited clinically by antigen choice, dendritic cell potency, and/or manufacturing yield. We optimized vaccine manufacture, generating potent mature autologous dendritic cells pulsed with allogeneic glioblastoma lysates. Methods:Platelet lysate-based supplement was used to establish human glioblastoma cell lines. Phenotype and genotype were assessed. An improved culture technique to generate mature dendritic cells from glioblastoma patients' monocytes was developed. The ability of T cells stimulated with autologous dendritic cells pulsed with allogeneic glioblastoma cell lysate to kill HLA-A2-matched glioblastoma cells was assessed. Results:Glioblastoma cell lines established with platelet lysate supplement grew faster and expressed more stem-like markers than lines grown in neural stem cell media or in the presence of serum. They expressed a variety of glioma-associated antigens and had genomic abnormalities characteristic of glioblastoma stable up to 15 doublings. Unlike standard culture techniques, our optimized technique produced high levels of mature dendritic cells from glioblastoma patients' monocytes. Autologous T cells stimulated with mature dendritic cells pulsed with allogeneic glioblastoma cell line lysate briskly killed HLA-A2-matched glioblastoma cells. Conclusions:Our glioblastoma culture method provides a renewable source for a broad spectrum glioblastoma neoantigens while our dendritic cell culture technique results in more mature dendritic cells in glioblastoma patients than standard techniques. This broadly applicable strategy could be easily integrated into patient care.
Project description:In this Phase I/II trial, the patient's peripheral blood dendritic cells were pulsed with an autologous tumour lysate of the glioma. Seven patients with glioblastoma and three patients with anaplastic glioma, ranging in age from 20 to 69 years, participated in this study. The mean numbers of vaccinations of tumour lysate-pulsed dendritic cells were 3.7 times intradermally close to a cervical lymph node, and 3.2 times intratumorally via an Ommaya reservoir. The percentage of CD56-positive cells in the peripheral blood lymphocytes increased after immunisation. There were two minor responses and four no-change cases evaluated by radiological findings. Dendritic cell vaccination elicited T-cell-mediated antitumour activity, as evaluated by the ELISPOT assay after vaccination in two of five tested patients. Three patients showed delayed-type hypersensitivity reactivity to the autologous tumour lysate, two of these had a minor clinical response, and two had an increased ELISPOT result. Intratumoral CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell infiltration was detected in two patients who underwent reoperation after vaccination. This study demonstrated the safety and antitumour effects of autologous tumour lysate-pulsed dendritic cell therapy for patients with malignant glioma.
Project description:To assess the feasibility, safety, and toxicity of autologous tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccination and toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent glioblastoma. Clinical and immune responses were monitored and correlated with tumor gene expression profiles.Twenty-three patients with glioblastoma (WHO grade IV) were enrolled in this dose-escalation study and received three biweekly injections of glioma lysate-pulsed DCs followed by booster vaccinations with either imiquimod or poly-ICLC adjuvant every 3 months until tumor progression. Gene expression profiling, immunohistochemistry, FACS, and cytokine bead arrays were performed on patient tumors and peripheral blood mononuclear cells.DC vaccinations are safe and not associated with any dose-limiting toxicity. The median overall survival from the time of initial surgical diagnosis of glioblastoma was 31.4 months, with a 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rate of 91%, 55%, and 47%, respectively. Patients whose tumors had mesenchymal gene expression signatures exhibited increased survival following DC vaccination compared with historic controls of the same genetic subtype. Tumor samples with a mesenchymal gene expression signature had a higher number of CD3(+) and CD8(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes compared with glioblastomas of other gene expression signatures (P = 0.006).Autologous tumor lysate-pulsed DC vaccination in conjunction with TLR agonists is safe as adjuvant therapy in newly diagnosed and recurrent glioblastoma patients. Our results suggest that the mesenchymal gene expression profile may identify an immunogenic subgroup of glioblastoma that may be more responsive to immune-based therapies.
Project description:DCVax(®) (Northwest Biotherapeutics, Inc., MD, USA) is a platform technology for delivering dendritic cell based therapeutic vaccines for a variety of cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). DCVax(®)-L, one of the implementations of the DCVax platform, provides personalized active immunotherapy composed of autologous dendritic cells pulsed with autologous whole tumor lysate. Clinical trials with DCVax-L for GBM included previous Phase I/II clinical trials and an ongoing Phase III trial. Preliminary reports of patient outcomes after administration of the DCVax-L vaccine provide a promising therapeutic paradigm for patients with both initially diagnosed and recurrent GBM. Here we evaluate the current literature and clinical experience with the DCVax platform, with a particular focus on GBM treatment.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DC) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells, strongly inducers of T cell-mediated immune responses and, as such, broadly used as vaccine adjuvant in experimental clinical settings. DC are widely generated from human monocytes following in vitro protocols which require 5-7 days of differentiation with GM-CSF and IL-4 followed by 2-3 days of activation/maturation. In attempts to shorten the vaccine's production, Fast-DC protocols have been developed. Here we reported a Fast-DC method in compliance with good manufacturing practices for the production of autologous mature dendritic cells loaded with antigens derived from whole tumor lysate, suitable for the immunotherapy in glioblastoma patients. The feasibility of generating Fast-DC pulsed with whole tumor lysate was assessed using a series of small-scale cultures performed in parallel with clinical grade large scale standard method preparations. Our results demonstrate that this Fast protocol is effective only in the presence of PGE2 in the maturation cocktail to guarantee that Fast-DC cells exhibit a mature phenotype and fulfill all requirements for in vivo use in immunotherapy approaches. Fast-DC generated following this protocol were equally potent to standard DC in inducing Ag-specific T cell proliferation in vitro. Generation of Fast-DC not only reduces labor, cost, and time required for in vitro clinical grade DC development, but can also minimizes inter-preparations variability and the risk of contamination.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen-presenting cell population for activating tumor-specific T cells. Due to the wide range of methods for generating DCs, there is no common protocol or defined set of criteria to validate the immunogenicity and function of DC vaccines.Monocyte-derived DCs were generated during 4 days of culture with recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and interleukin-4, and pulsed with tumor lysate produced by hypochlorous acid oxidation of tumor cells. Different culture parameters for clinical-scale DC preparation were investigated, including: 1) culture media; 2) culture surface; 3) duration of activating DCs with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon (IFN)-gamma; 4) method of DC harvest; and 5) cryomedia and final DC product formulation.DCs cultured in CellGenix DC media containing 2% human AB serum expressed higher levels of maturation markers following lysate-loading and maturation compared to culturing with serum-free CellGenix DC media or AIM-V media, or 2% AB serum supplemented AIM-V media. Nunclon™? surface, but not Corning(®) tissue-culture treated surface and Corning(®) ultra-low attachment surface, were suitable for generating an optimal DC phenotype. Recombinant trypsin resulted in reduced major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I and II expression on mature lysate-loaded DCs, however presentation of MHC Class I peptides by DCs was not impaired and cell viability was higher compared to cell scraping. Preservation of DCs with an infusible cryomedia containing Plasma-Lyte A, dextrose, sodium chloride injection, human serum albumin, and DMSO yielded higher cell viability compared to using human AB serum containing 10% DMSO. Finally, activating DCs for 16 hours with LPS and IFN-? stimulated robust mixed leukocyte reactions (MLRs), and high IL-12p70 production in vitro that continued for 24 hours after the cryopreserved DCs were thawed and replated in fresh media.This study examined criteria including DC phenotype, viability, IL-12p70 production and the ability to stimulate MLR as metrics of whole oxidized tumor lysate-pulsed DC immunogenicity and functionality. Development and optimization of this unique method is now being tested in a clinical trial of autologous oxidized tumor lysate-pulsed DC in clinical-scale in recurrent ovarian, primary peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer (NCT01132014).
Project description:Breast cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer-associated death worldwide. Conventional treatment is associated with substantial toxicity and suboptimal efficacy. We, therefore, developed and evaluated the in vitro efficacy of an autologous dendritic cell (DC) vaccine to treat breast cancer. We recruited 12 female patients with stage 1, 2, or 3 breast cancer and matured their DCs with autologous tumour-specific lysate, a toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 and 7/8 agonist, and an interferon-containing cocktail. The efficacy of the vaccine was evaluated by its ability to elicit a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response to autologous breast cancer cells in vitro. Matured DCs (≥ 60% upregulation of CD80, CD86, CD83, and CCR7) produced high levels of the Th1 effector cytokine, IL12-p70 (1.2 ng/ml; p < 0.0001), compared to DCs pulsed with tumour lysate, or matured with an interferon-containing cocktail alone. We further showed that matured DCs enhance antigen-specific CD8 + T-cell responses to HER-2 (4.5%; p < 0.005) and MUC-1 (19%; p < 0.05) tetramers. The mature DCs could elicit a robust and dose-dependent antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response (65%) which was tumoricidal to autologous breast cancer cells in vitro compared to T-lymphocytes that were primed with autologous lysate loaded-DCs (p < 0.005). Lastly, we showed that the mature DCs post-cryopreservation maintained high viability, maintained their mature phenotype, and remained free of endotoxins or mycoplasma. We have developed a DC vaccine that is cytotoxic to autologous breast cancer cells in vitro. The tools and technology generated here will now be applied to a phase I/IIa clinical trial.
Project description:Background and objective:Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a lethal brainstem tumor in children. Dendritic cells (DCs) have T-cell stimulatory capacity and, therefore, potential antitumor activity for disease control. DCs vaccines have been shown to reactivate tumor-specific T cells in both clinical and preclinical settings. We designed a phase Ib immunotherapy (IT) clinical trial with the use of autologous dendritic cells (ADCs) pulsed with an allogeneic tumors cell-lines lysate in patients with newly diagnosed DIPG after irradiation (radiation therapy). Methods:Nine patients with newly diagnosed DIPG met enrollment criteria. Autologous dendritic cell vaccines (ADCV) were prepared from monocytes obtained by leukapheresis. Five ADCV doses were administered intradermally during induction phase. In the absence of tumor progression, patients received three boosts of tumor lysate every 3?months during the maintenance phase. Results:Vaccine fabrication was feasible in all patients included in the study. Non-specific KLH (9/9 patients) and specific (8/9 patients) antitumor response was identified by immunologic studies in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Immunological responses were also confirmed in the T lymphocytes isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of two patients. Vaccine administration resulted safe in all patients treated with this schema. Conclusion:These preliminary results demonstrate that ADCV preparation is feasible, safe, and generate a DIPG-specific immune response detected in PBMC and CSF. This strategy shows a promising backbone for future schemas of combination IT.
Project description:Immunotherapeutic strategies for glioblastoma, the most frequent malignant primary brain tumor, aim to improve its disastrous consequences. On top of the standard treatment, one strategy uses T cell activation by autologous dendritic cells (DC) ex vivo loaded with tumor lysate to attack remaining cancer cells. Wondering whether 'targeting' in vivo DCs could replace these ex vivo ones, immunogenic autologous tumor lysate was used to treat glioma-inoculated mice in the absence of ex vivo loaded DCs. Potential immune mechanisms were studied in two orthotopic, immunocompetent murine glioma models. Pre-tumoral subcutaneous lysate treatment resulted in a survival benefit comparable to subcutaneous DC therapy. Focussing on the immune response, glioma T cell infiltration was observed in parallel with decreased amounts of regulatory T cells. Moreover, these results were accompanied by the presence of strong tumor-specific immunological memory, shown by complete survival of a second glioblastoma tumor, inoculated 100 days after the first one. Finally, in combination with temozolomide, survival of established glioma in mice could be increased. Our results show the potential of immunogenic autologous tumor lysate used to treat murine glioblastoma, which will be worthwhile to study in clinical trials as it has potential as a cost-efficient adjuvant treatment strategy for gliomas.
Project description:Whole tumor lysates are promising antigen sources for dendritic cell (DC) therapy as they contain many relevant immunogenic epitopes to help prevent tumor escape. Two common methods of tumor lysate preparations are freeze-thaw processing and UVB irradiation to induce necrosis and apoptosis, respectively. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) oxidation is a new method for inducing primary necrosis and enhancing the immunogenicity of tumor cells.We compared the ability of DCs to engulf three different tumor lysate preparations, produce T-helper 1 (TH1)-priming cytokines and chemokines, stimulate mixed leukocyte reactions (MLR), and finally elicit T-cell responses capable of controlling tumor growth in vivo.We showed that DCs engulfed HOCl-oxidized lysate most efficiently stimulated robust MLRs, and elicited strong tumor-specific IFN-? secretions in autologous T cells. These DCs produced the highest levels of TH1-priming cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin (IL)-12. Mice vaccinated with HOCl-oxidized ID8-ova lysate-pulsed DCs developed T-cell responses that effectively controlled tumor growth. Safety, immunogenicity of autologous DCs pulsed with HOCl-oxidized autologous tumor lysate (OCDC vaccine), clinical efficacy, and progression-free survival (PFS) were evaluated in a pilot study of five subjects with recurrent ovarian cancer. OCDC vaccination produced few grade 1 toxicities and elicited potent T-cell responses against known ovarian tumor antigens. Circulating regulatory T cells and serum IL-10 were also reduced. Two subjects experienced durable PFS of 24 months or more after OCDC.This is the first study showing the potential efficacy of a DC vaccine pulsed with HOCl-oxidized tumor lysate, a novel approach in preparing DC vaccine that is potentially applicable to many cancers.
Project description:Prognosis of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains dismal, with median overall survival (OS) of about 15 months. It is therefore crucial to search alternative strategies that improve these results obtained with conventional treatments. In this context, immunotherapy seems to be a promising therapeutic option. We hypothesized that the addition of tumor lysate-pulsed autologous dendritic cells (DCs) vaccination to maximal safe resection followed by radiotherapy and concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide could improve patients' survival.We conducted a phase-II clinical trial of autologous DCs vaccination in patients with newly diagnosed patients GBM who were candidates to complete or near complete resection. Candidates were finally included if residual tumor volume was lower than 1 cc on postoperative radiological examination. Autologous DCs were generated from peripheral blood monocytes and pulsed with autologous whole tumor lysate. The vaccination calendar started before radiotherapy and was continued during adjuvant chemotherapy. Progression free survival (PFS) and OS were analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method. Immune response were assessed in blood samples obtained before each vaccines.Thirty-two consecutive patients were screened, one of which was a screening failure due to insufficient resection. Median age was 61 years (range 42-70). Karnofsky performance score (KPS) was 90-100 in 29%, 80 in 35.5% and 60-70 in 35.5% of cases. MGMT (O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase) promoter was methylated in 45.2% of patients. No severe adverse effects related to immunotherapy were registered. Median PFS was 12.7 months (CI 95% 7-16) and median OS was 23.4 months (95% CI 16-33.1). Increase in post-vaccination tumor specific immune response after vaccines (proliferation or cytokine production) was detected in 11/27 evaluated patients. No correlation between immune response and survival was found.Our results suggest that the addition of tumor lysate-pulsed autologous DCs vaccination to tumor resection and combined radio-chemotherapy is feasible and safe. A multicenter randomized clinical trial is warranted to evaluate the potential survival benefit of this therapeutic approach. Trial registration This phase-II trial was registered as EudraCT: 2009-009879-35 and ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01006044 retrospectively registered.