Regulatory coupling between long noncoding RNAs and senescence in irradiated microglia.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Microglia have been implicated in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced brain injury (RIBI), which severely influences the quality of life during long-term survival. Recently, irradiated microglia were speculated to present an aging-like phenotype. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been recognized to regulate a wide spectrum of biological processes, including senescence; however, their potential role in irradiated microglia remains largely uncharacterized. METHODS:We used bioinformatics and experimental methods to identify and analyze the senescence phenotype of irradiated microglia. Western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, immunofluorescence, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were performed to clarify the relationship between the radiation-induced differentially expressed lncRNAs (RILs) and the distinctive molecular features of senescence in irradiated microglia. RESULTS:We found that the senescence of microglia could be induced using ionizing radiation (IR). A mutual regulation mode existed between RILs and three main features of the senescence phenotype in irradiated microglia: inflammation, the DNA damage response (DDR), and metabolism. Specifically, for inflammation, the expression of two selected RILs (ENSMUST00000190863 and ENSMUST00000130679) was dependent on the major inflammatory signaling pathways of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The two RILs modulated the activation of NF-?B/MAPK signaling and subsequent inflammatory cytokine secretion. For the DDR, differential severity of DNA damage altered the expression profiles of RILs. The selected RIL, ENSMUST00000130679, promoted the DDR. For metabolism, blockade of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-mediated lipogenesis attenuated the fold-change of several RILs induced by IR. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings revealed that certain RILs interacted with senescence in irradiated microglia. RILs actively participated in the regulation of senescence features, suggesting that RILs could be promising intervention targets to treat RIBI.
Project description:Radiation-induced brain injury (RIBI) is a serious complication in cancer patients receiving brain radiotherapy, and accumulating evidence suggests that microglial activation plays an important role in its pathogenesis. Fractalkine (FKN) is a crucial mediator responsible for the biological activity of microglia. In this study, the effect of FKN on activated microglial after irradiation and RIBI was explored and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Our study demonstrated treatment with exogenous FKN diminished radiation-induced production of pro-inflammatory factors, such as IL1-? and TNF?, promoted transformation of microglial M1 phenotype to M2 phenotype after irradiation, and partially recovered the spatial memory of irradiated mice. Furthermore, upregulation of FKN/CX3CR1 via FKN lentivirus promoted radiation-induced microglial M2 transformation in the hippocampus and diminished the spatial memory injury of irradiated mice. Furthermore, while inhibiting the expression of CX3CR1, which exclusively expressed on microglia in the brain, the regulatory effect of FKN on microglia and cognitive ability of mice disappeared after radiation. In conclusion, the FKN could attenuate RIBI through the microglia polarization toward M2 phenotype by binding to CX3CR1 on microglia. Our study unveiled an important role of FKN/CX3CR1 in RIBI, indicating that promotion of FKN/CX3CR1 axis could be a promising strategy for the treatment of RIBI.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cellular senescence and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) may contribute to the development of radiation therapy-associated side effects in the lung and blood vessels by promoting chronic inflammation. In the brain, inflammation contributes to the development of neurologic disease, including Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we investigated the roles of cellular senescence and ?133p53, an inhibitory isoform of p53, in radiation-induced brain injury.<h4>Methods</h4>Senescent cell types in irradiated human brain were identified with immunohistochemical labeling of senescence-associated proteins p16INK4A and heterochromatin protein Hp1? in 13 patient cases, including 7 irradiated samples. To investigate the impact of radiation on astrocytes specifically, primary human astrocytes were irradiated and examined for expression of ?133p53 and induction of SASP. Lentiviral expression of ?133p53 was performed to investigate its role in regulating radiation-induced cellular senescence and astrocyte-mediated neuroinflammation.<h4>Results</h4>Astrocytes expressing p16INK4A and Hp1? were identified in all irradiated tissues, were increased in number in irradiated compared with untreated cancer patient tissues, and had higher labeling intensity in irradiated tissues compared with age-matched controls. Human astrocytes irradiated in vitro also experience induction of cellular senescence, have diminished ?133p53, and adopt a neurotoxic phenotype as demonstrated by increased senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity, p16INK4A, and interleukin (IL)-6. In human astrocytes, ?133p53 inhibits radiation-induced senescence, promotes DNA double-strand break repair, and prevents astrocyte-mediated neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Restoring expression of the endogenous p53 isoform, ?133p53, protects astrocytes from radiation-induced senescence, promotes DNA repair, and inhibits astrocyte-mediated neuroinflammation.
Project description:Cells respond to genotoxic stress by activating the DNA damage response (DDR). When injury is severe or irreparable, cells induce apoptosis or cellular senescence to prevent transmission of the lesions to the daughter cells upon cell division. Resistance to apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer that challenges the efficacy of cancer therapy. In this work, the effects of ionizing radiation on apoptosis-resistant E1A + E1B transformed cells were investigated to ascertain whether the activation of cellular senescence could provide an alternative tumor suppressor mechanism. We show that irradiated cells arrest cell cycle at G 2/M phase and resume DNA replication in the absence of cell division followed by formation of giant polyploid cells. Permanent activation of DDR signaling due to impaired DNA repair results in the induction of cellular senescence in E1A + E1B cells. However, irradiated cells bypass senescence and restore the population by dividing cells, which have near normal size and ploidy and do not express senescence markers. Reversion of senescence and appearance of proliferating cells were associated with downregulation of mTOR, activation of autophagy, mitigation of DDR signaling, and expression of stem cell markers.
Project description:Irreparable double-strand breaks (DSBs) in response to ionizing radiation (IR) trigger prolonged DNA damage response (DDR) and induce premature senescence. Profound chromatin reorganization with formation of senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) is an essential epigenetic mechanism for controlling the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). To decipher molecular mechanisms provoking continuous DDR leading to premature senescence, radiation-induced DSBs (53BP1-foci) and dynamics of histone variant H2A.J incorporation were analyzed together with chromatin re-modeling in human fibroblasts after IR exposure. High-resolution imaging by transmission electron microscopy revealed that persisting 53BP1-foci developed into DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS), consistently located at the periphery of SAHFs. Quantitative immunogold-analysis by electron microscopy revealed that H2A.J, steadily co-localizing with 53BP1, is increasingly incorporated into DNA-SCARS during senescence progression. Strikingly, shRNA-mediated H2A.J depletion in fibroblasts modified senescence-associated chromatin re-structuring and abolished SASP, thereby shutting down the production of inflammatory mediators. These findings provide mechanistic insights into biological phenomena of SASP and suggest that H2A.J inhibition could ablate SASP, without affecting the senescence-associated growth arrest.
Project description:Radiotherapy for head and neck cancer is associated with impairment of salivary gland function and consequent xerostomia, which has a devastating effect on the quality of life of the patients. The mechanism of radiation-induced salivary gland damage is not completely understood. Cellular senescence is a permanent state of cell cycle arrest accompanied by a secretory phenotype which contributes to inflammation and tissue deterioration. Genotoxic stresses, including radiation-induced DNA damage, are known to induce a senescence response. Here, we show that radiation induces cellular senescence preferentially in the salivary gland stem/progenitor cell niche of mouse models and patients. Similarly, salivary gland-derived organoids show increased expression of senescence markers and pro-inflammatory senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors after radiation exposure. Clearance of senescent cells by selective removal of p16Ink4a-positive cells by the drug ganciclovir or the senolytic drug ABT263 lead to increased stem cell self-renewal capacity as measured by organoid formation efficiency. Additionally, pharmacological treatment with ABT263 in mice irradiated to the salivary glands mitigates tissue degeneration, thus preserving salivation. Our data suggest that senescence in the salivary gland stem/progenitor cell niche contributes to radiation-induced hyposalivation. Pharmacological targeting of senescent cells may represent a therapeutic strategy to prevent radiotherapy-induced xerostomia.
Project description:Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis (RIPF) is a late toxicity of therapeutic radiation in clinic with poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Previous results have shown that senescent cells, such as fibroblast and type II airway epithelial cell, are strongly implicated in pathology of RIPF. However, the role of senescent macrophages in the development RIPF is still unknown. In this study, we report that ionizing radiation (IR) increase cellular senescence with higher expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) and senescence-specific genes (p16, p21, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xl) in irradiated bone marrow-derived monocytes/macrophages (BMMs). Besides, there's a significant increase in the expression of pro-fibrogenic factors (TGF-β1 and Arg-1), senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) proinflammatory factors (Il-1α, Il-6, and Tnf-α), SASP chemokines (Ccl2, Cxcl10, and Ccl17), and SASP matrix metalloproteinases (Mmp2, Mmp9 and Mmp12) in BMMs exposed to 10 Gy IR. In addition, the percentages of SA-β-Gal<sup>+</sup> senescent macrophages are significantly increased in the macrophages of murine irradiated lung tissue. Moreover, robustly elevated expression of p16, SASP chemokines (Ccl2, Cxcl10, and Ccl17) and SASP matrix metalloproteinases (Mmp2, Mmp9, and Mmp12) is observed in the macrophages of irradiated lung, which might stimulate a fibrotic phenotype in pulmonary fibroblasts. In summary, irradiation can induce macrophage senescence, and increase the secretion of SASP in senescent macrophages. Our findings provide important evidence that senescent macrophages might be the target for prevention and treatment of RIPF.
Project description:Currently, cellular senescence has emerged as a fundamental contributor to chronic organ diseases. Radiation is one of the stress factors that induce cellular senescence. Although the kidney is known as a radiosensitive organ, whether and how radiation-induced cellular senescence is associated with kidney diseases remains unclear. In this study, we performed experiments on 7-8-week-old male rats that received a single dose of 18-Gy radiation in the unilateral kidney. The irradiated kidneys showed hallmarks of cellular senescence, including increased SA-?-gal activity, upregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (p53, p21, and p16), and absence of DNA proliferation marker (Ki-67). Furthermore, combined with in-vitro experiments, we demonstrated that radiation-induced senescent glomerular endothelial cells acquired altered gene expression, namely, senescence-associated secretory phenotype (particularly, IL-6), which might be triggered by NF-kB signaling pathway. Pathological analysis suggested severe glomerular endothelial cell injury, as evidenced by thrombotic microangiopathy, collapsing glomeruli, and reduced endothelial cell numbers. We suggested that glomerular endothelial cells were more susceptible to radiation-induced cellular senescence. In conclusion, the current study is the first to identify the important role of radiation-induced cellular senescence, mainly derived from glomerular endothelial cells, for the development of glomerular injury.
Project description:Accumulation of DNA damage leading to stem cell exhaustion has been proposed to be a principal mechanism of aging. Using 53BP1-foci as a marker for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) in mouse epidermis were analyzed for age-related DNA damage response (DDR). We observed increasing amounts of 53BP1-foci during the natural aging process independent of telomere shortening and after protracted low-dose radiation, suggesting substantial accumulation of DSBs in HFSCs. Electron microscopy combined with immunogold-labeling showed multiple small 53BP1 clusters diffusely distributed throughout the highly compacted heterochromatin of aged HFSCs, but single large 53BP1 clusters in irradiated HFSCs. These remaining 53BP1 clusters did not colocalize with core components of non-homologous end-joining, but with heterochromatic histone modifications. Based on these results we hypothesize that these lesions were not persistently unrepaired DSBs, but may reflect chromatin rearrangements caused by the repair or misrepair of DSBs. Flow cytometry showed increased activation of repair proteins and damage-induced chromatin modifications, triggering apoptosis and cellular senescence in irradiated, but not in aged HFSCs. These results suggest that accumulation of DNA damage-induced chromatin alterations, whose structural dimensions reflect the complexity of the initial genotoxic insult, may lead to different DDR events, ultimately determining the biological outcome of HFSCs. Collectively, our findings support the hypothesis that aging might be largely the remit of structural changes to chromatin potentially leading to epigenetically induced transcriptional deregulation.
Project description:LncRNAs have been reported to play an important role in various diseases. However, their role in the radiation-induced intestinal injury is unknown. The goal of the present study was to analyse the potential mechanistic role of lncRNAs in the radiation-induced intestinal injury. Mice were divided into two groups: Control (non-irradiated) and irradiated. Irradiated mice were administered 14 Gy of abdominal irradiation (ABI) and were assessed 3.5 days after irradiation. Changes to the jejuna of ABI mice were analysed using RNA-Seq for alterations to both lncRNA and mRNA. These results were validated using qRT-PCR. LncRNAs targets were predicted based on analysis of lncRNAs-miRNAs-mRNAs interaction. 29 007 lncRNAs and 17 142 mRNAs were detected in the two groups. At 3.5 days post-irradiation, 91 lncRNAs and 57 lncRNAs were significantly up- and downregulated respectively. Similarly, 752 mRNAs and 400 mRNAs were significantly up- and downregulated respectively. qRT-PCR was used to verify the altered expression of four lncRNAs (ENSMUST00000173070, AK157361, AK083183, AK038898) and four mRNAs (Mboat1, Nek10, Ccl24, Cyp2c55). Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses indicated the predicted genes were mainly involved in the VEGF signalling pathway. This study reveals that the expression of lncRNAs was altered in the jejuna of mice post-irradiation. Moreover, it provides a resource for the study of lncRNAs in the radiation-induced intestinal injury.
Project description:Ionizing radiation is known to cause cell apoptosis at high dose range, but little is known about the cellular response to low dose radiation. In this study, we found that conditioned medium harvested from WI-38 lung fibroblasts and H1299 lung adenocarcinoma cells exposed to 0.1Gy to 1Gy could enhance the migration and invasion of unirradiated H1299 cells in both 2D and 3D culturing circumstances. Low dose radiation did not induce apoptosis, but induced senescence in irradiated cells. We next examined the expression of immediately early genes including c-Myc and K-Ras. Although both genes could be up-regulated by low dose radiation, induction of c-Myc was more specific to low dose range (0.5Gy) at transcriptional and translational levels. Knockdown of c-Myc by shRNA could repress the senescence induced by low dose radiation. The conditioned medium of irradiated cells induced migration of unirradiated cells was also repressed by knockdown of c-Myc. The c-Myc inhibitor 10058-F4 could suppress low dose radiation induced cell senescence, and the conditioned medium harvested from irradiated cells pretreated with 10058-F4 also lost the ability to enhance the migration of unirradiated cells. The cytokine array analysis revealed that immunosuppressive monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 increased by low dose radiation could be repressed by 10058-F4. We also showed that 10058-F4 could suppress low dose radiation induced tumor progression in a xenograft tumor model. Taken together, current data suggest that -Myc is involved in low dose radiation induced cell senescence and potent bystander effect to increase the motility of unirradiated cells.