Effects of Hedysarum leguminous plants on soil bacterial communities in the Mu Us Desert, northwest China.
ABSTRACT: This study assessed the influence of rhizocompartment types (i.e., root, rhizosphere soil, root-zone soil, and intershrub bulk soil) on the diversity of soil microbial communities under desert leguminous plant shrubs. Moreover, the influence and variations of soil physicochemical factors in interactions among leguminous plants, soil, and microbes were investigated. Both 16S rRNA high-throughput genome sequencing and conventional soil physicochemical index determination were used to characterize both the bacterial diversity and soil physicochemical properties in the rhizocompartments of two Hedysarum species (Hedysarum mongolicum and Hedysarum scoparium) in the Mu Us Desert of China. All nutrient indices (except total phosphorus and available phosphorus) in rhizosphere soil were uniformly higher than those in both root-zone soil and intershrub bulk soil (p < .05). The bacterial community diversity in the root, undershrub soil (i.e., rhizosphere and root zone), and intershrub bulk soil also showed significant differences (p < .05). The bacterial community in the root is mainly composed of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Tenericutes, and Chloroflexi, among which bacteria of the Proteobacteria genus are dominant. Root endophyte and rhizosphere soil microbiomes were mainly influenced by soil nutrients, while bacterial communities in root-zone soil and intershrub bulk soil were mainly influenced by soil pH and NH4 +-N. The rhizocompartment types of desert leguminous plants impose a significant influence on the diversity of soil microbial communities. According to these findings, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia can co-exist with nonsymbiotic endophytes in the roots of desert leguminous plants. Moreover, plants have a hierarchical filtering and enriching effect on beneficial microbes in soil via rhizocompartments. Soil physicochemical factors have a significant influence on both the structure and composition of microbial communities in various rhizocompartments, which is derived from the interactions among leguminous plants, soil, and microbes.
Project description:This research examined the general soil fungi and AM fungal communities associated with a Lonely Tree species (Vachellia pachyceras) existing in the Sabah Al-Ahmad Natural Reserve located at the Kuwait desert. The goals of the study were to describe the general fungal and AM fungal communities present in the rhizospheric, non-rhizospheric soils and roots of V. pachyceras, respectively, as well as local and non-local V. pachyceras seedlings when grown under standard nursery growing environments. Soil and root samples were analyzed for an array of characteristics including soil physicochemical composition, and culture-independent method termed PCR-cloning, intermediate variable region of rDNA, the large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequence identifications. The results reveal that the fungal phylotypes were classified in four major fungal phyla namely Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota. The largest assemblage of fungal analyses showed communities dominated by members of the phylum Ascomycota. The assays also revealed a wealth of incertae sedis fungi, mostly affiliated to uncultured fungi from diverse environmental conditions. Striking difference between rhizosphere and bulk soils communities, with more fungal diversities and Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) richness associated with both the field and nursery rhizosphere soils. In contrast, a less diverse fungal community was found in the bulk soil samples. The characterization of AM fungi from the root system demonstrated that the most abundant and diversified group belongs to the family Glomeraceae, with the common genus Rhizophagus (5 phylotypes) and another unclassified taxonomic group (5 phylotypes). Despite the harsh climate that prevails in the Kuwait desert, studied roots displayed the existence of considerable number of AM fungal biota. The present work thus provides a baseline of the fungal and mycorrhizal community associated with rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils and roots of only surviving V. pachyceras tree from the Kuwaiti desert and seedlings under nursery growing environments.
Project description:Plant microbiota is a key determinant of plant health and productivity. The composition and structure of plant microbiota varies according to plant tissue and compartment, which are specific habitats for microbial colonization. To investigate the structural composition of the microbiome associated with tomato roots under natural systems, we characterized the bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities of three belowground compartments (rhizosphere, endosphere, and bulk soil) of tomato plants collected from 23 greenhouses in 7 geographic locations of South Korea. The microbial diversity and structure varied by rhizocompartment, with the most distinctive community features found in the endosphere. The bacterial and fungal communities in the bulk soil and rhizosphere were correlated with soil physicochemical properties, such as pH, electrical conductivity, and exchangeable cation levels, while this trend was not evident in the endosphere samples. A small number of core bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) present in all samples from the rhizosphere and endosphere represented more than 60% of the total relative abundance. Among these core microbes, OTUs belonging to the genera Acidovorax, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Streptomyces, and Variovorax, members of which are known to have beneficial effects on plant growth, were more relatively abundant in the endosphere samples. A co-occurrence network analysis indicated that the microbial community in the rhizosphere had a larger and more complex network than those in the bulk soil and endosphere. The analysis also identified keystone taxa that might play important roles in microbe-microbe interactions in the community. Additionally, profiling of predicted gene functions identified many genes associated with membrane transport in the endospheric and rhizospheric communities. Overall, the data presented here provide preliminary insight into bacterial, archaeal, and fungal phylogeny, functionality, and interactions in the rhizocompartments of tomato roots under real-world environments.
Project description:Much effort has been directed toward increasing the availability of soil residual phosphorus (P). However, little information is available for the P fertilization-induced biotic P legacy and its mediation of plant P uptake. We collected microbial inocula from a monoculture maize field site with a 10-year P-fertilization history. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate whether bacterial communities, as a result of different P-fertilization history (nil P, 33 and/or 131 kg P kg ha-1 yr-1), affected the growth of a conspecific (maize) or heterospecific (clover) plant, at two levels of current P application (5 and 30 mg P kg-1 soil; P5 and P30). Deep amplicon sequencing (16S rRNA) was used to determine the maize and clover root-associated bacterial microbiome in different rhizocompartments (rhizoplane, rhizosphere, bulk soil). For both maize and clover, rhizocompartment and host identity were the dominant factors shaping bacterial assemblages, followed by P supply level and the inoculum effect was smallest. Bacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU) numbers decreased from bulk soil to rhizoplane, whilst specific OTUs were enriched from bulk soil to rhizoplane. A clear hierarchical habitat filtering of bacterial communities was observed in the rhizoplane of the two plant species. The functional prediction of dominant bacterial taxa in the rhizoplane differed between clover and maize, and clover microbiota were more closely associated with P metabolism and maize with carbon cycling. More connected and complex interactions were observed in the clover rhizoplane compared to maize. The microbial legacy effect caused by long-term P fertilization is overridden by host identity and rhizocompartment. Our results highlight the importance of crop diversification in improving P efficiency. The fine-tuning of rhizosphere microbiome in host metabolism indicates that the functions of microbial communities should be integrated into P management to increase P use efficiency and sustainable food production.
Project description:Ferula sinkiangensis (F. sinkiangensis) is a desert short-lived medicinal plant, and its number is rapidly decreasing. Rhizosphere microbial community plays an important role in plant growth and adaptability. However, F. sinkiangensis rhizosphere bacterial communities and the soil physicochemical factors that drive the bacterial community distribution are currently unclear. On this study, based on high-throughput sequencing, we explored the diversity, structure and composition of F. sinkiangensis rhizosphere bacterial communities at different slope positions and soil depths and their correlation with soil physicochemical properties. Our results revealed the heterogeneity and changed trend of F. sinkiangensis rhizosphere bacterial community diversity and abundance on slope position and soil depth and found Actinobacteria (25.5%), Acidobacteria (16.9%), Proteobacteria (16.6%), Gemmatimonadetes (11.5%) and Bacteroidetes (5.8%) were the dominant bacterial phyla in F. sinkiangensis rhizosphere soil. Among all soil physicochemical variables shown in this study, there was a strong positive correlation between phosphorus (AP) and the diversity of rhizosphere bacterial community in F. sinkiangensis. In addition, Soil physicochemical factors jointly explained 24.28% of variation in F. sinkiangensis rhizosphere bacterial community structure. Among them, pH largely explained the variation of F. sinkiangensis rhizosphere bacterial community structure (5.58%), followed by total salt (TS, 5.21%) and phosphorus (TP, 4.90%).
Project description:The production and quality of Rehmannia glutinosa can be dramatically reduced by replant disease under consecutive monoculture. The root-associated microbiome, also known as the second genome of the plant, was investigated to understand its impact on plant health. Culture-dependent and culture-independent pyrosequencing analysis was applied to assess the shifts in soil bacterial communities in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane under consecutive monoculture. The results show that the root-associated microbiome (including rhizosphere and rhizoplane microbiomes) was significantly impacted by rhizocompartments and consecutive monoculture. Consecutive monoculture of R. glutinosa led to a significant decline in the relative abundance of the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane. Furthermore, the families Flavobacteriaceae, Sphingomonadaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae enriched while Pseudomonadaceae, Bacillaceae, and Micrococcaceae decreased under consecutive monoculture. At the genus level, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Arthrobacter were prevalent in the newly planted soil, which decreased in consecutive monocultured soils. Besides, culture-dependent analysis confirmed the widespread presence of Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus spp. in newly planted soil and their strong antagonistic activities against fungal pathogens. In conclusion, R. glutinosa monoculture resulted in distinct root-associated microbiome variation with a reduction in the abundance of beneficial microbes, which might contribute to the declined soil suppressiveness to fungal pathogens in the monoculture regime.
Project description:To explore rhizosphere effects, geographical differences and their effects on the bacterial community associated with the geoherb Fritillaria thunbergii, some physicochemical properties of soil samples (3 sampling sites × 2 habitats (rhizosphere and bulk soil)) were measured and the soil bacterial community detected by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Among the three regions, soil pH varied between 4.48 and 7.73 indicating that F. thunbergii could grow both in acid and slightly alkaline soil. As the authentic Dao-di producing area, Ningbo showed the highest soil quality with the highest content of organic matter (OM) (2.46%), phosphatase (268 mg kg(-1) 24 h(-1)) and urease activity (1481 mg kg(-1) 24 h(-1)). In comparison with the bulk soil, pH, organic carbon content, and phosphatase and urease activities were all lower in the rhizosphere, suggesting that the roots may secrete some unique metabolites in root exudates. Statistical analyses showed that soil properties of Ningbo and Panan in Zhejiang province were more similar to each other than those in Nantong in Jiangsu province. In addition, PCR-DGGE analysis showed that main bacterial population identified in F. thunbergii was proteobacteria (18 bands, 55%), acidobacteria (4, 12%), actinobacteria (4, 12%) and bacterioidetes (6, 18%). Overall, soil properties and microbial communities varied not only between the rhizosphere and bulk soil but also among the three regions. We suggest that the plant, together with the soil properties, cooperatively shape the structure of the rhizosphere bacteria, and that the soil properties have a close relationship with the geoherbalism of F. thunbergii.
Project description:In a desert, plants as holobionts quickly respond to resource pulses like precipitation. However, little is known on how environment and plants modulate the rhizosphere-associated microbiome. As a model species to represent the Atacama Desert bloom, Cistanthe longiscapa (Montiaceae family) was selected to study the influence of abiotic and biotic environment on the diversity and structure of the microbiota associated to its rhizosphere. We analyzed the rhizosphere and soil microbiome along a North-South precipitation gradient and between a dry and rainy year by using Illumina high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments and ITS2 regions for prokaryotes and fungi, respectively. In the rhizosphere of C. longiscapa the microbiota clearly differs in composition and structure from the surrounding bulk soil. The fungal and bacterial communities respond differently to environmental conditions. The diversity and richness of fungal OTUs were negatively correlated with aridity, as predicted. The community structure was predominantly influenced by other soil characteristics (pH, organic matter content) but not by aridity. In contrast, diversity, composition, and structure of the bacterial community were not influenced by aridity or any other evaluated soil parameter. These findings coincide with the identification of mainly site-specific microbial communities, not shared along the sites. These local communities contain a group of OTUs, which are exclusive to the rhizosphere of each site and presumably vertically inherited as seed endophytes. Their ecological functions and dispersal mechanisms remain unclear. The analysis of co-occurrence patterns highlights the strong effect of the desert habitat over the soil- and rhizosphere-microbiome. The site-independent enrichment of only a small bacterial cluster consistently associated with the rhizosphere of C. longiscapa further supports this conclusion. In a rainy year, the rhizosphere microbiota significantly differed from bulk and bare soil, whereas in a dry year, the community structure of the former rhizosphere approximates to the one found in the bulk. In the context of plant-microbe interactions in desert environments, our study contributes new insights into the importance of aridity in microbial community structure and composition, discovering the influence of other soil parameters in this complex dynamic network, which needs further to be investigated.
Project description:Gaining a greater understanding of the plant microbiota and its interactions with its host plant heralds a new era of scientific discovery in agriculture. Different agricultural management practices influence soil microbial populations by changing a soil's physical, chemical and biological properties. However, the impact of these practices on the microbiota associated with economically important crops such as oilseed rape, are still understudied. In this work we investigated the impact of two contrasting crop establishment practices, conventional (plow based) and conservation (strip-tillage) systems, on the microbiota inhabiting different plant microhabitats, namely rhizosphere, root and shoot, of winter oilseed rape under Irish agronomic conditions. Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequence profiling showed that the plant associated microhabitats (root and shoot), are dominated by members of the bacterial phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The root and shoot associated bacterial communities displayed markedly distinct profiles as a result of tillage practices. We observed a very limited 'rhizosphere effect' in the root zone of WOSR, i.e., there was little or no increase in bacterial community richness and abundance in the WOSR rhizosphere compared to the bulk soil. The two tillage systems investigated did not appear to lead to any major long term differences on the bulk soil or rhizosphere bacterial communities. Our data suggests that the WOSR root and shoot microbiota can be impacted by management practices and is an important mechanism that could allow us to understand how plants respond to different management practices and environments.
Project description:Agricultural management practices affect bulk soil microbial communities and the functions they carry out, but it remains unclear how these effects extend to the rhizosphere in different agroecosystem contexts. Given close linkages between rhizosphere processes and plant nutrition and productivity, understanding how management practices impact this critical zone is of great importance to optimize plant-soil interactions for agricultural sustainability. A comparison of six paired conventional-organic processing tomato farms was conducted to investigate relationships between management, soil physicochemical parameters, and rhizosphere microbial community composition and functions. Organically managed fields were higher in soil total N and NO3-N, total and labile C, plant Ca, S, and Cu, and other essential nutrients, while soil pH was higher in conventionally managed fields. Differential abundance, indicator species, and random forest analyses of rhizosphere communities revealed compositional differences between organic and conventional systems and identified management-specific microbial taxa. Phylogeny-based trait prediction showed that these differences translated into more abundant pathogenesis-related gene functions in conventional systems. Structural equation modeling revealed a greater effect of soil biological communities than physicochemical parameters on plant outcomes. These results highlight the importance of rhizosphere-specific studies, as plant selection likely interacts with management in regulating microbial communities and functions that impact agricultural productivity.IMPORTANCE Agriculture relies, in part, on close linkages between plants and the microorganisms that live in association with plant roots. These rhizosphere bacteria and fungi are distinct from microbial communities found in the rest of the soil and are even more important to plant nutrient uptake and health. Evidence from field studies shows that agricultural management practices such as fertilization and tillage shape microbial communities in bulk soil, but little is known about how these practices affect the rhizosphere. We investigated how agricultural management affects plant-soil-microbe interactions by comparing soil physical and chemical properties, plant nutrients, and rhizosphere microbial communities from paired fields under organic and conventional management. Our results show that human management effects extend even to microorganisms living in close association with plant roots and highlight the importance of these bacteria and fungi to crop nutrition and productivity.
Project description:Plant roots are inhabited by an enormous variety of microorganisms, including fungi, which can control the growth as well as regulate the health of the host plants. The mycobiome composition of the roots of wheat plants, especially spelt, under drought stress has been rarely investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the composition of fungal communities in the root endosphere and rhizosphere of three Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. cultivars and one Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare L. cultivar, grown under drought and controlled conditions in different soil preparations. Culture-dependent fungal community profiling was performed to examine the impact of rhizocompartments (endosphere, rhizosphere), host genotype, watering status and different soil preparation on roots mycobiome structure. A total of 117 fungal strains, belonging to 22 genera, were found to colonize the internal and external parts of roots in T. aestivum ssp. spelta L. and T. aestivum ssp. vulgare L. cultivars. The results showed that the part of root and soil preparation type significantly determined the mycobiome composition of wheat roots.