Auxin and Its Interaction With Ethylene Control Adventitious Root Formation and Development in Apple Rootstock.
ABSTRACT: Adventitious root (AR) formation is indispensable for vegetative asexual propagation. Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) functioned indirectly as precursor of IAA in regulating AR formation. Ethylene affects auxin synthesis, transport, and/or signaling processes. However, the interactions between auxin and ethylene that control AR formation in apple have not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effects of IBA and its interaction with ethylene on AR development in apple. The results revealed that IBA stimulated the formation of root primordia, increased the number of ARs, and upregulated expression of genes (MdWOX11, MdLBD16, and MdLBD29) involved in AR formation. Comparison of different periods of IBA application indicated that IBA was necessary for root primordium formation, while long time IBA treatment obviously inhibited root elongation. RNA-seq analysis revealed that many plant hormone metabolism and signal transduction related genes were differentially expressed. IBA stimulated the production of ethylene during AR formation. Auxin inhibiting ARs elongation depended on ethylene. Together, our results suggest that the inhibitory role of auxin on AR elongation in apples is partially mediated by stimulated ethylene production.
Project description:Adventitious roots (ARs) are post-embryonic roots essential for plant survival and propagation. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the auxin that controls AR formation; however, its precursor indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) is known to enhance it. Ethylene affects many auxin-dependent processes by affecting IAA synthesis, transport and/or signaling, but its role in AR formation has not been elucidated. This research investigated the role of ethylene in AR formation in dark-grown Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, and its interaction with IAA/IBA. A number of mutants/transgenic lines were exposed to various treatments, and mRNA in situ hybridizations were carried out and hormones were quantified In the wild-type, the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) at 0.1 ?M enhanced AR formation when combined with IBA (10 ?M), but reduced it when applied alone; this effect did not occur in the ein3eil1 ethylene-insensitive mutant. ACC inhibited the expression of the IAA-biosynthetic genes WEI2, WEI7, and YUC6, but enhanced IBA-to-IAA conversion, as shown by the response of the ech2ibr10 mutant and an increase in the endogenous levels of IAA. The ethylene effect was independent of auxin-signaling by TIR1-AFB2 and IBA-efflux by ABCG carriers, but it was dependent on IAA-influx by AUX1/LAX3.Taken together, the results demonstrate that a crosstalk involving ethylene signaling, IAA-influx, and IBA-to-IAA conversion exists between ethylene and IAA in the control of AR formation.
Project description:Flooding is a severe limitation for crop production worldwide. Unlike other crop plants, rice (Oryza sativa L.) is well adapted to partial submergence rendering it a suitable crop plant to understand flooding tolerance. Formation of adventitious roots (ARs), that support or replace the main root system, is a characteristic response to flooding. In rice, AR emergence is induced by ethylene and in the dark where roots grow upward. We used the synthetic auxins 2,4-D and ?-NAA, and the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphtalamic acid (NPA) to study emergence, growth rate and growth angle of ARs. While ?-NAA had no effect, NPA and 2,4-D reduced the root elongation rate and the angle with a stronger effect on root angle in the dark than in the light. Furthermore, NPA delayed emergence of AR primordia suggesting that efflux carrier-mediated auxin transport is required for all aspects of directed AR growth. Expression analysis using OsPIN:GUS reporter lines revealed that OsPIN1b and OsPIN1c promoters were active in the stele and root cap in accord with their predicted role in acropetal auxin transport. OsPIN2 was expressed at the root tip and was reduced in the presence of NPA. Auxin activity, detected with DR5:VENUS, increased in primordia following growth induction. By contrast, auxin activity was high in epidermal cells above primordia and declined following growth induction suggesting that auxin levels are antagonistically regulated in AR primordia and in epidermal cells above AR primordia suggesting that auxin signaling contributes to the coordinated processes of epidermal cell death and AR emergence.
Project description:Adventitious roots (AR) play an important role in the vegetative propagation of apple rootstocks. The potential role of hormone, wounding, and sugar signalling pathways in mediating AR formation has not been adequately explored and the whole co-expression network in AR formation has not been well established in apple. In order to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying AR formation in 'T337' apple rootstocks, transcriptomic changes that occur during four stages of AR formation (0, 3, 9 and 16 days) were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing. A total of 4294 differentially expressed genes were identified. Approximately 446 genes related to hormones, wounding, sugar signaling, root development, and cell cycle induction pathways were subsequently selected based on their potential to be involved in AR formation. RT-qPCR validation of 47 genes with known functions exhibited a strong positive correlation with the RNA-seq data. Interestingly, most of the candidate genes involved in AR formation that were identified by transcriptomic sequencing showed auxin-responsive expression patterns in an exogenous Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-treatment assay: Indicating that endogenous and exogenous auxin plays key roles in regulating AR formation via similar signalling pathways to some extent. In general, AR formation in apple rootstocks is a complex biological process which is mainly influenced by the auxin signaling pathway. In addition, multiple hormones-, wounding- and sugar-signaling pathways interact with the auxin signaling pathway and mediate AR formation in apple rootstocks.
Project description:Adventitious root (AR) formation, which is controlled by endogenous and environmental factors, is indispensable for vegetative asexual propagation. However, comprehensive proteomic data on AR formation are still lacking. The aim of this work was to study indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-induced AR formation in the dwarf apple rootstock 'T337'. In this study, the effect of IBA on AR formation was analysed. Subsequent to treatment with IBA, both the rooting rate and root length of 'T337' increased significantly. An assessment of hormone levels in basal stem cuttings suggested that auxin, abscisic acid, and brassinolide were higher in basal stem cuttings that received the exogenous IBA application; while zeatin riboside, gibberellins, and jasmonic acid were lower than non-treated basal stem cuttings. To explore the underlying molecular mechanism, an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based proteomic technique was employed to identify the expression profiles of proteins at a key period of adventitious root induction (three days after IBA treatment). In total, 3355 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified. Many DEPs were closely related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, protein homeostasis, reactive oxygen and nitric oxide signaling, and cell wall remodeling biological processes; as well as the phytohormone signaling, which was the most critical process in response to IBA treatment. Further, RT-qPCR analysis was used to evaluate the expression level of nine genes that are involved in phytohormone signaling and their transcriptional levels were mostly in accordance with the protein patterns. Finally, a putative work model was proposed. Our study establishes a foundation for further research and sheds light on IBA-mediated AR formation in apple as well as other fruit rootstock cuttings.
Project description:Adventitious roots (ARs) are often necessary for plant survival, and essential for successful micropropagation. In Arabidopsis thaliana dark-grown seedlings AR-formation occurs from the hypocotyl and is enhanced by application of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) combined with kinetin (Kin). The same IBA?+?Kin-treatment induces AR-formation in thin cell layers (TCLs). Auxin is the main inducer of AR-formation and xylogenesis in numerous species and experimental systems. Xylogenesis is competitive to AR-formation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls and TCLs. Jasmonates (JAs) negatively affect AR-formation in de-etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings, but positively affect both AR-formation and xylogenesis in tobacco dark-grown IBA?+?Kin TCLs. In Arabidopsis the interplay between JAs and auxin in AR-formation vs xylogenesis needs investigation. In de-etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings, the Auxin Response Factors ARF6 and ARF8 positively regulate AR-formation and ARF17 negatively affects the process, but their role in xylogenesis is unknown. The cross-talk between auxin and ethylene (ET) is also important for AR-formation and xylogenesis, occurring through EIN3/EIL1 signalling pathway. EIN3/EIL1 is the direct link for JA and ET-signalling. The research investigated JA role on AR-formation and xylogenesis in Arabidopsis dark-grown seedlings and TCLs, and the relationship with ET and auxin. The JA-donor methyl-jasmonate (MeJA), and/or the ET precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were applied, and the response of mutants in JA-synthesis and -signalling, and ET-signalling investigated. Endogenous levels of auxin, JA and JA-related compounds, and ARF6, ARF8 and ARF17 expression were monitored.MeJA, at 0.01 ?M, enhances AR-formation, when combined with IBA?+?Kin, and the response of the early-JA-biosynthesis mutant dde2-2 and the JA-signalling mutant coi1-16 confirmed this result. JA levels early change during TCL-culture, and JA/JA-Ile is immunolocalized in AR-tips and xylogenic cells. The high AR-response of the late JA-biosynthesis mutant opr3 suggests a positive action also of 12-oxophytodienoic acid on AR-formation. The crosstalk between JA and ET-signalling by EIN3/EIL1 is critical for AR-formation, and involves a competitive modulation of xylogenesis. Xylogenesis is enhanced by a MeJA concentration repressing AR-formation, and is positively related to ARF17 expression.The JA concentration-dependent role on AR-formation and xylogenesis, and the interaction with ET opens the way to applications in the micropropagation of recalcitrant species.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Propagation of cuttings is frequently used in various plant species, including blueberry, which shows special root characteristics that may hinder adventitious root (AR) formation. AR formation is influenced by various factors, and auxin is considered to play a central role; however, little is known of the related regulatory mechanisms. In this study, a comparative transcriptome analysis of green cuttings treated with or without indole-butyric acid (IBA) was performed via RNA_seq to identify candidate genes associated with IBA-induced AR formation. RESULTS:Rooting phenotypes, especially the rooting rate, were significantly promoted by exogenous auxin in the IBA application. Blueberry AR formation was an auxin-induced process, during which adventitious root primordium initiation (rpi) began at 14?days after cutting (DAC), root primordium (rp) was developed at 21 DAC, mature AR was observed at 28 DAC and finally outgrowth from the stem occurred at 35 DAC. Higher IAA levels and lower ABA and zeatin contents might facilitate AR formation and development. A time series transcriptome analysis identified 14,970 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during AR formation, of which there were 7467 upregulated and 7503 downregulated genes. Of these, approximately 35 candidate DEGs involved in the auxin-induced pathway and AR formation were further identified, including 10 auxin respective genes (ARFs and SAURs), 13 transcription factors (LOB domain-containing protein (LBDs)), 6 auxin transporters (AUX22, LAX3/5 and PIN-like 6 (PIL6s)) and 6 rooting-associated genes (root meristem growth factor 9 (RGF9), lateral root primordium 1 (LRP1s), and dormancy-associated protein homologue 3 (DRMH3)). All these identified DEGs were highly upregulated in certain stages during AR formation, indicating their potential roles in blueberry AR formation. CONCLUSIONS:The transcriptome profiling results indicated candidate genes or major regulatory factors that influence adventitious root formation in blueberry and provided a comprehensive understanding of the rooting mechanism underlying the auxin-induced AR formation from blueberry green cuttings.
Project description:Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many aspects of plant growth and development, including inhibition of root elongation and seed germination. We performed an ABA resistance screen to identify factors required for ABA response in root elongation inhibition. We identified two classes of Arabidopsis thaliana AR mutants that displayed ABA-resistant root elongation: those that displayed resistance to ABA in both root elongation and seed germination and those that displayed resistance to ABA in root elongation but not in seed germination. We used PCR-based genotyping to identify a mutation in ABA INSENSITIVE2 (ABI2), positional information to identify mutations in AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2), and whole genome sequencing to identify mutations in AUX1, AUXIN RESISTANT4 (AXR4), and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE ROOT1/PIN-FORMED2 (EIR1/PIN2). Identification of auxin and ethylene response mutants among our isolates suggested that auxin and ethylene responsiveness were required for ABA inhibition of root elongation. To further our understanding of auxin/ethylene/ABA crosstalk, we examined ABA responsiveness of double mutants of ethylene overproducer1 (eto1) or ein2 combined with auxin-resistant mutants and found that auxin and ethylene likely operate in a linear pathway to affect ABA-responsive inhibition of root elongation, whereas these two hormones likely act independently to affect ABA-responsive inhibition of seed germination.
Project description:Adventitious root (AR) formation in the stem base (SB) of cuttings is the basis for propagation of many plant species and petunia is used as model to study this developmental process. Following AR formation from 2 to 192 hours post-excision (hpe) of cuttings, transcriptome analysis by microarray revealed a change of the character of the rooting zone from SB to root identity. The greatest shift in the number of differentially expressed genes was observed between 24 and 72 hpe, when the categories storage, mineral nutrient acquisition, anti-oxidative and secondary metabolism, and biotic stimuli showed a notable high number of induced genes. Analyses of phytohormone-related genes disclosed multifaceted changes of the auxin transport system, auxin conjugation and the auxin signal perception machinery indicating a reduction in auxin sensitivity and phase-specific responses of particular auxin-regulated genes. Genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and action showed a more uniform pattern as a high number of respective genes were generally induced during the whole process of AR formation. The important role of ethylene for stimulating AR formation was demonstrated by the application of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and perception as well as of the precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, all changing the number and length of AR. A model is proposed showing the putative role of polar auxin transport and resulting auxin accumulation in initiation of subsequent changes in auxin homeostasis and signal perception with a particular role of Aux/IAA expression. These changes might in turn guide the entrance into the different phases of AR formation. Ethylene biosynthesis, which is stimulated by wounding and does probably also respond to other stresses and auxin, acts as important stimulator of AR formation probably via the expression of ethylene responsive transcription factor genes, whereas the timing of different phases seems to be controlled by auxin.
Project description:Petunia is a model to study the process of adventitious root (AR) formation on leafy cuttings. Excision of cuttings leads to a transient increase in jasmonates, which is regarded as an early, transient and critical event for rooting. Here, the role of jasmonates in AR formation on petunia cuttings has been studied by a reverse genetic approach.To reduce the endogenous levels of jasmonates, transgenic plants were generated expressing a Petunia hybrida ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE (PhAOC)-RNAi construct. The transgenic plants exhibited strongly reduced PhAOC transcript and protein levels as well as diminished accumulation of cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, jasmonic acid and jasmonoyl-isoleucine after wounding in comparison to wild type and empty vector expressing plants. Reduced levels of endogenous jasmonates resulted in formation of lower numbers of ARs. However, this effect was not accompanied by altered levels of auxin and aminocyclopropane carboxylate (ACC, precursor of ethylene) or by impaired auxin and ethylene-induced gene expression. Neither activity of cell-wall invertases nor accumulation of soluble sugars was altered by jasmonate deficiency.Diminished numbers of AR in JA-deficient cuttings suggest that jasmonates act as positive regulators of AR formation in petunia wild type. However, wound-induced rise in jasmonate levels in petunia wild type cuttings seems not to be causal for increased auxin and ethylene levels and for sink establishment.
Project description:Adventitious root (AR) formation was enhanced following the treatment of sugarcane microshoots with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) combined, suggesting that auxin is a positive regulator of sugarcane microshoot AR formation. The transcriptome profile identified 1737 and 1268 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the basal tissues (5 mm) of sugarcane microshoots treated with IBA+NAA compared to nontreated control on the 3rd and 7th days post-auxin or water treatment (days post-treatment-dpt), respectively. To understand the molecular changes, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were performed. This analysis showed that DEGs associated with the pathways were associated with plant hormone signaling, flavonoid and phenylpropanoid biosyntheses, cell cycle, and cell wall modification, and transcription factors could be involved in sugarcane microshoot AR formation. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis was used to validate the expression patterns of nine genes associated with root formation and growth, and the results were consistent with the RNA-seq results. Finally, a hypothetical hormonal regulatory working model of sugarcane microshoot AR formation is proposed. Our results provide valuable insights into the molecular processes associated with auxin-induced AR formation in sugarcane.