HMST-Seq-Analyzer: A new python tool for differential methylation and hydroxymethylation analysis in various DNA methylation sequencing data.
ABSTRACT: DNA methylation (5mC) and hydroxymethylation (5hmC) are chemical modifications of cytosine bases which play a crucial role in epigenetic gene regulation. However, cost, data complexity and unavailability of comprehensive analytical tools is one of the major challenges in exploring these epigenetic marks. Hydroxymethylation-and Methylation-Sensitive Tag sequencing (HMST-seq) is one of the most cost-effective techniques that enables simultaneous detection of 5mC and 5hmC at single base pair resolution. We present HMST-Seq-Analyzer as a comprehensive and robust method for performing simultaneous differential methylation analysis on 5mC and 5hmC data sets. HMST-Seq-Analyzer can detect Differentially Methylated Regions (DMRs), annotate them, give a visual overview of methylation status and also perform preliminary quality check on the data. In addition to HMST-Seq, our tool can be used on whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) and reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) data sets as well. The tool is written in Python with capacity to process data in parallel and is available at (https://hmst-seq.github.io/hmst/).
Project description:Hydroxylation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) by TET enzymes presents a particular regulatory mechanism in the mammalian brain. However, although methylation and hydroxymethylation of cytosines in non-CpG contexts have been reported, these mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we applied TAB-seq and oxBS-seq selectively to detect 5hmC and 5mC at base resolution in olfactory bulb derived from female mice. We found that active turnover of 5mC to 5hmC occurred in both CpG and non-CpG contexts. Strikingly, we identified a different sequence preference for 5mC and 5hmC in a CH context, in which H = A, C, or T, TNCA/TC for 5mC and NNCA/T/CN for 5hmC. More importantly, we found that genes showing 5mC to 5hmC turnover showed only limited overlap in CpG and CH contexts, and that olfactory receptor genes were marked with higher turnover of 5mC to 5hmC in non-CpG context. Collectively, we identified an unexpected sequence preference for non-CpG hydroxymethylation and distinct target genes regulated by the turnover of 5mC to 5hmC in CpG and CH contexts.
Project description:DNA methylation at cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides changes as a function of age in humans and animal models, a process that may contribute to chronic disease development. Recent studies have investigated the role of an oxidized form of DNA methylation - 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) - in the epigenome, but its contribution to age-related DNA methylation remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that 5hmC changes with age, but in a direction opposite to 5-methylcytosine (5mC), potentially playing a distinct role in aging. To characterize epigenetic aging, genome-wide 5mC and 5hmC were measured in longitudinal blood samples (2, 4, and 10 months of age) from isogenic mice using two sequencing methods - enhanced reduced representation bisulfite sequencing and hydroxymethylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing. Examining the epigenome by age, we identified 28,196 unique differentially methylated CpGs (DMCs) and 8,613 differentially hydroxymethylated regions (DHMRs). Mouse blood showed a general pattern of epigenome-wide hypermethylation and hypo-hydroxymethylation with age. Comparing age-related DMCs and DHMRs, 1,854 annotated genes showed both differential 5mC and 5hmC, including one gene - Nfic - at five CpGs in the same 250 bp chromosomal region. At this region, 5mC and 5hmC levels both decreased with age. Reflecting these age-related epigenetic changes, Nfic RNA expression in blood decreased with age, suggesting that age-related regulation of this gene may be driven by 5hmC, not canonical DNA methylation. Combined, our genome-wide results show age-related differential 5mC and 5hmC, as well as some evidence that changes in 5hmC may drive age-related DNA methylation and gene expression.
Project description:BACKGROUND:5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is an oxidation product of 5-methylcytosine (5mC), and adjacent CpG sites in mammalian genome can be co-methylated and co-hydroxymethylated due to the processivity of DNMT and TET enzymes. RESULTS:We applied TAB-seq and oxBS-seq to selectively detect 5hmC and 5mC at base resolution in the mouse cortex, olfactory bulb and cerebellum tissues. We found that majority of the called 5hmC CpG sites frequently have 5mC modification simultaneously and are enriched in gene body regions of neuron development-related genes in brain tissues. Strikingly, by a systematic search of regions that show highly coordinated methylation and hydroxymethylation (MHBs and hMHBs), we found that MHBs significantly overlapped with hMHBs in gene body regions. Moreover, using a metric called methylation haplotype load, we defined a subset of 1361 tissue-specific MHBs and 3818 shared MHBs. Shared MHBs with low MHL correspond with developmental enhancers, and tissue-specific MHBs resemble the regulatory elements for tissue identity. CONCLUSIONS:Our results provide new insights into the role of coordinately oxidized 5mC to 5hmC as distal regulatory elements may involve in regulating tissue identity.
Project description:Proton irradiation poses a potential hazard to astronauts during and following a mission, with post-mitotic cells at most risk because they cannot dilute resultant epigenetic changes via cell division. Persistent epigenetic changes that result from environmental exposures include gains or losses of DNA methylation of cytosine, which can impact gene expression. In the present study, we compared the long-term epigenetic effects of whole body proton irradiation in the mouse hippocampus and left ventricle. We used an unbiased genome-wide DNA methylation study, involving ChIP-seq with antibodies to 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) to identify DNA regions in which methylation levels have changed 22 weeks after a single exposure to proton irradiation. We used DIP-Seq to profile changes in genome-wide DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation following proton irradiation. In addition, we used published RNAseq data to assess whether differentially methylated regions were linked to changes in gene expression.The DNA methylation data showed tissue-dependent effects of proton irradiation and revealed significant major pathway changes in response to irradiation that are related to known pathophysiologic processes. Many regions affected in the ventricle mapped to genes involved in cardiovascular function pathways, whereas many regions affected in the hippocampus mapped to genes involved in neuronal functions. In the ventricle, increases in 5hmC were associated with decreases in 5mC. We also observed spatial overlap for regions where both epigenetic marks decreased in the ventricle. In hippocampus, increases in 5hmC were most significantly correlated (spatially) with regions that had increased 5mC, suggesting that deposition of hippocampal 5mC and 5hmC may be mechanistically coupled.The results demonstrate long-term changes in DNA methylation patterns following a single proton irradiation, that these changes are tissue specific, and that they map to pathways consistent with tissue specific responses to proton irradiation. Further, the results suggest novel relationships between changes in 5mC and 5hmC.
Project description:As one of the most abundant and well-studied epigenetic modifications, DNA methylation plays an essential role in normal development and cellular biology. Global alterations to the DNA methylation landscape contribute to alterations in the transcriptome and deregulation of cellular pathways. Indeed, improved methods to study DNA methylation patterning and dynamics at base pair resolution and across individual DNA molecules on a genome-wide scale has highlighted the scope of change to the DNA methylation landscape in disease states, particularly during tumorigenesis. More recently has been the development of DNA hydroxymethylation profiling techniques, which allows differentiation between 5mC and 5hmC profiles and provides further insights into DNA methylation dynamics and remodeling in tumorigenesis. In this review, we describe the distribution of DNA methylation and DNA hydroxymethylation in different genomic contexts, first in normal cells, and how this is altered in cancer. Finally, we discuss DNA methylation profiling technologies and the most recent advances in single-cell methods, bisulfite-free approaches and ultra-long read sequencing techniques.
Project description:DNA methylation has been widely studied for associations with exposures and health outcomes. Both 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) are epigenetic marks that may function differently to impact gene expression; however, the most commonly used technology to assess methylation for population studies in blood use are the Illumina 450K and EPIC BeadChips, for which the traditional bisulfite conversion does not differentiate 5mC and 5hmC marks. We used a modified protocol originally developed by Stewart et al. to analyse oxidative bisulfite-converted and conventional bisulfite-converted DNA for the same subject in parallel by the EPIC chip, allowing us to isolate the two measures. We measured 5mC and 5hmC in cord blood of 41 newborn participants of the Center for Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) birth cohort and investigated differential methylation of 5mC + 5hmC, isolated 5mC and isolated 5hmC with sex at birth as an example of a biological variable previously associated with DNA methylation. Results showed low levels of 5hmC throughout the epigenome in the cord blood samples in comparison to 5mC. The concordance of autosomal hits between 5mC + 5hmC and exclusive 5mC analyses were low (25%); however, overlap was larger with increased effect size difference. There were 43 autosomal cytosine nucleotide followed by a guanine nucleotide (CpG) sites where 5hmC was associated with sex, 21 of which were unique to 5hmC after adjustment for cell composition. 5hmC only accounts for a small portion of overall methylation in cord blood; however, it has the potential to impact interpretation of combined 5hmC + 5mC studies in cord blood, especially given that effect sizes of differential methylation analyses are often small. Several significant CpG sites were unique to 5hmC, suggesting some functions distinct from 5mC. More studies of genome-wide 5hmC in children are warranted.
Project description:Increased appreciation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) as a stable epigenetic mark, which defines cell identity and disease progress, has engendered a need for cost-effective, but high-resolution, 5hmC mapping technology. Current enrichment-based technologies provide cheap but low-resolution and relative enrichment of 5hmC levels, while single-base resolution methods can be prohibitively expensive to scale up to large experiments. To address this problem, we developed a deep learning-based method, "DeepH&M," which integrates enrichment and restriction enzyme sequencing methods to simultaneously estimate absolute hydroxymethylation and methylation levels at single-CpG resolution. Using 7-week-old mouse cerebellum data for training the DeepH&M model, we demonstrated that the 5hmC and 5mC levels predicted by DeepH&M were in high concordance with whole-genome bisulfite-based approaches. The DeepH&M model can be applied to 7-week-old frontal cortex and 79-week-old cerebellum, revealing the robust generalizability of this method to other tissues from various biological time points.
Project description:During differentiation of embryonic stem cells, chromatin reorganizes to establish cell type-specific expression programs. Here, we have dissected the linkages between DNA methylation (5mC), hydroxymethylation (5hmC), nucleosome repositioning, and binding of the transcription factor CTCF during this process. By integrating MNase-seq and ChIP-seq experiments in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) and their differentiated counterparts with biophysical modeling, we found that the interplay between these factors depends on their genomic context. The mostly unmethylated CpG islands have reduced nucleosome occupancy and are enriched in cell type-independent binding sites for CTCF. The few remaining methylated CpG dinucleotides are preferentially associated with nucleosomes. In contrast, outside of CpG islands most CpGs are methylated, and the average methylation density oscillates so that it is highest in the linker region between nucleosomes. Outside CpG islands, binding of TET1, an enzyme that converts 5mC to 5hmC, is associated with labile, MNase-sensitive nucleosomes. Such nucleosomes are poised for eviction in ESCs and become stably bound in differentiated cells where the TET1 and 5hmC levels go down. This process regulates a class of CTCF binding sites outside CpG islands that are occupied by CTCF in ESCs but lose the protein during differentiation. We rationalize this cell type-dependent targeting of CTCF with a quantitative biophysical model of competitive binding with the histone octamer, depending on the TET1, 5hmC, and 5mC state.
Project description:Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by oxidative stress that could lead to chronic micro- and macrovascular complications. We hypothesized that some of the target organ damage is mediated by oxidative alterations in epigenetic mechanisms involving DNA methylation (5mC) and DNA hydroxymethylation (5hmC). We analyzed global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in peripheral blood cells in well-controlled and poorly controlled patients with T2DM and compared them with healthy controls. We also analyzed microarrays of DNA methylation and gene expression of other important tissues in the context of diabetes from the GEO database repository and then compared these results with our experimental gene expression data. DNA methylation and, more importantly, DNA hydroxymethylation levels were increased in poorly controlled patients compared to well-controlled and healthy individuals. Both 5mC and 5hmC measurements were correlated with the percentage of glycated hemoglobin, indicating a direct impact of hyperglycemia on changes over the epigenome. The analysis of methylation microarrays was concordant, and 5mC levels were increased in the peripheral blood of T2DM patients. However, the DNA methylation levels were the opposite of those in other tissues, such as the pancreas, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. We hypothesize that a process of DNA oxidation associated with hyperglycemia may explain the DNA demethylation in which the activity of ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins is not sufficient to complete the process. High levels of glucose lead to cellular oxidation, which triggers the process of DNA demethylation aided by TET enzymes, resulting in epigenetic dysregulation of the damaged tissues.