Comparison of Different HILIC Stationary Phases in the Separation of Hemopexin and Immunoglobulin G Glycopeptides and Their Isomers.
ABSTRACT: Protein glycosylation analysis is challenging due to the structural variety of complex conjugates. However, chromatographically separating glycans attached to tryptic peptides enables their site-specific characterization. For this purpose, we have shown the importance of selecting a suitable hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) stationary phase in the separation of glycopeptides and their isomers. Three different HILIC stationary phases, i.e., HALO® penta-HILIC, Glycan ethylene bridged hybrid (BEH) Amide, and ZIC-HILIC, were compared in the separation of complex N-glycopeptides of hemopexin and Immunoglobulin G glycoproteins. The retention time increased with the polarity of the glycans attached to the same peptide backbone in all HILIC columns tested in this study, except for the ZIC-HILIC column when adding sialic acid to the glycan moiety, which caused electrostatic repulsion with the negatively charged sulfobetaine functional group, thereby decreasing retention. The HALO® penta-HILIC column provided the best separation results, and the ZIC-HILIC column the worst. Moreover, we showed the potential of these HILIC columns for the isomeric separation of fucosylated and sialylated glycoforms. Therefore, HILIC is a useful tool for the comprehensive characterization of glycoproteins and their isomers.
Project description:The analysis of intact glycopeptides is a challenge because of the structural variety of the complex conjugates. In this work, we used separation involving hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography using a superficially porous particle HALO® penta-HILIC column with tandem mass spectrometric detection for the analysis of N-glycopeptides of hemopexin. We tested the effect of the mobile phase composition on retention and separation of the glycopeptides. The results indicated that the retention of the glycopeptides was the combination of partitioning and adsorption processes. Under the optimized conditions, our HILIC method showed the ability to efficiently separate the glycoforms of the same peptide backbone including separation of the isobaric glycoforms. We achieved efficient separation of core and outer arm linked fucose of bi-antennary and tri-antennary glycoforms of the SWPAVGNCSSALR peptide and bi-antennary glycoform of the ALPQPQNVTSLLGCTH peptide, respectively. Moreover, we demonstrated the separation of antennary position of sialic acid linked via ?2-6 linkage of the monosialylated glycopeptides. Glycopeptide isomers are often differentially associated with various biological processes. Therefore, chromatographic separation of the species without the need for an extensive sample preparation appears attractive for their identification, characterization, and reliable quantification.
Project description:In this study, an HPLC HILIC-UV method was developed for the analysis of intact neo-glycoproteins. During method development the experimental conditions evaluated involved different HILIC columns (TSKgel Amide-80 and ZIC-pHILIC), and water-acetonitrile mixtures containing various types of acids and salts. The final selected method was based on a TSKgel Amide-80 column and a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water both containing 10 mM HClO4. The influence of temperature and sample preparation on the chromatographic performances of the HILIC method was also investigated. The method was applied to the separation of neo-glycoproteins prepared starting from the model protein RNase A by chemical conjugation of different glycans. Using the method here reported it was possible to monitor by UV detection the glycosylation reaction and assess the distribution of neo-glycoprotein isoforms without laborious sample workup prior to analysis.
Project description:Protein glycosylation, an important and complex post-translational modification (PTM), is involved in various biological processes, including the receptor-ligand and cell-cell interaction, and plays a crucial role in many biological functions. However, little is known about the glycan structures of important biological complex samples, and the conventional glycan enrichment strategy (i.e., size-exclusion column [SEC] separation) prior to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) detection is time-consuming and tedious. In this study, we developed a glycan enrichment strategy that couples Zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (ZIC-HILIC) with dialysis to enrich the glycans from the pronase E digests of RNase B, followed by NMR analysis of the glycoconjugate. Our results suggest that the ZIC-HILIC enrichment coupled with dialysis is a simple, fast, and efficient sample preparation approach. The approach was thus applied to analysis of a biological complex sample, the pronase E digest of the secreted proteins from the fungus Aspergillus niger. The NMR spectra revealed that the secreted proteins from A. niger contain both N-linked glycans with a high-mannose core similar to the structure of the glycan from RNase B, and O-linked glycans bearing mannose and glucose with 1?3 and 1?6 linkages. In all, our study provides compelling evidence that ZIC-HILIC separation coupled with dialysis is very effective and accessible in preparing glycans for the downstream NMR analysis, which could greatly facilitate the future NMR-based glycoproteomics research.
Project description:In this study, we describe the optimization of a Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) method for the evaluation of 14 metabolites related to the de novo synthesis of pyrimidines (dnSP) while using multivariate analysis, which is the metabolic pathway for pyrimidine nucleotide production. A multivariate design was used to set the conditions of the column temperature, flow of the mobile phase, additive concentration, gradient rate, and pH of the mobile phase in order to attain higher peak resolution and ionization efficiency in shorter analysis times. The optimization process was carried out while using factorial fractional designs, Box-Behnken design and central composite design while using two zwitterionic columns, ZIC-p-HILIC and ZIC-HILIC, polymeric, and silica-based columns, respectively. The factors were evaluated while using resolution (R), retention factor (k), efficiency of the column (N), and peak height (h) as the response variables. The best optimized conditions were found with the ZIC-p-HILIC column: elution gradient rate 2 min., pH 7.0, temperature 45 °C, mobile phase flow of 0.35 mL min-1, and additive (ammonium acetate) concentration of 6 mM. The total analysis time was 28 min. The ZIC-p-HILIC LC-MS method yielded satisfactory results for linearity of calibration curves, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ). The method has been shown to be appropriate for the analysis of dnSP on samples of tomato plants that were infected with Phytophthora infestans.
Project description:The ability to resolve glycans while attached to tryptic peptides would greatly facilitate glycoproteomics, as this would enable site-specific glycan characterization. Peptide/glycopeptide separations are typically performed using reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC), where retention is driven by hydrophobic interaction. As the hydrophilic glycans do not interact significantly with the RPLC stationary phase, it is difficult to resolve glycopeptides that differ only in their glycan structure, even when these differences are large. Alternatively, glycans interact extensively with the stationary phases used in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC), and consequently, differences in glycan structure have profound chromatographic shifts in this chromatographic mode. Here, we evaluate HILIC for the separation of isomeric glycopeptide mixtures that have the same peptide backbone but isomeric glycans. Hydrophilic functional groups on both the peptide and the glycan interact with the HILIC stationary phase, and thus, changes to either of these moieties can alter the chromatographic behavior of a glycopeptide. The interactive processes permit glycopeptides to be resolved from each other based on differences in their amino acid sequences and/or their attached glycans. The separations of glycans in HILIC are sufficient to permit resolution of isomeric N-glycan structures, such as sialylated N-glycan isomers differing in ?2-3 and ?2-6 linkages, while these glycans remain attached to peptides.
Project description:Glycopeptide enrichment is a crucial step in glycoproteomics for which hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) has extensively been applied due to its low bias towards different glycan types. A systematic evaluation of applicable HILIC mobile phases on glycopeptide enrichment efficiency and selectivity is, to date, however, still lacking. Here, we present a novel, simplified technique for HILIC enrichment termed "Drop-HILIC", which was applied to systematically evaluate the mobile phase effect on ZIC-HILIC (zwitterionic type of hydrophilic interaction chromatography) glycopeptide enrichment. The four most commonly used MS compatible organic solvents were investigated: (i) acetonitrile, (ii) methanol, (iii) ethanol and (iv) isopropanol. Glycopeptide enrichment efficiencies were evaluated for each solvent system using samples of increasing complexity ranging from well-defined synthetic glycopeptides spiked into different concentrations of tryptic BSA peptides, followed by standard glycoproteins, and a complex sample derived from human (depleted and non-depleted) serum. ZIC-HILIC glycopeptide efficiency largely relied upon the used solvent. Different organic mobile phases enriched distinct glycopeptide subsets in a peptide backbone hydrophilicity-dependant manner. Acetonitrile provided the best compromise for the retention of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic glycopeptides, whereas methanol was confirmed to be unsuitable for this purpose. The enrichment efficiency of ethanol and isopropanol towards highly hydrophobic glycopeptides was compromised as considerable co-enrichment of unmodified peptides occurred, though for some hydrophobic glycopeptides isopropanol showed the best enrichment properties. This study shows that even minor differences in the peptide backbone and solvent do significantly influence HILIC glycopeptide enrichment and need to be carefully considered when employed for glycopeptide enrichment. Graphical Abstract The organic solvent plays a crucial role in ZIC-HILIC glycopeptide enrichment.
Project description:Reversed-phase chromatographic separation of glycopeptides tends to be dominated by the peptide composition. In contrast, capillary zone electrophoresis separation of glycopeptides is particularly sensitive to the sialic acid composition of the glycan. In this paper, we combine the two techniques to achieve superior N-glycopeptide analysis. Glycopeptides were first isolated from a tryptic digest using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) solid-phase extraction. The glycopeptides were separated using reversed-phase ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) to generate four fractions corresponding to different peptide backbones. Capillary zone electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (CZE-ESI-MS/MS) was used to analyze the fractions. We applied this method for the analysis of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). A total of 268 site-specific N-glycopeptides were detected, representing eight different glycosylation sites from two isomers of AGP. Glycans included tetra-sialic acids with multi N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc) repeats and unusual pentasialylated terminal sialic acids. Reversed-phase UHPLC coupled with CZE generated ?35% more N-glycopeptides than direct reversed-phase UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis and ?70% more N-glycopeptides than direct CZE-ESI-MS/MS analysis. This approach is a promising tool for global, site-specific glycosylation analysis of highly heterogeneous glycoproteins with mass-limited samples.
Project description:Aryloxypropanolamine is an essential structural scaffold for a variety of ?-adrenergic receptor antagonists such as metoprolol. Molecules with such a structural motif tend to degrade into ?, ?-hydroxypropanolamine impurities via a radical-initiated oxidation pathway. These impurities are typically polar and nonchromophoric, and are thus often overlooked using traditional reversed phase chromatography and UV detection. In this work, stress testing of metoprolol confirmed the generation of 3-isopropylamino-1,2-propanediol as a degradation product, which is a specified impurity of metoprolol in the European Pharmacopoeia (impurity N). To ensure the safety and quality of metoprolol drug products, hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) methods using Halo Penta HILIC column (150?mm?×?4.6?mm, 5??m) coupled with charged aerosol detection (CAD) were developed and optimized for the separation and quantitation of metoprolol impurity N in metoprolol drug products including metoprolol tartrate injection, metoprolol tartrate tablets, and metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets. These HILIC-CAD methods were validated per USP validation guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, and precision, and have been successfully applied to determine impurity N in metoprolol drug products.
Project description:The study of N-linked glycans is among the most challenging bioanalytical tasks because of their complexity and variety. The presence of glycoform families that differ only in branching and/or linkage position makes the identification and quantitation of individual glycans exceedingly difficult. Quantitation of these individual glycans is important because changes in the abundance of these isomers are often associated with significant biomedical events. For instance, previous studies have shown that the ratio of ?2-3 to ?2-6 linked sialic acid (SA) plays an important role in cancer biology. Consequently, quantitative methods to detect alterations in the ratios of glycans based on their SA linkages could serve as a diagnostic tool in oncology, yet traditional glycomic profiling cannot readily differentiate between these linkage isomers. Here, we present a liquid chromatography-selected reaction monitoring (LC-SRM) approach that we demonstrate is capable of quantitating the individual SA linkage isomers. The LC method is capable of separating sialylated N-glycan isomers differing in ?2-3 and ?2-6 linkages using a novel superficially porous particle (Fused-Core) Penta-HILIC (hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography) column. SRM detection provides the relative quantitation of each SA linkage isomer, and minimizes interferences from coeluting glycans that are problematic for UV/Fluorescence based quantitation. With our approach, the relative quantitation of each SA linkage isomer is obtained from a straightforward liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) experiment.
Project description:Permethylation is a common derivatization method for MS-based glycomic analyses. Permethylation enhances glycan ionization efficiency in positive MS analysis and improves glycan structural stability. Recent biological glycomic studies have added to the growing body of knowledge and suggest the need for complete structural analysis of glycans. However, reverse phase LC analysis of permethylated glycans usually results in poor isomeric separation. To achieve isomeric separation of permethylated glycans, a porous graphitic carbon (PGC) column was used. PGC columns are well-known for their isomeric separation capability for hydrophilic analyses. In this study, we have optimized temperature conditions to overcome the issues encountered while separating permethylated glycans on a PGC column and found that the highest temperature examined, 75 °C, was optimal. Additionally, we utilized tandem MS to elucidate detailed structural information for the isomers separated. Glycan standards were also utilized to facilitate structural identifications through MS/MS spectra and retention time comparison. The result is an efficient and sensitive method capable of the isomeric separation of permethylated glycans. This method was successfully applied for the isomeric characterization of N-glycans released from the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-231BR (brain seeking). A total of 127 unique glycan structures were identified with 39 isobaric structures, represented as 106 isomers, with 21 nonisomeric glycans. Thirty seven structures exhibited significant differences in isomeric distribution (P < 0.05). Additionally, alterations in the distribution of isomeric sialylated glycans, structures known to be involved in cell attachment to the blood-brain barrier during brain metastasis, were observed.