Activation of the CARD8 Inflammasome Requires a Disordered Region.
ABSTRACT: Several cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) form multiprotein complexes called canonical inflammasomes in response to intracellular danger signals. Canonical inflammasomes recruit and activate caspase-1 (CASP1), which in turn cleaves and activates inflammatory cytokines and gasdermin D (GSDMD), inducing pyroptotic cell death. Inhibitors of the dipeptidyl peptidases DPP8 and DPP9 (DPP8/9) activate both the human NLRP1 and CARD8 inflammasomes. NLRP1 and CARD8 have different N-terminal regions but have similar C-terminal regions that undergo autoproteolysis to generate two non-covalently associated fragments. Here, we show that DPP8/9 inhibition activates a proteasomal degradation pathway that targets disordered and misfolded proteins for destruction. CARD8's N terminus contains a disordered region of ?160 amino acids that is recognized and destroyed by this degradation pathway, thereby freeing its C-terminal fragment to activate CASP1 and induce pyroptosis. Thus, CARD8 serves as an alarm to signal the activation of a degradation pathway for disordered and misfolded proteins.
Project description:Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes formed in response to pathogens. NLRP1 and CARD8 are related proteins that form inflammasomes, but the pathogen-associated signal(s) and the molecular mechanisms controlling their activation have not been established. Inhibitors of the serine dipeptidyl peptidases DPP8 and DPP9 (DPP8/9) activate both NLRP1 and CARD8. Interestingly, DPP9 binds directly to NLRP1 and CARD8, and this interaction may contribute to the inhibition of NLRP1. Here, we use activity-based probes, reconstituted inflammasome assays, and mass spectrometry-based proteomics to further investigate the DPP9-CARD8 interaction. We show that the DPP9-CARD8 interaction, unlike the DPP9-NLRP1 interaction, is not disrupted by DPP9 inhibitors or CARD8 mutations that block autoproteolysis. Moreover, wild-type, but not catalytically inactive mutant, DPP9 rescues CARD8-mediated cell death in <i>DPP9</i> knockout cells. Together, this work reveals that DPP9's catalytic activity and not its binding to CARD8 restrains the CARD8 inflammasome and thus suggests the binding interaction likely serves some other biological purpose.
Project description:Intracellular pathogenic structures or activities stimulate the formation of inflammasomes, which recruit and activate caspase-1 and trigger an inflammatory form of cell death called pyroptosis. The well-characterized mammalian inflammasome sensor proteins all detect one specific type of signal, for example double-stranded DNA or bacterial flagellin. Remarkably, NLRP1 was the first protein discovered to form an inflammasome, but the pathogenic signal that NLRP1 detects has not yet been identified. NLRP1 is highly polymorphic, even among inbred rodent strains, and it has been suggested that these diverse NLRP1 alleles may have evolved to detect entirely different stimuli. Intriguingly, inhibitors of the serine proteases DPP8 and DPP9 (DPP8/9) were recently shown to activate human NLRP1, its homolog CARD8, and several mouse NLRP1 alleles. Here, we show now that DPP8/9 inhibitors activate all functional rodent NLRP1 alleles, indicating that DPP8/9 inhibition induces a signal detected by all NLRP1 proteins. Moreover, we discovered that the NLRP1 allele sensitivities to DPP8/9 inhibitor-induced and Toxoplasma gondii-induced pyroptosis are strikingly similar, suggesting that DPP8/9 inhibition phenocopies a key activity of T. gondii. Overall, this work indicates that the highly polymorphic NLRP1 inflammasome indeed senses a specific signal like the other mammalian inflammasomes.
Project description:Canonical inflammasomes are innate immune signaling platforms that are formed in response to intracellular pathogen-associated signals and trigger caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis. Inflammasome formation and signaling is thought to mainly occur in myeloid cells, and in particular monocytes and macrophages. Here we show that small molecule inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidases 8 and 9 (DPP8/9), which activate the related CARD8 and NLRP1 inflammasomes, also activate pyroptosis in human and rodent resting lymphocytes. We found that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were particularly sensitive to these inhibitors, although the sensitivity of T cells, like macrophages, varied considerably between species. In human T cells, we show that CARD8 mediates DPP8/9 inhibitor-induced pyroptosis. Intriguingly, although activated human T cells express the key proteins known to be required for CARD8-mediated pyroptosis, these cells were completely resistant to DPP8/9 inhibitors. Overall, these data show that resting lymphoid cells can activate at least one inflammasome, revealing additional cell types and states poised to undergo rapid pyroptotic cell death in response to danger-associated signals.
Project description:Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes formed in response to pathogens. NLRP1 and CARD8 are related proteins that form inflammasomes, but the pathogen-associated signal(s) and the molecular mechanisms controlling their activation have not been established. Inhibitors of the serine dipeptidyl peptidases DPP8 and DPP9 (DPP8/9) were recently discovered to activate both NLRP1 and CARD8. Interestingly, DPP9 binds directly to NLRP1 and CARD8, and this interaction, in addition to DPP9’s catalytic activity, may contribute to the inhibition of NLRP1. Here, we use activity-based probes, reconstituted inflammasome assays, and mass spectrometry-based proteomics to further investigate the DPP9-CARD8 interaction. We show that the DPP9-CARD8 interaction, unlike the DPP9-NLRP1 interaction, is not disrupted by DPP9 inhibitors or mutations that block autoproteolysis. Moreover, wild-type, but not catalytically-inactive mutant, DPP9 rescues CARD8-mediated cell death in DPP9 knockout cells. Together, this work reveals DPP9 activity and not direct protein binding restrains the CARD8 inflammasome, and suggests the binding interaction likely serves some other biological purpose.
Project description:Neuronal active Caspase-6 (Casp6) is associated with Alzheimer disease (AD), cognitive impairment, and axonal degeneration. Caspase-1 (Casp1) can activate Casp6 but the expression and functionality of Casp1-activating inflammasomes has not been well-defined in human neurons. Here, we show that primary cultures of human CNS neurons expressed functional Nod-like receptor protein 1 (NLRP1), absent in melanoma 2, and ICE protease activating factor, but not the NLRP3, inflammasome receptor components. NLRP1 neutralizing antibodies in a cell-free system, and NLRP1 siRNAs in neurons hampered stress-induced Casp1 activation. NLRP1 and Casp1 siRNAs also abolished stress-induced Casp6 activation in neurons. The functionality of the NLRP1 inflammasome in serum-deprived neurons was also demonstrated by NLRP1 siRNA-mediated inhibition of speck formation of the apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain conjugated to green fluorescent protein. These results indicated a novel stress-induced intraneuronal NLRP1/Casp1/Casp6 pathway. Lipopolysaccharide induced Casp1 and Casp6 activation in wild-type mice brain cortex, but not in that of Nlrp1(-/-) and Casp1(-/-) mice. NLRP1 immunopositive neurons were increased 25- to 30-fold in AD brains compared with non-AD brains. NLRP1 immunoreactivity in these neurons co-localized with Casp6 activity. Furthermore, the NLRP1/Casp1/Casp6 pathway increased amyloid beta peptide 42 ratio in serum-deprived neurons. Therefore, CNS human neurons express functional NLRP1 inflammasomes, which activate Casp1 and subsequently Casp6, thus revealing a fundamental mechanism linking intraneuronal inflammasome activation to Casp1-generated interleukin-1-?-mediated neuroinflammation and Casp6-mediated axonal degeneration.
Project description:The inflammasome is a critical molecular complex that activates interleukin-1 driven inflammation in response to pathogen- and danger-associated signals. Germline mutations in the inflammasome sensor NLRP1 cause Mendelian systemic autoimmunity and skin cancer susceptibility, but its endogenous regulation remains less understood. Here we use a proteomics screen to uncover dipeptidyl dipeptidase DPP9 as a novel interacting partner with human NLRP1 and a related inflammasome regulator, CARD8. DPP9 functions as an endogenous inhibitor of NLRP1 inflammasome in diverse primary cell types from human and mice. DPP8/9 inhibition via small molecule drugs and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genetic deletion specifically activate the human NLRP1 inflammasome, leading to ASC speck formation, pyroptotic cell death, and secretion of cleaved interleukin-1?. Mechanistically, DPP9 interacts with a unique autoproteolytic domain (Function to Find Domain (FIIND)) found in NLRP1 and CARD8. This scaffolding function of DPP9 and its catalytic activity act synergistically to maintain NLRP1 in its inactive state and repress downstream inflammasome activation. We further identified a single patient-derived germline missense mutation in the NLRP1 FIIND domain that abrogates DPP9 binding, leading to inflammasome hyperactivation seen in the Mendelian autoinflammatory disease Autoinflammation with Arthritis and Dyskeratosis. These results unite recent findings on the regulation of murine Nlrp1b by Dpp8/9 and uncover a new regulatory mechanism for the NLRP1 inflammasome in primary human cells. Our results further suggest that DPP9 could be a multifunctional inflammasome regulator involved in human autoinflammatory diseases.
Project description:NLRP1 and CARD8 are related cytosolic sensors that upon activation form supramolecular signalling complexes known as canonical inflammasomes, resulting in caspase-1 activation, cytokine maturation and/or pyroptotic cell death. NLRP1 and CARD8 use their C-terminal (CT) fragments containing a caspase recruitment domain (CARD) and the UPA (conserved in UNC5, PIDD, and ankyrins) subdomain for self-oligomerization, which in turn form the platform to recruit the inflammasome adaptor ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD) or caspase-1, respectively. Here, we report cryo-EM structures of NLRP1-CT and CARD8-CT assemblies, in which the respective CARDs form central helical filaments that are promoted by oligomerized, but flexibly linked, UPAs surrounding the filaments. Through biochemical and cellular approaches, we demonstrate that the UPA itself reduces the threshold needed for NLRP1-CT and CARD8-CT filament formation and signalling. Structural analyses provide insights on the mode of ASC recruitment by NLRP1-CT and the contrasting direct recruitment of caspase-1 by CARD8-CT. We also discover that subunits in the central NLRP1<sup>CARD</sup> filament dimerize with additional exterior CARDs, which roughly doubles its thickness and is unique among all known CARD filaments. Finally, we engineer and determine the structure of an ASC<sup>CARD</sup>-caspase-1<sup>CARD</sup> octamer, which suggests that ASC uses opposing surfaces for NLRP1, versus caspase-1, recruitment. Together these structures capture the architecture and specificity of the active NLRP1 and CARD8 inflammasomes in addition to key heteromeric CARD-CARD interactions governing inflammasome signalling.
Project description:Pathogen-related signals induce a number of cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) to form canonical inflammasomes, which activate pro-caspase-1 and trigger pyroptotic cell death. All well-studied inflammasome-forming PRRs oligomerize with the adapter protein ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD) to generate a large structure in the cytosol, which induces the dimerization, autoproteolysis, and activation of the pro-caspase-1 zymogen. However, several PRRs can also directly interact with pro-caspase-1 without ASC, forming smaller "ASC-independent" inflammasomes. It is currently thought that little, if any, pro-caspase-1 autoproteolysis occurs during, and is not required for, ASC-independent inflammasome signaling. Here, we show that the related human PRRs NLRP1 and CARD8 exclusively form ASC-dependent and ASC-independent inflammasomes, respectively, identifying CARD8 as the first canonical inflammasome-forming PRR that does not form an ASC-containing signaling platform. Despite their different structures, we discovered that both the NLRP1 and CARD8 inflammasomes require pro-caspase-1 autoproteolysis between the small and large catalytic subunits to induce pyroptosis. Thus, pro-caspase-1 self-cleavage is a required regulatory step for pyroptosis induced by human canonical inflammasomes.
Project description:Activating germline mutations in the human inflammasome sensor NLRP1 causes palmoplantar dyskeratosis and susceptibility to Mendelian autoinflammatory diseases. Recent studies have shown that the cytosolic serine dipeptidyl peptidases DPP8 and DPP9 suppress inflammasome activation upstream of NLRP1 and CARD8 in human keratinocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of DPP8/DPP9 protease activity was shown to induce pyroptosis in murine C57BL/6 macrophages without eliciting other inflammasome hallmark responses. Here, we show that DPP8/DPP9 inhibition in macrophages that express a Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LeTx)-sensitive Nlrp1b allele triggered significantly accelerated pyroptosis concomitant with caspase-1 maturation, ASC speck assembly, and secretion of mature IL-1β and IL-18. Genetic ablation of ASC prevented DPP8/DPP9 inhibition-induced caspase-1 maturation and partially hampered pyroptosis and inflammasome-dependent cytokine release, whereas deletion of caspase-1 or gasdermin D triggered apoptosis in the absence of IL-1β and IL-18 secretion. In conclusion, blockade of DPP8/DPP9 protease activity triggers rapid pyroptosis and canonical inflammasome hallmarks in primary macrophages that express a LeTx-responsive Nlrp1b allele.
Project description:Intracellular pathogens and danger signals trigger the formation of inflammasomes, which activate inflammatory caspases and induce pyroptosis. The anthrax lethal factor metalloprotease and small-molecule DPP8/9 inhibitors both activate the NLRP1B inflammasome, but the molecular mechanism of NLRP1B activation is unknown. In this study, we used genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screens to identify genes required for NLRP1B-mediated pyroptosis. We discovered that lethal factor induces cell death via the N-end rule proteasomal degradation pathway. Lethal factor directly cleaves NLRP1B, inducing the N-end rule-mediated degradation of the NLRP1B N terminus and freeing the NLRP1B C terminus to activate caspase-1. DPP8/9 inhibitors also induce proteasomal degradation of the NLRP1B N terminus but not via the N-end rule pathway. Thus, N-terminal degradation is the common activation mechanism of this innate immune sensor.