Integrative genomic analysis focused on cell cycle genes for MYC-driven aggressive mature B-cell lymphoma.
ABSTRACT: MYC is a transcriptional factor that regulates growth and proliferation through cell cycle pathways. MYC alterations, in particular MYC rearrangements, are important in assessing the prognosis of aggressive B-cell lymphoma. In this study, we focused on the impact of nine major cell cycle genes for MYC-driven aggressive mature B-cell lymphoma and analyzed the mutational status using targeted next generation sequencing. Our 40 cases of aggressive mature B-cell lymphomas included 5 Burkitt lymphomas, 17 high-grade B-cell lymphomas and 18 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas with MYC breaks in 100%, 88% and 11%, respectively. Our data allowed a molecular classification into four categories partially independent from the histopathological diagnosis but correlating with the Ki-67 labelling index: (I) harboring TP53 and CDKN2A mutations, being highly proliferative, (II) with MYC rearrangement associated with MYC and/or ID3 mutations, being highly proliferative, (III) with MYC rearrangement combined with additional molecular changes, being highly proliferative, and (IV) with a diverse pattern of molecular alterations, being less proliferative. Taken together, we found that mutations of TP53, CDKN2A, MYC and ID3 are associated with highly proliferative B-cell lymphomas that could profit from novel therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Mature B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma is the most common subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in childhood and adolescence. B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas are further classified into histological subtypes, with Burkitt lymphoma and Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma being the most common subgroups in pediatric patients. Translocations involving the MYC oncogene are known as relevant but not sufficient for Burkitt lymphoma pathogenesis. Recently published large-scale next-generation sequencing studies unveiled sets of additional recurrently mutated genes in samples of pediatric and adult B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients. ID3, TCF3 and CCND3 are potential drivers of Burkitt lymphomagenesis. In the study herein, frequency and clinical relevance of mutations in ID3, TCF3 and CCND3 were analyzed within a well-defined cohort of 84 uniformly diagnosed and treated pediatric B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients of the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster group. Mutation frequency was 78% (ID3), 13% (TCF3) and 36% (CCND3) in Burkitt lymphoma (including Burkitt leukemia). ID3 and CCND3 mutations were associated with more advanced stages of the disease in MYC rearrangement positive Burkitt lymphoma. In conclusion, ID3-TCF3-CCND3 pathway genes are mutated in more than 88% of MYC-rearranged pediatric B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and the pathway may represent a highly relevant second hit of Burkitt lymphoma pathogenesis, especially in children and adolescents.
Project description:It is now well established that the E and Id protein axis regulates multiple steps in lymphocyte development. However, it remains unknown how E and Id proteins mechanistically enforce and maintain the naïve T-cell fate. Here we show that Id2 and Id3 suppressed the development and expansion of innate variant follicular helper T (TFH) cells. Innate variant TFH cells required major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like signaling and were associated with germinal center B cells. We found that Id2 and Id3 induced Foxo1 and Foxp1 expression to antagonize the activation of a TFH transcription signature. We show that Id2 and Id3 acted upstream of the Hif1a/Foxo/AKT/mTORC1 pathway as well as the c-myc/p19Arf module to control cellular expansion. We found that mice depleted for Id2 and Id3 expression developed colitis and ?? T-cell lymphomas. Lymphomas depleted for Id2 and Id3 expression displayed elevated levels of c-myc, whereas p19Arf abundance declined. Transcription signatures of Id2- and Id3-depleted lymphomas revealed similarities to genetic deficiencies associated with Burkitt lymphoma. We propose that, in response to antigen receptor and/or cytokine signaling, the E-Id protein axis modulates the activities of the PI3K-AKT-mTORC1-Hif1a and c-myc/p19Arf pathways to control cellular expansion and homeostatic proliferation.
Project description:The adult high-grade B-cell lymphomas sharing molecular features with Burkitt lymphoma (BL) are highly aggressive lymphomas with poor clinical outcome. High-resolution structural and functional genomic analysis of adult Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and high-grade B-cell lymphoma with BL gene signature (adult-molecularly defined BL [mBL]) revealed the MYC-ARF-p53 axis as the primary deregulated pathway. Adult-mBL had either unique or more frequent genomic aberrations (del13q14, del17p, gain8q24, and gain18q21) compared with pediatric-mBL, but shared commonly mutated genes. Mutations in genes promoting the tonic B-cell receptor (BCR)?PI3K pathway (TCF3 and ID3) did not differ by age, whereas effectors of chronic BCR?NF-?B signaling were associated with adult-mBL. A subset of adult-mBL had BCL2 translocation and mutation and elevated BCL2 mRNA and protein expression, but had a mutation profile similar to mBL. These double-hit lymphomas may have arisen from a tumor precursor that acquired both BCL2 and MYC translocations and/or KMT2D (MLL2) mutation. Gain/amplification of MIR17HG and its paralogue loci was observed in 50% of adult-mBL. In vitro studies suggested miR-17?92's role in constitutive activation of BCR signaling and sensitivity to ibrutinib. Overall integrative analysis identified an interrelated gene network affected by copy number and mutation, leading to disruption of the p53 pathway and the BCR?PI3K or NF-?B activation, which can be further exploited in vivo by small-molecule inhibitors for effective therapy in adult-mBL.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Precursor T-cell lymphoblastic lymphomas (T-LBL) are rare aggressive hematological malignancies that mainly develop in children. As in other cancers, the loss of cell cycle control plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis in these malignancies that is primarily attributed to loss of CDKN2A (encoding protein p16INK4A). However, the impact of the deregulation of other genes such as CDKN1C, E2F1, and TP53 remains to be clarified. Interestingly, experiments in mouse models have proven that conditional T-cell specific deletion of Cdkn1c gene may induce a differentiation block at the DN3 to DN4 transition, and that the loss of this gene in the absence of Tp53 led to aggressive thymic lymphomas. RESULTS:In this manuscript, we demonstrated that the simultaneous deregulation of CDKN1C, E2F1, and TP53 genes by epigenetic mechanisms and/or the deregulation of specific microRNAs, together with additional impairing of TP53 function by the expression of dominant-negative isoforms are common features in primary human T-LBLs. CONCLUSIONS:Previous experimental work in mice revealed that T-cell specific deletion of Cdkn1c accelerates lymphomagenesis in the absence of Tp53. If, as expected, the consequences of the deregulation of the CDKN1C-E2F1-TP53 axis were the same as those experimentally demonstrated in mouse models, the disruption of this axis might be useful to predict tumor aggressiveness, and to provide the basis towards the development of potential therapeutic strategiesin human T-LBL.
Project description:MYC and BCL2 translocations as well as TP53 deletion/mutation are known risk factors in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) but their interplay is not well understood.In this retrospective cohort study, we evaluated the combined prognostic impact of TP53 deletion and mutation status, MYC and BCL2 genomic breaks in tumor samples of 101 DLBCL patients. The cohort included 53 cases with MYC rearrangements (MYC+).TP53 deletions/mutations (TP53+) were found in 32 of 101 lymphomas and were equally distributed between MYC+ and MYC- cases (35.8% vs. 27.1%). TP53+ lymphomas had lower responses to treatment than TP53- (complete remission 34.4% vs. 60.9%; P?=?0.01). TP53 alteration was the dominant independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis (P?=?0.01). Overall survival (OS) varied considerably between subgroups with different genomic alterations: Patients with sole MYC translocation, and interestingly, with triple MYC+/BCL2+/TP53+ aberration had favorable outcomes (median OS not reached) similar to patients without genomic alterations (median OS 65 months). In contrast, patients with MYC+/BCL2+/TP53- double-hit lymphomas (DHL) (28 months), MYC+/BCL2-/TP53+ lymphomas (10 months) or sole TP53 mutation/deletion (12 months) had a poor median OS. Our findings demonstrate differences in OS of DLBCL patients depending on absence or presence of single or combined genetic alterations of MYC, BCL2, and TP53. Cooccurrence of TP53 and BCL2 aberrations ameliorated the poor prognostic impact of single TP53+ or BCL2+ in MYC positive patients.This pilot study generates evidence for the complex interplay between the alterations of genetic pathways in DLBCL, which goes beyond the concept of DHL. The variable survival of DLBCL patients dependent on single or combined alterations in the TP53, MYC, and BCL2 genes indicates the need for comprehensive genomic diagnosis.
Project description:While c-Myc dysregulation is constantly associated with highly proliferating B-cell tumors, nuclear factor (NF)-κB addiction is found in indolent lymphomas as well as diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, either with an activated B-cell like phenotype or associated with the Epstein-Barr virus. We raised the question of the effect of c-Myc in B cells with NF-κB activated by three different inducers: Epstein-Barr virus-latency III program, TLR9 and CD40. Induction of c-Myc overexpression increased proliferation of Epstein-Barr virus-latency III immortalized B cells, an effect that was dependent on NF-κB. Results from transcriptomic signatures and functional studies showed that c-Myc overexpression increased Epstein-Barr virus-latency III-driven proliferation depending on NF-κB. In vitro, induction of c-Myc increased proliferation of B cells with TLR9-dependant activation of MyD88, with decreased apoptosis. In the transgenic λc-Myc mouse model with c-Myc overexpression in B cells, in vivo activation of MyD88 by TLR9 induced splenomegaly related to an increased synthesis phase (S-phase) entry of B cells. Transgenic mice with both continuous CD40 signaling in B cells and the λc-Myc transgene developed very aggressive lymphomas with characteristics of activated diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. The main characteristic gene expression profile signatures of these tumors were those of proliferation and energetic metabolism. These results suggest that c-Myc is an NF-κB co-transforming event in aggressive lymphomas with an activated phenotype, activated B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. This would explain why NF-κB is associated with both indolent and aggressive lymphomas, and opens new perspectives on the possibility of combinatory therapies targeting both the c-Myc proliferating program and NF-κB activation pathways in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.
Project description:Burkitt lymphoma is characterized by deregulation of MYC, but the contribution of other genetic mutations to the disease is largely unknown. Here, we describe the first completely sequenced genome from a Burkitt lymphoma tumor and germline DNA from the same affected individual. We further sequenced the exomes of 59 Burkitt lymphoma tumors and compared them to sequenced exomes from 94 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) tumors. We identified 70 genes that were recurrently mutated in Burkitt lymphomas, including ID3, GNA13, RET, PIK3R1 and the SWI/SNF genes ARID1A and SMARCA4. Our data implicate a number of genes in cancer for the first time, including CCT6B, SALL3, FTCD and PC. ID3 mutations occurred in 34% of Burkitt lymphomas and not in DLBCLs. We show experimentally that ID3 mutations promote cell cycle progression and proliferation. Our work thus elucidates commonly occurring gene-coding mutations in Burkitt lymphoma and implicates ID3 as a new tumor suppressor gene.
Project description:A proportion of MYC translocation positive diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) harbour a BCL2 and/or BCL6 translocation, known as double-hit DLBCL, and are clinically aggressive. It is unknown whether there are other genetic abnormalities that cooperate with MYC translocation and form double-hit DLBCL, and whether there is a difference in clinical outcome between the double-hit DLBCL and those with an isolated MYC translocation. We investigated TP53 gene mutations along with BCL2 and BCL6 translocations in a total of 234 cases of DLBCL, including 81 with MYC translocation. TP53 mutations were investigated by PCR and sequencing, while BCL2 and BCL6 translocation was studied by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization. The majority of MYC translocation positive DLBCLs (60/81?=?74%) had at least one additional genetic hit. In MYC translocation positive DLBCL treated by R-CHOP (n?=?67), TP53 mutation and BCL2, but not BCL6 translocation had an adverse effect on patient overall survival. In comparison with DLBCL with an isolated MYC translocation, cases with MYC/TP53 double-hits had the worst overall survival, followed by those with MYC/BCL2 double-hits. In MYC translocation negative DLBCL treated by R-CHOP (n?=?101), TP53 mutation, BCL2 and BCL6 translocation had no impact on patient survival. The prognosis of MYC translocation positive DLBCL critically depends on the second hit, with TP53 mutations and BCL2 translocation contributing to an adverse prognosis. It is pivotal to investigate both TP53 mutations and BCL2 translocations in MYC translocation positive DLBCL, and to distinguish double-hit DLBCLs from those with an isolated MYC translocation.
Project description:Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are aggressive malignancies of mature T lymphocytes with 5-year overall survival rates of only ? 35%. Improvement in outcomes has been stymied by poor understanding of the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of PTCL, with a resulting paucity of molecular targets for therapy. We developed bioinformatic tools to identify chromosomal rearrangements using genome-wide, next-generation sequencing analysis of mate-pair DNA libraries and applied these tools to 16 PTCL patient tissue samples and 6 PTCL cell lines. Thirteen recurrent abnormalities were identified, of which 5 involved p53-related genes (TP53, TP63, CDKN2A, WWOX, and ANKRD11). Among these abnormalities were novel TP63 rearrangements encoding fusion proteins homologous to ?Np63, a dominant-negative p63 isoform that inhibits the p53 pathway. TP63 rearrangements were seen in 11 (5.8%) of 190 PTCLs and were associated with inferior overall survival; they also were detected in 2 (1.2%) of 164 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. As TP53 mutations are rare in PTCL compared with other malignancies, our findings suggest that a constellation of alternate genetic abnormalities may contribute to disruption of p53-associated tumor suppressor function in PTCL.
Project description:The transcription factor proto-oncogene c-MYC (hereafter MYC) was first identified more than 3 decades ago and has since been found deregulated in a wide variety of the most aggressive human malignancies. As a pleiotropic transcription factor, MYC directly or indirectly controls expression of hundreds of coding and noncoding genes, which affect cell cycle entry, proliferation, differentiation, metabolism, and death/survival decisions of normal and cancer cells. Tumors with elevated MYC expression often exhibit highly proliferative, aggressive phenotypes, and elevated MYC expression has been correlated with diminished disease-free survival for a variety of human cancers. The use of MYC overexpression or MYC-dependent transcriptional gene signatures as clinical biomarkers is currently being investigated. Furthermore, preclinical animal and cell-based model systems have been extensively utilized in an effort to uncover the mechanisms of MYC-dependent tumorigenesis and tumor maintenance. Despite our ever-growing understanding of MYC biology, currently no targeted therapeutic strategy is clinically available to treat tumors that have acquired elevated MYC expression. This article summarizes the progresses being made to discover and implement new therapies to kill MYC over-expressing tumors-a target that was once deemed undruggable.