Dietary supplementation with vitamin C ameliorates the adverse effects of Salmonella Enteritidis-challenge in broilers by shaping intestinal microbiota.
ABSTRACT: Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infection is not only a leading cause of poor production performance and compromised animal welfare in broilers but also a potential threat to public health. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplemental vitamin C (VC) on SE challenged-broilers. In experiment 1, one hundred eighty 1-day-old Arbor Acre broilers were randomly allocated into 3 treatments, with 0, 500, or 1,000 mg/kg VC included in the diet. In experiment 2, dietary VC at 0 or 500 mg/kg, with or without SE challenge was applied in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in 6 randomized complete blocks. In experiment 1, addition with 500 mg/kg VC increased BW and infectious bursal disease (IBD) titer of broilers on 35 D (P < 0.05), whereas 1,000 mg/kg VC had no effects on the IBD titer (P > 0.05) compared with the control group. In experiment 2, SE challenge depressed BW on 11 and 21 D (P < 0.05 and P = 0.088, respectively), whereas increased mortality and hepatic bacterial translocation (P < 0.05) on 21 D. Further, SE challenge resulted in lower villus height in jejunum, lower microbial richness, and diversity, whereas higher abundance of Enterobacteriaceae in cecum (P < 0.05). Importantly, supplementation with VC increased BW on both 21 and 35 D (P < 0.05 and P = 0.088, respectively) and enhanced the intestinal health by improving villus morphology and microbial structure as indicated by higher cecal microbial richness and Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, while lower abundance of Enterobacteriaceae (P < 0.05). In addition, birds fed with 500 mg/kg VC in the diet had significantly increased jejunal secretory immunoglobulin A levels, T lymphocytes stimulation index, and serum total antioxidant capability compared with groups without VC (P < 0.05). In conclusion, SE challenge induced lower production performance and higher mortality in broilers. However, dietary supplementation with VC ameliorated SE-caused damage in broilers by improving the intestinal health, partly mediated by shaping the structure of cecal microbiota.
Project description:The particle size of selenium (Se) sources could affect Se absorption and utilization, and thus it is hypothesized that the Se bioavailability might be higher in ultrafine sodium selenite (USSe) than in sodium selenite (SSe) for broilers because of USSe's smaller particle size. An experiment was conducted to investigate the relative bioavailability of Se as USSe relative to SSe for broiler chicks fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet. A total of 504 one-d-old Arbor Acres commercial male broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 7 treatments with 6 replicates per treatment in a completely randomized design involving in a 2 (Se sources) × 3 (added Se levels) factorial arrangement of treatments plus a Se-unsupplemented control diet containing 0.05 mg Se/kg by analysis for 21 d. The 2 Se sources were USSe and SSe, and the 3 added Se levels were 0.15, 0.30, or 0.45 mg Se/kg. The Se concentrations, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and mRNA relative abundances in plasma, liver, or pancreas of broilers on day 14 and 21 were determined. The results showed that Se concentrations, GSH-Px activities in plasma, liver, and pancreas, and mRNA relative abundances in the liver and pancreas of broilers on day 14 and 21 increased linearly (P < 0.05) as the added Se-level increased. Furthermore, a difference (P < 0.05) between USSe and SSe was detected for GSH-Px mRNA relative abundance in the pancreas of broilers on day 14. On the basis of the slope ratios from the multiple linear regression of the pancreatic GSH-Px mRNA relative abundance of broilers at 14 d of age on daily dietary analyzed Se intake, the Se bioavailability of USSe relative to SSe (100%) was 158% (P < 0.05). The results from this study indicated that the Se from USSe was more available to broilers than the Se from SSe in enhancing the pancreatic GSH-Px mRNA expression.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the combination of probiotics replacing antibiotics on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, intestinal morphology, and expression of tight junction proteins in intestinal mucosa of broilers. A total of 168 Arbor Acres broilers (45.04 ± 0.92 g) were randomly divided into three treatments, with seven replicates per treatment, and eight broilers per replicate. The experiment included phases 1 (d 0 to 21) and 2 (d 21 to 42). The dietary treatments contained a corn soybean meal-based diet (control group; CON); an antibiotic group (basal diet + 75 mg/kg chlortetracycline; CTC), and a probiotics group (basal diet + probiotics (500 mg/kg in phase 1 and 300 mg/kg in phase 2; Bacillus subtilis 5 × 109 CFU/g, Bacillus licheniformis 2.5 × 1010 CFU/g and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1 × 109 CFU/g; PB). The results showed broilers fed PB had improved (p < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR) in phase 1 and increased (p < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) in phase 2, as well as improved (p < 0.05) ADG and FCR overall (d 0 to 42). The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, organic matter, gross energy, and crude protein was increased (p < 0.05) in broilers fed PB, while the ATTD of dry matter and organic matter was enhanced in broilers fed CTC compared with CON. Broilers fed PB showed increased (p < 0.05) serum total antioxidant capacity concentrations and tended to have higher (p = 0.06) level of serum immunoglobulin M in phase 1 compared with CON. These broilers also had increased (p < 0.05) level of serum immunoglobulin A in phase 2 in comparison with CON and CTC. Moreover, broilers fed CTC and PB showed increased (p = 0.05) villus height to crypt depth ratio in duodenum, as well as higher (p < 0.05) mRNA expression of zonula occludens-1 in jejunum compared with CON. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with PB as chlortetracycline substitute could improve the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum antioxidant capacity, jejunal mucosal barrier function, and intestinal morphology of broilers.
Project description:<b>Background</b>: <i>Momordica charantia</i> is used in China for its <i>jianghuo</i> (heat-clearing and detoxifying) effects. The concept of <i>shanghuo</i> (the antonym of <i>jianghuo</i>, excessive internal heat) in traditional Chinese medicine is considered a type of stress response of the body. The stress process involves internal organs, especially the liver. <b>Objective</b>: We hypothesized that <i>Momordica charantia</i> water extract (MWE) has a hepatoprotective effect and can protect the body from stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of MWE against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice. <b>Design</b>: The mice were intragastrically administered with MWE (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg bw) daily for 7 days. The Normal Control (NC) and Model groups were administered distilled water. A positive control group was intragastrically administered vitamin C 250 mg/kg bw. After the last administration, mice were restrained for 20 h. <b>Results</b>: MWE reduced the serum AST and ALT, reduced the NO content and the protein expression level of iNOSin the liver; significantly reduced the mitochondrial ROS content, increased the mitochondrial membrane potential and the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I and II in restraint-stressed mice. <b>Conclusions</b>: The results indicate that MWE has a protective effect against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice. <b>Abbreviations</b>: MWE: <i>Momordica charantia</i> water extract; <i>M. charantia: Momordica charantia</i> L.; ROS: reactive oxygen species; NO: nitric oxide; iNOS: inducible nitric oxide synthase; IL-1?: interleukin-1 beta; TNF-?: tumor necrosis factor alpha; IL-6: interleukin 6; IFN-?: interferon gamma; VC: vitamin C; ALT: alanine transaminase; AST: aspartate aminotransferase; GSH: glutathione; GSH-PX: glutathione peroxidase; MDA: malondialdehyde; BCA: bicinchoninic acid; TBARS: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; Trolox: 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid; JC-B: Janus Green B; DW: dry weight; FC: Folin-Ciocalteu; GAE: gallic acid equivalents; bw: body weight; NC: normal control group; Model: restraint stress model group; VC: positive control vitamin C group, 250 mg/kg bw; MWEL: <i>Momordica charantia</i> water extract low-dose group, 250 mg/kg bw; MWEM: <i>Momordica charantia</i> water extract middle-dose group, 500 mg/kg bw; MWEH: <i>Momordica charantia</i> water extract high-dose group, 750 mg/kg bw; HE: hematoxylin and eosin; ORAC: total oxygen radical absorbance capacity; ABAP: dihydrochloride; ATP: adenosine triphosphate.
Project description:Kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R) agonists with increased half-life and similar efficacy to kisspeptin in vitro may provide beneficial applications in breeding management of many species. However, many of these agonists have not been tested in vivo. These studies were designed to test and compare the effects of a KISS1R agonist (FTM080) and kisspeptin on luteinizing hormone (LH) in vivo. In experiment 1 (pilot study), sheep were treated with FTM080 (500 pmol/kg BW) or sterile water (VEH) intravenosuly. Blood was collected every 15 min before (1 h) and after (1 h) treatment. In experiment 2, sheep were treated with KP-10 (human Metastin 45-54; 500 pmol/kg BW), one of three dosages of FTM080 (500 (FTM080:500), 2500 (FTM080:2500), or 5000 (FTM080:5000) pmol/kg BW), or VEH intravenously. Blood was collected every 15 min before (1 h) and after (4 h) treatment. In experiment 1, FTM080:500 increased (P < 0.05) plasma LH concentrations when compared to VEH. The area under the curve (AUC) of LH following FTM080:500 treatment was also increased (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, plasma LH concentrations increased (P < 0.05) following treatment with KP-10 and FTM080:5000 when compared to VEH and FTM080:500. The AUC of LH following KP-10 was greater than (P < 0.05) all other treatments and the AUC of LH following FTM080:5000 was greater than (P < 0.05) all treatments except KP-10. These data provide evidence to suggest that FTM080 stimulates the gonadotropic axis of ruminants in vivo. Any increased half-life and comparable efficacy of FTM080 to KP-10 in vitro does not appear to translate to in vivo in sheep.
Project description:This study investigated the influence of dietary supplementation with some antibiotic alternatives on growth performance, intestinal barrier, and immunity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged chicks. Wenshi females, aged 4 days, were allocated randomly into eight groups, each with six replicates of 20 birds (n = 120/treatment), which received a basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0 (LPS), 200 mg/kg aureomycin, 50 mg/kg mushroom polysaccharide, 100 mg/kg mushroom polysaccharide, 500 mg/kg nano-copper, 300 mg/kg copper loaded chitosan, and 500 mg/kg lysozyme for 21 days. On day 18 and 20, the control birds were injected with 0.5 mL saline solution, the other treatments were injected with 0.5 mL saline containing 500 µg LPS/kg body weight (BW). The results indicated that LPS treatment reduced the BW, average daily gain (ADG), and daily feed intake (ADFI) than the controls (p < 0.05), and the antibiotic and the tested alternatives could not retrieve the normal BW, ADG, and ADFI. The tested additives reduced several negative effects of LPS; they reduced diamine oxidase activity and inflammatory mediators in plasma, jejunal mucosa, spleen and thymus, increased content of immunoglobulin in plasma and jejunal mucosa, and decreased gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and Cyclooxygenase 2 in jejunal mucosa.
Project description:Our patented protease A-digested crude chalaza hydrolysates (CCH) show antioxidant abilities in vitro. The prophylactic effects of CCH on cognitive dysfunction and brain oxidative damages were investigated via a D-galactose (DG)-injected mouse model in this study. Fifty-four mice were randomly divided into the following: (1) CON, 0.1 mL 0.9% saline (subcutaneous injection [SC] on the back)+distilled water (oral gavage); (2) DG, 100 mg/kg BW/day D-galactose (Bio-Serv Co., Flemington, NJ, USA) (SC on the back)+distilled water (oral gavage); (3) DG_LCH, 100 mg/kg BW/day D-galactose (SC on the back) + 50 mg CCH/kg BW/day in 0.1 ml distilled water (oral gavage); (4) DG_MCH, 100 mg/kg BW/day D-galactose (SC on the back) + 100 mg CCH/kg BW/day (oral gavage); (5) DG_HCH, 100 mg/kg BW/day D-galactose (SC on the back) + 200 mg CCH/kg BW/day (oral gavage); (6) DG_AG, 100 mg/kg BW/day D-galactose (SC on the back) + 100 mg aminoguanidine hydrochloride/kg BW/day (oral gavage). The experiment lasted for 84 D. CCH, containing antioxidant-free amino acids and anserine, restored (P < 0.05) DG-injected memory injury in the Morris water maze test and attenuated the neuronal degenerations and nucleus shrinkages in the dentate gyrus area. CCH supplementation also reduced amyloid ?-peptide protein levels and accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) in the brain of DG-injected mice, whereas the brain antioxidant capacity was reversed (P < 0.05) by supplementing CCH. Furthermore, AGE receptor (RAGE), NF?b, IL-6, and TNF-? gene expressions were downregulated (P < 0.05) by supplementing CCH. Therefore, CCH show prophylactic effects on the development of oxidative stress-induced cognitive dysfunction.
Project description:Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the immune response of broilers vaccinated with Salmonella chitosan-nanoparticle (CNP) vaccine and challenged with Salmonella. The Salmonella CNP vaccine was synthesized with Salmonella enterica outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and flagellin proteins. In Experiment I, birds were orally gavaged with PBS or 500, 1000, or 2000?g of CNP vaccine 1 and 7d-of-age. At 14d-of-age, birds were orally challenged with 1 X 105 CFU/bird of live S. Enteritidis (SE). Macrophage-nitrite production 11d-post-challenge was higher (P<0.05) in the 500?g group when compared to the control. At d14 (8h-post-challenge), broilers vaccinated with 1000?g CNP had higher (P<0.05) serum anti-OMPs IgG and IgA and cloacal anti-OMP IgA amounts. At 11d-post-challenge, birds vaccinated with 1000?g CNP vaccine had greater (P<0.05) bile anti-OMP and anti-flagellin IgA amounts. At 11d-post-challenge, birds administered 1000?g CNP vaccine has increased (P<0.05) IL-1? and IL-10 mRNA in cecal tonsils. In Experiment II, birds were orally gavaged with PBS or 1000?g CNP or a live commercial vaccine at 1 and 7d-of-age. At 14d-of-age, birds were orally challenged with 1 X 105 CFU/bird of live SE or S. Heidelberg (SH). Birds vaccinated with CNP showed higher (P<0.05) serum anti-OMPs IgG amounts at 8h-post-challenge. At 4d-post-SH challenge, birds vaccinated with CNP had higher (P<0.05) bile anti-flagellin IgA amounts. CNP decreased (P<0.05) anti-OMPs IgG levels in serum at 2d-post-SE challenge and 4d-post-SH or SE challenge. Salmonella Enteritidis loads in cecal content at 2d-post-challenge was decreased (P<0.05) by 65.9% in birds vaccinated with CNP, when compared to the control. Chitosan-nanovaccine had no adverse effects on bird's production performance. In conclusion, 1000?g CNP vaccine can induce a specific immune response against Salmonella and has the potential to mitigate SE cecal colonization in broiler birds.
Project description:This study investigated the effects of pterostilbene (PT) supplementation on growth performance, hepatic injury, and antioxidant variables in a broiler chicken model with diquat (DQ)-induced oxidative stress. There were 192 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups: 1) broilers fed a basal diet and 2) broilers fed a diet supplemented with 400 mg/kg PT. At 20 D of age, half of the broilers in each group were intraperitoneally injected with DQ (20 mg per kg BW), whereas the other half were injected with an equivalent amount of sterile saline. Diquat induced a rapid loss of BW (P < 0.001) 24 h post-injection, but dietary PT supplementation improved the BW change of broilers (P = 0.014). Compared with unchallenged controls, the livers of DQ-treated broilers were in severe cellular damage and oxidative stress, with the presence of higher plasma transaminase activities (P < 0.05), a greater number of apoptotic hepatocytes (P < 0.001), and an increased malondialdehyde content (P = 0.007). Pterostilbene supplementation prevented the increases in plasma aspartate aminotransferase activity (P = 0.001), the percentage of hepatocyte apoptosis (P < 0.001), and the hepatic malondialdehyde accumulation (P = 0.011) of the DQ-treated broilers. Regarding the hepatic antioxidant function, PT significantly increased total antioxidant capacity (P = 0.007), superoxide dismutase activity (P = 0.016), reduced glutathione content (P = 0.011), and the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (P = 0.003), whereas it reduced the concentration of oxidized glutathione (P = 0.017). Pterostilbene also boosted the expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (P = 0.010), heme oxygenase 1 (P = 0.037), superoxide dismutase 1 (P = 0.014), and the glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (P = 0.001), irrespective of DQ challenge. In addition, PT alleviated DQ-induced adenosine triphosphate depletion (P = 0.010). In conclusion, PT attenuates DQ-induced hepatic injury and oxidative stress of broilers presumably by restoring hepatic antioxidant function.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Selenium (Se) is an essential trace mineral in broilers, which has several important roles in biological processes. Organic forms of Se are more efficient than inorganic forms and can be produced biologically via Se microbial reduction. Hence, the possibility of using Se-enriched bacteria as feed supplement may provide an interesting source of organic Se, and benefit broiler antioxidant system and other biological processes. The objective of this study was to examine the impacts of inorganic Se and different bacterial organic Se sources on the performance, serum and tissues Se status, antioxidant capacity, and liver mRNA expression of selenoproteins in broilers. RESULTS:Results indicated that different Se sources did not significantly (P ? 0.05) affect broiler growth performance. However, bacterial organic Se of T5 (basal diet +0.3 mg /kg feed ADS18 Se), T4 (basal diet +0.3 mg /kg feed ADS2 Se), and T3 (basal diet +0.3 mg /kg feed ADS1 Se) exhibited significantly (P ? 0.05) highest Se concentration in serum, liver, and kidney respectively. Dietary inorganic Se and bacterial organic Se were observed to significantly affect broiler serum ALT, AST, LDH activities and serum creatinine level. ADS18 supplemented Se of (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) bacterial strain showed the highest GSH-Px activity with the lowest MDA content in serum, and the highest GSH-Px and catalase activity in the kidney, while bacterial Se of ADS2 (Klebsiella pneumoniae) resulted in a higher level of GSH-Px1 and catalase in liver. Moreover, our study showed that in comparison with sodium selenite, only ADS18 bacterial Se showed a significantly higher mRNA level in GSH-Px1, GSH-Px4, DIO1, and TXNDR1, while both ADS18 and ADS2 showed high level of mRNA of DIO2 compared to sodium selenite. CONCLUSIONS:The supplementation of bacterial organic Se in broiler chicken, improved tissue Se deposition, antioxidant status, and selenoproteins gene expression, and can be considered as an effective alternative source of Se in broiler chickens.
Project description:The study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary selenium (Se) and vitamin E (VE) supplementation on mRNA level of heat shock proteins, selenoproteins, and antioxidant enzyme activities in the breast meat of broilers under summer heat stress conditions. A total of 200 male broilers (Ross 308) of 1 day age were randomly separated into 4 groups in a complete randomized design and were given a basal diet (Control, 0.08 mg Se/kg diet) or basal diet supplemented with VE (250 mg/kg VE), sodium selenite (0.2 mg/kg Se), or Se + VE (0.2 mg/kg Se + 250 mg/kg VE) to investigate the expression of key antioxidant and heat shock protein (HSP) genes under high temperature stress. Dietary Se, VE and Se + VE significantly enhanced the activities and mRNA levels of catalase as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) but decreased the mRNA levels of HSP70 and HSP90. Se alone or combined with VE increased the concentration of selenoprotein P and selenoproteins mRNA level and decreased the expression of HSP60. In addition, Se and Se + VE significantly enhanced the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and the expression of GPx1 and GPx4 in breast muscle tissues. It is noteworthy that all the treatments significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the breast meat. Overall results showed that Se in combination with VE has maximal effects to mitigate heat stress. Based on given results it can be recommended that Se + VE are a suitable dietary supplement for broilers to ameliorate the negative effects of summer heat stress conditions.