Effects of replacing dietary Aureomycin with a combination of plant essential oils on production performance and gastrointestinal health of broilers.
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of replacing antibiotics with a combination of plant essential oils on the growth performances and gastrointestinal health of broilers. A total of 720 1-day-old male AA broilers were randomly divided into 3 treatments: the control treatment (CON), the Aureomycin supplementation treatment (AGP), and the combined plant oils supplementation treatment (POC), with a 42-D period feeding procedure. Growth performances, carcass performances, intestinal sections, and cecal microbiota were investigated. Results indicated that POC supplementation decreased the feed conversion ratio compared with CON and AGP treatments, though not significantly. No significant differences were found for feed intake, BW gain, and culling rate among the 3 treatments (P > 0.05). In addition, no significant differences were seen on carcass performance. For the aspects of intestinal section, POC supplementation did not make significant effects on intestinal wall thickness, villus heights, crypt depths, and the ratio of villus heights/crypt depths compared with CON and AGP treatments. Cecal microbiota results demonstrated that bacterial diversity and some representative probiotic bacteria were significantly increased in numbers (P < 0.05) after POC supplementation. In conclusion, the combination of essential oils promoted intestinal health through improving gut bacterial diversity and probiotic bacteria, as well as improving feed conversion ratio of broilers. These results indicated that the combination of essential oils may benefit the gastrointestinal health and be applied as an antibiotic alternative.
Project description:Background:Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) have been used as growth promoters to maintain animal intestinal health and improve feed efficiency in broilers by inhibiting pathogen proliferation. In view of the growing emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogen strains and drug residue issues, novel treatments are increasingly required. This study aimed to compare two antimicrobial approaches for managing pathogen infection and maintaining animal intestinal health in broilers by supplying Apidaecin Api-PR19 and AGPs over 42?d of a feeding trial. Results:Compared with the broilers that were only fed a corn-soybean basal diet (CON group), supplementation with Api-PR19 and AGP (respectively named the ABP and AGP groups) both increased the feed conversion efficiency. When compared with the AGP group, Api-PR19 supplementation could significantly increase the organ index of the bursa of fabricius and subtype H9 antibody level in broiler chickens. Moreover, when compared with the CON group, the intestinal villus height, intestinal nutrient transport, and intestinal sIgA content were all increased in the Api-PR19 group, while AGP supplementation was harmful to the intestinal villus height and intestinal nutrient transport. By assessing the antibacterial effect of Api-PR19 and antibiotics in vitro and in vivo, we found that Api-PR19 and antibiotics both inhibited the growth of pathogens, including Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni. Furthermore, by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the beneficial bacteria and microbiota in broilers were not disturbed but improved by apidaecin Api-PR19, including the genera of Eubacterium and Christensenella and the species of uncultured_Eubacterium_sp, Clostridium_asparagiforme, and uncultured_Christensenella_sp, which were positively related to improved intestinal development, absorption, and immune function. Conclusion:Apidaecin Api-PR19 treatment could combat pathogen infection and had little negative impact on beneficial bacteria in the gut compared to antibiotic treatment, subsequently improving intestinal development, absorption, and immune function.
Project description:This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of wheat bran (WB) and antibiotics on growth performance, intestinal immunity, barrier function, and microbial composition in broiler chickens. A total of 168 one-day-old male Arbor Acre chicks were allocated to 3 treatments consisting of 7 replicates with 8 birds per replicate. The 3 treatments were: an antibiotic-free control diet (control, CON), CON + 75 mg/kg chlortetracycline as an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP), and CON + 3% WB. Birds fed AGP and WB had greater (P < 0.05) ADG during days 1 to 21 and lower (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio during each phase than those fed CON. The WB supplementation reduced (P < 0.05) serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-? and diamine oxidase activity compared with CON on both day 21 and 42. The AGP and WB supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) interleukin-1? concentration in jejunal mucosa on day 21 and increased (P < 0.05) secretory immunoglobulin A concentration in jejunal mucosa on day 21 and 42. The relative expression of occludin in jejunal mucosa was upregulated (P < 0.05) in WB than in CON on day 21. Moreover, both AGP and WB supplementation upregulated (P < 0.05) the relative expression of zonula occludens-1 in jejunal mucosa on day 21 and 42. The WB supplementation enhanced the ?-diversity of cecal microbiota, as evidenced by the increased Shannon index (P < 0.05). At the phylum level, the phylum Firmicutes was enriched (P < 0.05) in WB. At the genus level, the WB supplementation enriched (P < 0.05) Lachnoclostridium and Butyricicoccus. The WB supplementation increased (P < 0.05) cecal total short chain fatty acids concentrations on day 21 and 42, and butyric acid concentrations on day 42 compared with CON. Collectively, supplementation of 3% WB could promote growth by improving intestinal immunity, barrier function, and microbial composition in broilers. Thus, WB may have a role in replacing antibiotics for improved growth performance and intestinal health in broilers.
Project description:This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of exogenous emulsifier supplementation on growth performance, energy digestibility, and meat quality in broilers. A total of 60 Ross 308 broilers were treated for two weeks. The three dietary treatments were: (CON) basal diet; (T1) basal diet + 0.1% exogenous emulsifier, and (T2) basal diet + 0.2% exogenous emulsifier. In Period 1 (0-7 days), broilers in the T2 group showed significantly higher body weight gain (BWG) (p < 0.05) and broilers in the T1 and T2 treatment groups had significantly lower feed conversion ratios (FCR) (p < 0.05). In Period 2 (8-14 days), broilers in the T2 treatment group had significantly higher feed intake (FI) (p < 0.05). Therefore, in this experiment (from days 0 to 19), BWG and FCR were affected (p < 0.05) by the T1 and T2 treatments. Additionally, the T1 and T2 treatments with added exogenous emulsifier in the broiler feed showed significantly higher energy digestibility (p < 0.05) than the CON treatment. Broilers fed the T2 diet had higher water-holding capacity (WHC) (p < 0.05) and cooking loss than the broilers fed the CON and T1 diets. Moreover, the shearing force in the meat was decreased (p < 0.05) in broilers fed the T2 diet. In conclusion, supplementation with exogenous emulsifier to broiler diets improved growth performance, energy digestibility, and meat quality. The optimal amount of exogenous emulsifier supplementation requires further investigation.
Project description:Background:Glucose oxidase (GOD), an aerobic dehydrogenase, has been used as an antibiotic substitute in feed. A study was conducted to evaluate the differential effects of 2 different GODs fermented by Aspergillus niger or Penicillium amagasakiense on caecal microbiota and to further illuminate the potential roles of changes in the gut microbiota in regulating the growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens. Results:A total of 420 one-day-old healthy Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatments: the control group, the antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) supplementation group, and the GOD-A and GOD-P (GODs produced by A. niger and P. amagasakiense, respectively) groups. As a result, supplementation with GOD produced by P. amagasakiense could significantly improve the average daily weight gain and average daily feed intake of broilers before 21?days of age by significantly increasing the enzymatic activities of jejunal amylase and those of ileal amylase, chymotrypsin, and lipase in 21-day-old broilers and could increase the enzymatic activities of duodenal amylase, jejunal amylase and lipase, and ileal chymotrypsin and lipase in 42-day-old broilers. Meanwhile, compared with AGP treatment, supplementation with GOD produced by P. amagasakiense significantly decreased the L value of 21-day-old broilers and the ?pH and L* value of 42-day-old broilers, while supplementation with GOD produced by A. niger significantly increased the pH24?h value of 21-day-old and 42-day-old broilers by reducing plasma malondialdehyde content. By using 16S rRNA sequencing, we found that the beneficial bacteria and microbiota in broilers were not disturbed but were improved by GOD supplementation compared with ADP treatment, including the genera Eubacterium and Christensenella and the species uncultured_Eubacterium_sp, Clostridium_asparagiforme, and uncultured_Christensenella_sp, which were positively related to the improved intestinal digestive enzymatic activities, growth performance, and meat quality of broilers. Conclusion:The altered gut microbiota induced by supplementation with glucose oxidase produced by P. amagasakiense mediate better regulatory effects on the meat quality and growth performance of broilers than that induced by supplementation with glucose oxidase produced by A. niger.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the combination of probiotics replacing antibiotics on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, intestinal morphology, and expression of tight junction proteins in intestinal mucosa of broilers. A total of 168 Arbor Acres broilers (45.04 ± 0.92 g) were randomly divided into three treatments, with seven replicates per treatment, and eight broilers per replicate. The experiment included phases 1 (d 0 to 21) and 2 (d 21 to 42). The dietary treatments contained a corn soybean meal-based diet (control group; CON); an antibiotic group (basal diet + 75 mg/kg chlortetracycline; CTC), and a probiotics group (basal diet + probiotics (500 mg/kg in phase 1 and 300 mg/kg in phase 2; Bacillus subtilis 5 × 109 CFU/g, Bacillus licheniformis 2.5 × 1010 CFU/g and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1 × 109 CFU/g; PB). The results showed broilers fed PB had improved (p < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR) in phase 1 and increased (p < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) in phase 2, as well as improved (p < 0.05) ADG and FCR overall (d 0 to 42). The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, organic matter, gross energy, and crude protein was increased (p < 0.05) in broilers fed PB, while the ATTD of dry matter and organic matter was enhanced in broilers fed CTC compared with CON. Broilers fed PB showed increased (p < 0.05) serum total antioxidant capacity concentrations and tended to have higher (p = 0.06) level of serum immunoglobulin M in phase 1 compared with CON. These broilers also had increased (p < 0.05) level of serum immunoglobulin A in phase 2 in comparison with CON and CTC. Moreover, broilers fed CTC and PB showed increased (p = 0.05) villus height to crypt depth ratio in duodenum, as well as higher (p < 0.05) mRNA expression of zonula occludens-1 in jejunum compared with CON. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with PB as chlortetracycline substitute could improve the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum antioxidant capacity, jejunal mucosal barrier function, and intestinal morphology of broilers.
Project description:Feed additives that promote gastrointestinal health may complement coccidiosis vaccination programs in antibiotic-free broiler production systems. This study examined the effects of a commercial feed additive blend (FA) on intestinal histomorphology and inflammatory biomarkers in vaccinated Ross 708 cockerels (N = 2,160). The study was a randomized complete block design (12 blocks) with 3 dietary treatments: CON (negative control), AGP (positive control: 55 ppm of bacitracin methylene disalicylate), and FA (1.5 kg/MT in starter; 1.0 kg/MT in grower; and 0.5 kg/MT in finisher). Birds were reared on re-used litter and fed a 3-phase feeding program (starter, 0 to 14 D; grower, 15 to 28 D; finisher, 29 to 36 D). One master batch of basal feed for each feeding phase was prepared and final experimental diets were manufactured by mixing the basal feed with the respective test ingredient prior to pelleting. Growth measurements, including pen body weight and feed intakes, and fresh fecal samples were taken throughout the study. On day 20, samples of intestinal tissue were collected from a subset of birds (n = 72, 1 block) for histomorphology and mRNA expression of tight junction and inflammatory genes. In the duodenum, the ratio of villi length to crypt depth was significantly lower in FA (and AGP) fed birds than those consuming the CON diet. Relative mRNA expressions of iNOS, IFN?, and claudin-1 were upregulated in the jejunum of FA and AGP treatment groups compared to those in the CON group; the response in the FA was of lesser magnitude than AGP. Together, these results demonstrated that the FA treatment altered the microstructure of the duodenum and affected the expression of inflammatory genes in the jejunum. The timing of these changes coincided with peak oocyte shedding in feces and an observed reduction in feed efficiency in all dietary treatment groups.
Project description:The ban on the use of antibiotic in feed encouraged nutritionists to using alternatives to maintain growth performance and intestinal function of broilers. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Yupingfeng polysaccharides (YP) supplementation on growth performance and expression of SGLT1, GLUT2 and GLUT5 in Qingyuan partridge chicken. Experiment 1: a total of 540 chickens were randomly allocated to five groups with six replication. Dietary treatments were: (1) CON (control group), basal diet; (2) T1, CON + 0.5 g kg-1 YP; (3) T2, CON + 1 g kg-1 YP; (4) T3, CON + 2 g kg-1 YP; (5) T4, CON + 4 g kg-1 YP. Experiment 2, a total of 162 were randomly allocated to three groups with three replication. Dietary treatments were: (1) CON, basal diet; (2) T1, CON + 0.5 g kg-1 YP; (3) T2, CON + 1 g kg-1 YP. From days 1 to 14 and overall, chicken fed T1 diet had higher ADG. On day 42, there was increased villus height of jejunum in T1 group. On days 14 and 28, there was decreased villus height of duodenum and jejunum in T2 group. In duodenum, the expression of SGLT1 (days 21, 35 and 42), GLUT2 (days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42) and GLUT5 (days 7, 14, 21 and 28) was increased with YP supplementation. In jejunum, the expression of SGLT1 (days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35), GLUT2 (days 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42) and GLUT5 (days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42) was increased with YP supplementation. In ileum, the expression of SGLT1 (days 7, 21, 35 and 42), GLUT2 (days 7, 14, 21 and 42) and GLUT5 (days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42) was increased with YP supplementation. Dietary YP supplementation improves growth performance and expression of SGLT1, GLUT2 and GLUT5 in intestine.
Project description:Background:Limited research has focused on the effect of Lactobacillus on the intestinal toxicity of deoxynivalenol (DON). The present study was conducted to investigate the role of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) JM113 in protecting against the intestinal toxicity caused by DON. Methods:A total of 144 one-day-old healthy Arbor Acres broilers were randomly distributed into 3 treatments, including the CON (basal diet), the DON (extra 10 mg/kg deoxynivalenol), and the DL (extra 1?×?109 CFU/ kg L. plantarum JM113 based on DON group) treatments. The growth performance, organ indexes, intestinal morphology, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal secreted immunoglobulin A (sIgA), jejunal transcriptome, and intestinal microbiota were evaluated. Results:Compared with the CON and DL groups, the DON supplementation altered intestinal morphology, especially in duodenum and jejunum, where villi were shorter and crypts were deeper (P?<?0.05). Meanwhile, the significantly decreased mRNA expression of jejunal claudin-1 and occludin (P?<?0.05), ileal rBAT and jejunal GLUT1 of 21-day-old broilers (P?<?0.05), as well as duodenal PepT1 and ileal rBAT of 42-day-old broilers were identified in the DON group. Moreover, supplementation with L. plantarum JM113 could increase duodenal expression of IL-10 and IL-12 of 21-day-old broilers, ileal sIgA of 42-day-old broilers, and the bursa of Fabricius index of 21-day-old broilers. Further jejunal transcriptome proved that the genes related to the intestinal absorption and metabolism were significantly reduced in the DON group but a significant increase when supplemented with extra L. plantarum JM113. Furthermore, the bacteria related to nutrient utilization, including the Proteobacteria, Escherichia, Cc-115 (P?<?0.05), Lactobacillus and Prevotella (P?<?0.1) were all decreased in the DON group. By contrast, supplementation with L. plantarum JM113 increased the relative abundance of beneficial bacterium, including the Bacteroidetes, Roseburia, Anaerofustis, Anaerostipe, and Ruminococcus bromii (P?<?0.05). Specifically, the increased abundance of bacteria in the DL group could be proved by the significantly increased caecal content of propionic acid, n-Butyric acid, and total short-chain fatty acid. Conclusions:L. plantarum JM113 enhanced the digestion, absorption, and metabolic functions of the gut when challenged with DON by reducing the injury to intestinal barriers and by increasing the abundance of beneficial bacterium.
Project description:The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry.
Project description:During the course of this trial, our team assessed the influence of protease upon the growth performance, the nutrient digestibility, and the expression of growth-related genes and amino acid transporters within the liver, muscle, and small intestines of broilers. During the first step, our team allocated 600 broilers into four dietary treatments for a period of 35 days in order to measure the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of the broilers selected. The separate treatments contained 10 replicates (15 birds per replicate). The treatments were composed of: 1) CON, basal diet; 2) T1, basal diet + 0.03% protease; 3) T2, basal diet + 0.06% protease; and 4) T3, basal diet + 0.09% protease. Next, the broiler chick sample tissue was harvested from the CON and T3 groups in order to conduct gene expression analysis following the feeding trials the broilers underwent. Our team discovered that the broilers fed protease diets possessed increased body weight and an average daily gain, but conversely, had lower feed conversion ratios when their dietary protease levels increased from 0% to 0.09% (p < 0.05). Additionally, significant linear improvements were identified among the nutrient digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, energy, and amino acids within broilers supplied with protease diets when contrasted and compared with broilers supplied with the basal diet (p < 0.05). In addition, the gene expression of the genes IGF1, IGF2, GH, and LEP in the liver, and the genes MYOD1 and MYOG in the breast muscles, was significantly increased after broilers were fed with a protease diet as compared to broilers that subsisted on a basal diet (p < 0.05). Protease supplementation also raised the expression levels within these amino acid transporters: SCL6A19, SLC7A1, SLC7A7, SLC7A2, SLC7A6, SLC7A9, and SLC15A1, located in the small intestine, when compared to the basal diet (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that protease supplementation in their diet improved the growth performance of broilers via an increase in the expression growth-related genes within broiler liver and muscle tissue. In addition, protease supplementation enhanced broiler digestibility via the upregulation of amino acid transporter expression within the small intestine.