Ethno-medicinal uses of vertebrates in the Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape, central Nepal.
ABSTRACT: Traditional knowledge on the use of animal products to maintain human health is important since time immemorial. Although a few studies reported food and medicinal values of different animals, a comprehensive ethno-medicinal study of vertebrates in Nepal is still lacking. Thus, present study is aimed at documenting the ethno-medicinal knowledge related to vertebrate fauna among different ethnic communities in the Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape, central Nepal. Data was collected by using semi-structured questionnaires and analyzed by using Use Value (UV), Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) and Fidelity level (FL). Results showed a total of 58 (53 wild and 5 domestic) species of vertebrate animals. They were used to treat 62 types human ailments. Four animals were also used for veterinary diseases and agriculture benefits. The most widely used species was Felis chaus (UV = 0.25) with 3 use-reports by 10 informants. Cardiovascular and dental problems had the highest ICF value (0.974) with cardiovascular problems having 351 use-reports for 10 animal species and dental problems having 77 use-reports for 3 animal species. The least ICF was found in ophthalmological problems (ICF = 0.833, use reports = 7 for 2 species). We concluded that the different animals were an important part of traditional medicine for the local people living in the Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape. However, the majority of animals and most likely to be threatened due to their uses. The present documented ethnozoological knowledge can be used in conservation and management of vertebrates so that they could be protected for future generations.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The phytotherapeutic knowledge of the Kongo people in the territories of Kisantu and Mbanza-Ngungu in Kongo-Central Province (DR Congo) is rapidly eroding. To document the remaining knowledge, we conducted an ethnobotanical survey on the most important medicinal plant species and diseases treated with them, as well as plants with therapeutic potential. We also checked for the cultural similarity in medicinal plant knowledge between the two territories and how knowledge about Kongo medicinal plants differs between different social groups.<h4>Methods</h4>From June 2017 until February 2018 and from February 2019 until April 2019, we conducted a survey with 188 phytotherapists, selected using the snowball method and surveyed using semi-structured interviews. Voucher specimens were taken for identification. Ethnobotanical data were analyzed using medicinal use value (UVs), informant agreement ratio (IARs), informant consensus factor (ICF), and species therapeutic potential (STP). Rahman's similarity index was used for ethno-cultural comparison of medicinal plant knowledge between the two communities. Medicinal knowledge between different social groups was analyzed using non-parametric tests and Poisson regression.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 231 plants (i.e., 227 botanical species, representing 192 genera and 79 families) were reportedly used to treat 103 diseases. Most abundant taxa were reported for the Fabaceae family (including 11.9% of species and 10.9% of genera). Most reported species (45.0%) were from anthropized areas. Leaves (39.4%), herbs (37.1%), decoction (41.7%), and oral ingestion (72%) were the most frequently cited plant part, botanical form, preparation, and administration method, respectively. Four of all inventoried species showed high UV<sub>S</sub> (> 0.05), whereas eight had an IAR of one. According to ICF, 31 diseases were mentioned. Highest ICF (? 0.4) was observed for hemorrhoids (0.44), amoebiasis (0.43), and itchy rash (0.42). Fifty-four plant species were identified as likely possessing an interesting therapeutic potential. Low ethno-cultural similarity in medicinal knowledge (RSI = 16.6%) was found between the two territories. Analysis of the Kongo medicinal plant knowledge showed that the mean number of reported species and diseases vary considerably depending on gender, type, and residence of therapists (P < 0.05).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Results prove that the Kongo phytopharmacopeia makes use of interesting medicinal plant species that could be further studied for conservation and pharmacological applications.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ethnobotanical studies are recognized as effective methods of finding locally important plants for discovery of crude drugs. Siddha medicinal system is prevailed in south Indian states principally in Tamil Nadu and gaining recognition as alternative medicine among the indigenous communities for their primary healthcare needs. OBJECTIVES:The study was aimed to explore and document folk medicinal plant knowledge among the local people in Puliyankudi village of Thiruvarur District, Tamil Nadu, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS:An ethnobotanical study was carried out during February 2016 to January 2017 among the local people in study area. Traditional healers, traders, local vendors and local people who are practicing herbal medicines were approached for documentation of folk medicinal uses. Acquired results were further analyzed with descriptive statistical methods such as use value (UV) and informant consensus factor (ICF). RESULTS:During the survey, a total 116 plant species from 49 families and 103 genera were recorded to treat 73 types of ailments. Among the plant parts used for preparation of medicine, leaves (73 reports) are often used and predominant method of preparation of medicine is paste (56 reports). Limonia acidissima was reported by all the interviewed informants with an UV of 0.98 and kidney problems have highest ICF value of 0.91. CONCLUSION:Plants with highest use values in the study indicates possible occurrence of valuable metabolites and should be investigated for associated pharmacological activities which leads to development of potential new drugs to treat various ailments.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The usage of medicinal plants as a key component of complementary and alternative medicine, has acquired renewed interest in developed countries. The current situation of medicinal plants in Spain is very limited. This paper provides new insights and greater knowledge about current trends and consumption patterns of medicinal plants in the Autonomous Community of Madrid (Spain) for health benefits. METHODS:A descriptive cross-sectional study was designed for a population-based survey on medicinal plants. The data were collected (May 2018 to May 2019) using semi-structured face-to-face interviews in independent pharmacies, hospital centers and primary care health centers in the Autonomous Community of Madrid. The survey had 18 multiple choice and open-ended questions. Quantitative indices were calculated: Fidelity Level (FL), Use Value (UV) and Informants Consensus Factor (ICF). Chi-square test was used for data analysis. RESULTS:Five hundred forty-three people were interviewed. The majority of the participants (89.6%) have used medicinal plants to treat health disorders in the past 12?months, mainly for digestive problems, sleep disorders and central nervous system diseases. A total of 78 plants were recorded, being Matricaria recutita, Valeriana officinalis, Tilia spp. and Aloe vera the most used. The highest UV was found for Mentha pulegium (UV 0.130) followed by Aloe vera (UV 0.097) and Vaccinium macrocarpon. (UV 0.080). The highest FL values were for Eucalyptus spp. (FL 90.47%) for respiratory conditions and, Matricaria recutita (85.55%) and Mentha pulegium (84.09%) for digestive problems. The highest ICF corresponded to metabolism and depression (ICF?=?1), pain (ICF?=?0.97), insomnia (ICF?=?0.96) and anxiety (ICF?=?0.95). Participants mostly acquired herbal medicines from pharmacies, herbal shops and supermarkets. Some side effects (tachycardia, dizziness and gastrointestinal symptoms) and potential interactions medicinal plants-drugs (V. officinalis and benzodiazepines) were reported. CONCLUSION:Many inhabitants of the Autonomous Community of Madrid currently use herbal products to treat minor health problems. The most common consumer pattern are young women between 18 and 44?years of age with higher education. In order to confirm the pattern, further research should be focused to investigate current uses of medicinal plants in other Spanish regions.
Project description:Objective:The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and use of medicinal plants in the treatment of neurological diseases in the Rif region of northern Morocco. Methods:An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in the Rif (northern Morocco) from 2016 to 2018. In order to gather information about indigenous medicinal plants and local ethnomedical knowledge, 625 local traditional herbalists and users of these plants were interviewed. The data were collected through semistructured interviews and group discussions, analyzed, and compared by quantitative ethnobotanical indices such as family importance value, relative frequency of citation, plant part value (PPV), fidelity level, and informant consensus factor (ICF) . Results:Data were collected from 31 medicinal plant species belonging to 14 botanical families. Asteraceae and Lamiaceae were the most commonly reported medicinal plants, with 5 species each. Concerning the diseases treated, epilepsy problems have the highest ICF (0.99). The survey revealed that leaves were the most used part of the plants (PPV= 34.7%), and the most commonly used preparation was an infusion (41.6%). Conclusion:There exists indigenous ethnomedical knowledge of medicinal plants in the Moroccan Rif to treat neurologic diseases. Based on our findings, we recommend that phytochemical and pharmacologic research be considered to discover potential treatments from these documented plants.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Ethiopia is endowed with abundant medicinal plant resources and traditional medicinal practices. However, available research evidence on indigenous anti-malarial plants is highly fragmented in the country. The present systematic review attempted to explore, synthesize and compile ethno-medicinal research evidence on anti-malarial medicinal plants in Ethiopia.<h4>Methods</h4>A systematic web search analysis and review was conducted on research literature pertaining to medicinal plants used for traditional malaria treatment in Ethiopia. Data were collected from a total of 82 Ethiopian studies meeting specific inclusion criteria including published research articles and unpublished thesis reports. SPSS Version 16 was used to summarize relevant ethno-botanical/medicinal information using descriptive statistics, frequency, percentage, tables, and bar graphs.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 200 different plant species (from 71 families) used for traditional malaria treatment were identified in different parts of Ethiopia. Distribution and usage pattern of anti-malarial plants showed substantial variability across different geographic settings. A higher diversity of anti-malarial plants was reported from western and southwestern parts of the country. Analysis of ethno-medicinal recipes indicated that mainly fresh leaves were used for preparation of remedies. Decoction, concoction and eating/chewing were found to be the most frequently employed herbal remedy preparation methods. Notably, anti-malarial herbal remedies were administered by oral route. Information on potential side effects of anti-malarial herbal preparations was patchy. However, some anti-malarial plants were reported to have potentially serious side effects using different local antidotes and some specific contra-indications.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The study highlighted a rich diversity of indigenous anti-malarial medicinal plants with equally divergent herbal remedy preparation and use pattern in Ethiopia. Baseline information gaps were observed in key geographic settings. Likewise, herbal remedy toxicity risks and countermeasures generally entailed more exhaustive investigation. Experimental research and advanced chemical analysis are also required to validate the therapeutic potential of anti-malarial compounds from promising plant species.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Human communities consistently develop a detailed knowledge of the therapeutical and medicinal properties of the local flora and fauna, and these folk remedies often substitute medicines produced by the pharmaceutical industry. Animals (and their derived products) are essential ingredients in the preparation of many traditional remedies. The present work prepared an inventory of the animals sold in public markets in the cities of Crato and Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará State, Brazil. METHODS: Information was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires in interviews held with 27 merchants of medicinal animals (18 in the municipality of Juazeiro do Norte [11 men and 7 women] and 9 people in the municipality of Crato [6 men and 3 women]). We calculated the Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) to determine the consensus over which species are effective for particular ailments, as well as the species Use Value (UV) to determine the extent of utilization of each species. RESULTS: A total of 31 animal species, distributed among 21 families were identified as being used medicinally. The taxa most represented were: insects (8 species), mammals (7), fish (5), reptiles (5) and birds (4). The animals sold in these markets are used to treat a total of 24 ailments, with rheumatism, asthma, and inflammations having the largest numbers of citations. Three species not previously reported as having medicinal use were encountered: Leporinus steindachneri (utilized for treating cholesterol problems), Gryllus assimilis (utilized in treating urinary infections), and Phrynops tuberosus (used to treat asthma, rheumatism and bruises). CONCLUSION: The composition of the local fauna, the popular culture, and commercial considerations are factors that maintain and drive the market for therapeutic animal products - and the lack of monitoring and regulation of this commerce is worrisome from a conservationist perspective. A detailed knowledge of the fauna utilized in alternative medicine is fundamental to the conservation and rational use of the Brazilian fauna.
Project description:Millions of people suffer from Musculoskeletal System Disorders (MSDs), including Karen people who work hard in the fields for their subsistence and have done so for generations. This has forced the Karen to use many medicinal plants to treat MSDs. We gathered data from 15 original references covering 27 Karen communities and we document 461 reports of the use of 175 species for treating MSDs among the Karen people in Thailand. The data were analyzed by calculating use values (UV), relative frequency of citation (RFC) and informant consensus factor (ICF). Many use reports and species were from Leguminosae and Zingiberaceae. Roots and leaves were the most used parts, while the preferred preparation methods were decoction and burning. Oral ingestion was the most common form of administration. The most common ailment was muscle pain. Sambucus javanica and Plantago major were the most important species because they had the highest and second-highest values for both UV and RFC, respectively. This study revealed that the Karen people in Thailand use various medicinal plants to treat MSDs. These are the main resources for the further development of inexpensive treatments of MSDs that would benefit not only the Karen, but all people who suffer from MSD.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in India by indigenous people of different ethnic groups inhabiting various terrains for the control of various ailments afflicting human and their domestic animals. The indigenous community of snake charmers belongs to the 'Nath' community in India have played important role of healers in treating snake bite victims. Snake charmers also sell herbal remedies for common ailments. In the present paper an attempt has been made to document on ethno botanical survey and traditional medicines used by snake charmers of village Khetawas located in district Jhajjar of Haryana, India as the little work has been made in the past to document the knowledge from this community. METHODS: Ethno botanical data and traditional uses of plants information was obtained by semi structured oral interviews from experienced rural folk, traditional herbal medicine practitioners of the 'Nath' community. A total of 42 selected inhabitants were interviewed, 41 were male and only one woman. The age of the healers was between 25 years and 75 years. The plant specimens were identified according to different references concerning the medicinal plants of Haryana and adjoining areas and further confirmation from Forest Research Institute, Dehradun. RESULTS: The present study revealed that the people of the snake charmer community used 57 medicinal plants species that belonged to 51 genera and 35 families for the treatment of various diseases. The study has brought to light that the main diseases treated by this community was snakebite in which 19 different types of medicinal plants belongs to 13 families were used. Significantly higher number of medicinal plants was claimed by men as compared to women. The highest numbers of medicinal plants for traditional uses utilized by this community were belonging to family Fabaceae. CONCLUSION: This community carries a vast knowledge of medicinal plants but as snake charming is banned in India as part of efforts to protect India's steadily depleting wildlife, this knowledge is also rapidly disappearing in this community. Such type of ethno botanical studies will help in systematic documentation of ethno botanical knowledge and availing to the scientific world plant therapies used as antivenin by the Saperas community.
Project description:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:People living in the tropical rain forest of South-Western Nigeria use Rinorea dentata (P. Beauv.) Kuntze (Violaceae) in ethno-veterinary medicine to facilitate parturition. There are no evidence-based pharmacological investigations for the uterotonic activity of this plant. AIMS OF STUDY:(i) Collection of data about the ethnopharmacological uses of R. dentata and evaluation of its uses and applications in health care; (ii) determining potential uterotonic effects in vitro, and (iii) chemical characterization of R. dentata, which is a member of the Violaceae family known to express circular cystine-knot peptides, called cyclotides. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The ethnopharmacological use of R. dentata in settlement camps within the area J4 of Omo forest has been investigated by semi-structured questionnaires and open interviews. Use index analysis has been performed by seven quantitative statistical models. Respondents' claim on the beneficial ethno-veterinary application of the plant to aid parturition has been investigated in vitro by myometrial contractility organ bath assays. The bioactive plant extract was screened by chemical derivatization and mass spectrometry-based peptidomics using reversed-phase HPLC fractionation and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis. RESULTS:Based on the survey analysis, medicinal preparations of R. dentata have been used for anti-microbial and anti-malaria purpose in humans, and for aiding parturition in farm animals. The latter application was mentioned by one out of six respondents who claimed to use this plant for any medicinal purpose. The plant extract exhibited a weak uterotonic effect using organ bath studies. The plant contains cyclotides and the peptide riden A has been identified by de novo amino acid sequencing using mass spectrometry. CONCLUSION:Few dwellers around the settlement camps of the tropical forest of Omo (Nigeria) use R. dentata for various health problems in traditional veterinary and human medicine. The weak uterotonic effect of the cyclotide-rich extract is in agreement with the low use value index obtained for this plant. Cyclotides have been reported in the genus Rinorea confirming the ubiquitous expression of these stable bioactive plant peptides within the family of Violaceae.
Project description:Medicinal plants are the basic source of health care in the Pearl Valley District Poonch, Azad Jammu, and Kashmir. The basic aim of present study was to record information about the use of plants in herbal preparation and quantification of recorded data.The research was conducted with the null hypothesis that there was no differential distribution of knowledge among the communities between genders and among different age groups in the study area and across cultural medicinal uses of the plants are similar. To check these hypotheses information about medicinal plants was collected from 46 laypeople and 18 herbalists by using an open ended and semistructured questionnaire. Different ethnobotanical indices were calculated in order to quantify the knowledge on the medicinal plants reported in the study.Our study recorded 136 species of medicinal plants belonging to 45 families with Asteraceae (14 species) as the dominant family of the area. Decoction (26 species), juice and powder (24 species each) were most common methods of preparation. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that age and gender had the significant effect on both numbers of mentioned species and different uses. A number of known medicinal plants and the number of different uses (H: 38.51; p < 0.001) differ significantly as indicated by Kruskal-Wallis tests. These results showed that the knowledge about the plant varies among different age groups, which were the first hypothesis of the present study. The highest use values (UVs) were reported for Berberis lyceum and Ajuga bracteosa (1.13 each) followed by Abies pindrow (1.03). Highest informant consensus factor (ICF) values were recorded for digestive system diseases (ICF = 0.90) and muscular and skeletal system diseases (ICF = 0.89). The value of Jaccarad index ranged from 6.11 to 32.97 with an average value of 19.84, percentage of similarity was highest between study area and Pir Lasura National Park (34.62%).High similarity might be due to the fact that the communities living in these areas have same sociocultural values and have more opportunities to exchange their traditional knowledge. The present study provides practical evidence about the use of medicinal plants among the inhabitants of the Pearl Valley.