HSPA2 Chaperone Contributes to the Maintenance of Epithelial Phenotype of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells but Has Non-Essential Role in Supporting Malignant Features of Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma, MCF7, and HeLa Cancer Cells.
ABSTRACT: Heat Shock Protein A2 (HSPA2) is a member of the HSPA (HSP70) chaperone family and has a critical role for male fertility. HSPA2 is present in a number of somatic organs. Limited evidence suggests that HSPA2 may be involved in regulating epithelial cell differentiation. HSPA2 also emerged as a cancer-related chaperone; however, no consensus on its functional significance has been reached so far. In this study, we compared the phenotypic effects of HSPA2 deficit in non-transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC), and in lung, breast, and cervical cancer cells. We used various techniques to inhibit the HSPA2 gene expression in order to examine the impact of HSPA2 deficiency on cell growth, migration, adhesion, and invasion. Our results show that HBEC but not cancer cells are sensitive to HSPA2 deficit. HSPA2 knockdown in HBEC cells impaired their clone-forming ability and adhesiveness. Thus, our results indicate that epithelial cells can rely on a specific activity of HSPA2, but such dependence can be lost in epithelial cells that have undergone malignant transformation.
Project description:Heat shock proteins (HSPs) constitute a major part of the molecular chaperone system and play a fundamental role in cell proteostasis. The HSPA (HSP70) family groups twelve highly homologous HSPA proteins. Certain HSPAs are regarded as important cancer-related proteins, prospective therapeutic targets for cancer treatment, and also as potential cancer biomarkers. Heat Shock Protein A2 (HSPA2), a testis-enriched chaperone and one of the least characterized members of the HSPA family, has recently emerged as an important cancer-relevant protein with potential biomarker significance. Nevertheless, conflicting conclusions have been recently drawn both according to HSPA2 role in cancer cells, as well as to its prognostic value. In this work we have shown that one of the serious limitations in HSPA2 protein research is cross-reactivity of antibodies marketed as specific for HSPA2 with one or more other HSPA(s). Among non-specific antibodies were also those recently used for HSPA2 detection in functional and biomarker studies. We showed how using non-specific antibodies can generate misleading conclusions on HSPA2 expression in non-stressed cancer cells and tumors, as well as in cancer cells exposed to proteotoxic stress. Our findings addressed concerns on some published studies dealing with HSPA2 as a cancer-related protein.
Project description:The HSPA2 gene is a poorly characterized member of the HSPA (HSP70) family. HSPA2 was originally described as testis-specific and expressed at the highest level in pachytene spermatocytes of rodents, the expression of which is not induced by heat shock. HSPA2 is crucial for male fertility. However, recent advances have shown that HSPA2 is expressed in various tumors and in certain types of somatic tissues. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the HSPA2 expression pattern, including information on transcriptional, translational, posttranslational, and epigenetic mechanisms which regulate HSPA2 expression. We also present and discuss the current views concerning the functions of the HSPA2 protein in spermatogenetic, somatic, and cancer cells. The knowledge of the properties of HSPA2, although limited, shows this protein as a unique member of the HSPA family. However, understanding whether this protein could become a relevant cancer biomarker or a therapeutically applicable target requires extensive further studies.
Project description:Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a large group of chaperones considered critical for maintaining cellular proteostasis. Their aberrant expression in tumors can modulate the course of processes defined as hallmarks of cancer. Previously, we showed that both stress-inducible HSPA1 and testis-enriched HSPA2, highly homologous members of the HSPA (HSP70) family, are often overexpressed in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). HSPA1 is among the best characterized cancer-related chaperones, while the significance of HSPA2 for cancer remains poorly understood. Previously we found that in primary NSCLC, HSPA1 was associated with good prognosis while HSPA2 correlated with bad prognosis, suggesting possible different roles of these proteins in cancer. Therefore, in this work we investigated the impact of HSPA1 and HSPA2 on NSCLC cell phenotype. We found that neither paralog-selective nor simultaneous knockdown of HSPA1 and HSPA2 gene expression reduced growth and chemoresistance of NSCLC cells. Only blocking of HSPA proteins using pan-HSPA inhibitors, VER-155008 or JG-98, exerted potent anticancer effect on NSCLC cells, albeit the final outcome was cell type-dependent. Pan-HSPA inhibition sensitized NSCLC cells to bortezomib, but not to platinum derivates. Our result suggests the inhibitors of proteasome and HSPAs seem an effective drug combination for pre-clinical development in highly aggressive NSCLC.
Project description:In the present study we determined the expression pattern of HSPA1 and HSPA2 proteins in various normal human tissues by tissue-microarray based immunohistochemical analysis. Both proteins belong to the HSPA (HSP70) family of heat shock proteins. The HSPA2 is encoded by the gene originally defined as testis-specific, while HSPA1 is encoded by the stress-inducible genes (HSPA1A and HSPA1B). Our study revealed that both proteins are expressed only in some tissues from the 24 ones examined. HSPA2 was detected in adrenal gland, bronchus, cerebellum, cerebrum, colon, esophagus, kidney, skin, small intestine, stomach and testis, but not in adipose tissue, bladder, breast, cardiac muscle, diaphragm, liver, lung, lymph node, pancreas, prostate, skeletal muscle, spleen, thyroid. Expression of HSPA1 was detected in adrenal gland, bladder, breast, bronchus, cardiac muscle, esophagus, kidney, prostate, skin, but not in other tissues examined. Moreover, HSPA2 and HSPA1 proteins were found to be expressed in a cell-type-specific manner. The most pronounced cell-type expression pattern was found for HSPA2 protein. In the case of stratified squamous epithelia of the skin and esophagus, as well as in ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium lining respiratory tract, the HSPA2 positive cells were located in the basal layer. In the colon, small intestine and bronchus epithelia HSPA2 was detected in goblet cells. In adrenal gland cortex HSPA2 expression was limited to cells of zona reticularis. The presented results clearly show that certain human tissues constitutively express varying levels of HSPA1 and HSPA2 proteins in a highly differentiated way. Thus, our study can help designing experimental models suitable for cell- and tissue-type-specific functional differences between HSPA2 and HSPA1 proteins in human tissues.
Project description:HSPA2 (formerly HSP70.2) is a testis-specific member of the HSP70 family known to play a critical role in the completion of meiosis during male germ cell differentiation. Although abundantly present in post-meiotic cells, its function during spermiogenesis remained obscure. Here, using a global proteomic approach to identify genome-organizing proteins in condensing spermatids, we discovered an unexpected role for HSPA2, which acquires new functions and becomes tightly associated with major spermatid DNA-packaging proteins, transition proteins 1 and 2. Hence, HSPA2 is identified here as the first transition protein chaperone, and these data shed a new light on the yet totally unknown process of genome-condensing structure assembly in spermatids.
Project description:In mammalian spermatocytes, cell division cycle protein 2 (CDC2)/cyclin B1 and the chaperone heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2) are required for the G2-->M transition in prophase I. Here, we demonstrate that in primary spermatocytes, linker histone chaperone testis/embryo form of nuclear autoantigenic sperm protein (tNASP) binds the heat shock protein HSPA2, which localizes on the synaptonemal complex of spermatocytes. Significantly, the tNASP-HSPA2 complex binds linker histones and CDC2, forming a larger complex. We demonstrate that increasing amounts of tNASP favor tNASP-HSPA2-CDC2 complex formation. Binding of linker histones to tNASP significantly increases HSPA2 ATPase activity and the capacity of tNASP to bind HSPA2 and CDC2, precluding CDC2/cyclin B1 complex formation and, consequently, decreasing CDC2/cyclin B1 kinase activity. Linker histone binding to NASP controls the ability of HSPA2 to activate CDC2 for CDC2/cyclin B1 complex formation; therefore, tNASP's role is to provide the functional link between linker histones and cell cycle progression during meiosis.
Project description:The molecular chaperone heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2), a member of the 70?kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) family, plays an important role in spermatogenesis and male fertility. Although HSPA2 is evolutionarily highly conserved across the metazoan lineages, the observation of striking differences in temperature-sensitive expressions, testicular physiology, spermatogenesis, as well as its role in male fertility indicates that avian and mammalian HSPA2 may exhibit distinct evolutionary trajectory. The present study reports that while mammalian HSPA2 is constrained by intense purifying selection, avian HSPA2 has been subjected to positive selection. The majority of the positively selected amino acid residues fall on the ?-helix and ?-sheets of the peptide-binding domain located at the carboxyl-terminal region of the avian HSPA2. The detection of positively selected sites at the helix and ?-sheets, which are less tolerant to molecular adaptation, indicates an important functional consequence and contribution to the structural and functional diversification of the avian HSPA2. Collectively, avian HSPA2 may have an adaptive advantage over the mammals in response to heat stress, and therefore, mammals with testicular descent may be at a greater risk in the event of scrotal temperature rise.
Project description:A common defect encountered in the spermatozoa of male infertility patients is an idiopathic failure of sperm-egg recognition. In order to resolve the molecular basis of this condition we have compared the proteomic profiles of spermatozoa exhibiting an impaired capacity for sperm-egg recognition with normal cells using label free mass spectrometry (MS)-based quantification. This analysis indicated that impaired sperm-zona binding was associated with reduced expression of the molecular chaperone, heat shock 70 kDa protein 2 (HSPA2), from the sperm proteome. Western blot analysis confirmed this observation in independent patients and demonstrated that the defect did not extend to other members of the HSP70 family. HSPA2 was present in the acrosomal domain of human spermatozoa as a major component of 5 large molecular mass complexes, the most dominant of which was found to contain HSPA2 in close association with just two other proteins, sperm adhesion molecule 1 (SPAM1) and arylsulfatase A (ARSA), both of which that have previously been implicated in sperm-egg interaction. The interaction between SPAM1, ARSA and HSPA2 in a multimeric complex mediating sperm-egg interaction, coupled with the complete failure of this process when HSPA2 is depleted in infertile patients, provides new insights into the mechanisms by which sperm function is impaired in cases of male infertility.
Project description:Cell-free mRNAs (cfmRNAs) were quantitatively measured in human seminal plasma and its relationship with semen quality was investigated.Herein, a prospectively, controlled investigation was performed to study seminal plasma HSPA2 and uPA cfmRNA alterations between 21 asthenozoospermic patients and 16 normozoospermic individuals. Standard semen analysis was performed and seminal plasma cfmRNAs content was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. In addition, the regression analysis between seminal plasma cfmRNAs expression and semen parameters was performed.Seminal plasma HSPA2, but not uPA cfmRNA indicated significant difference between normozoospermia and asthenozoospermia men (P?=?0.02444 and 0.07811, respectively). Negative correlation between HSPA2 cfmRNA and sperm motility (R (2)?=?0.213, P?=?0.004) as well as sperm concentration (R (2)?=?0.133, P?=?0.026) were revealed. However, no correlation was found between seminal plasma uPA cfmRNA content and semen parameters.Our data suggest that seminal plasma HSPA2 cfmRNA is different between asthenozoospermic and normozoospermic individuals and it might be an indicator for semen quality.
Project description:Reepithelialization of remodeled air spaces with bronchial epithelial cells is a prominent pathological finding in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and is implicated in IPF pathogenesis. Recent studies suggest that epithelial senescence is a risk factor for development of IPF, indicating such reepithelialization may be influenced by the acceleration of cellular senescence. Among the sirtuin (SIRT) family, SIRT6, a class III histone deacetylase, has been demonstrated to antagonize senescence. We evaluated the senescence of bronchiolization in association with SIRT6 expression in IPF lung. Senescence-associated ?-galactosidase staining and immunohistochemical detection of p21 were performed to evaluate cellular senescence. As a model for transforming growth factor (TGF)-?-induced senescence of abnormal reepithelialization, we used primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC). The changes of SIRT6, p21, and interleukin (IL)-1? expression levels in HBEC, as well as type I collagen expression levels in fibroblasts, were evaluated. In IPF lung samples, an increase in markers of senescence and SIRT6 expression was found in the bronchial epithelial cells lining cystically remodeled air spaces. We found that TGF-? induced senescence in primary HBEC by increasing p21 expression, and, whereas TGF-? also induced SIRT6, it was not sufficient to inhibit cellular senescence. However, overexpression of SIRT6 efficiently inhibited TGF-?-induced senescence via proteasomal degradation of p21. TGF-?-induced senescent HBEC secreted increased amounts of IL-1?, which was sufficient to induce myofibroblast differentiation in fibroblasts. These findings suggest that accelerated epithelial senescence plays a role in IPF pathogenesis through perpetuating abnormal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, which can be antagonized by SIRT6.