The cannabinoid ligands SR141716A and AM251 enhance human and mouse islet function via GPR55-independent signalling.
ABSTRACT: AIMS:Endocannabinoids are lipid mediators involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. They interact with the canonical cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, and it is now apparent that some cannabinoid receptor ligands are also agonists at GPR55. Thus, CB1 antagonists such as SR141716A, also known as rimonabant, and AM251 act as GPR55 agonists in some cell types. The complex pharmacological properties of cannabinoids make it difficult to fully identify the relative importance of CB1 and GPR55 in the functional effects of SR141716A, and AM251. Here, we determine whether SR141716A and AM251 regulation of mouse and human islet function is through their action as GPR55 agonists. METHODS:Islets isolated from Gpr55+/+ and Gpr55-/- mice and human donors were incubated in the absence or presence of 10 µM SR141716A or AM251, concentrations that are known to activate GPR55. Insulin secretion, cAMP, IP1, apoptosis and ?-cell proliferation were quantified by standard techniques. RESULTS:Our results provide the first evidence that SR141716A and AM251 are not GPR55 agonists in islets, as their effects are maintained in islets isolated from Gpr55-/- mice. Their signalling through Gq-coupled cascades to induce insulin secretion and human ?-cell proliferation, and protect against apoptosis in vitro, indicate that they have direct beneficial effects on islet function. CONCLUSION:These observations may be useful in directing development of peripherally restricted novel therapeutics that are structurally related to SR141716A and AM251, and which potentiate glucose-induced insulin secretion and stimulate ?-cell proliferation.
Project description:Although GPR55 is potently activated by the endogenous lysophospholipid, L-alpha-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), it is also thought to be sensitive to a number of cannabinoid ligands, including the prototypic CB1 receptor antagonists AM251 and SR141716A (Rimonabant). In this study we have used a range of functional assays to compare the pharmacological activity of selected cannabinoid ligands, AM251, AM281 and SR141716A with LPI in a HEK293 cell line engineered to stably express recombinant, human GPR55.We evaluated Ca(2+) signalling, stimulation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) mitogen activated kinase MAP-kinases, induction of transcriptional regulators that are downstream of GPR55, including nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), as well as receptor endocytosis. In addition, we assessed the suitability of a novel, label-free assay for GPR55 ligands that involves optical measurement of dynamic mass redistribution following receptor activation.GPR55 linked to a range of downstream signalling events and that the activity of GPR55 ligands was influenced by the functional assay employed, with differences in potency and efficacy observed.Our data help to resolve some of the issues surrounding the pharmacology of cannabinoid ligands at GPR55 and highlight some differences in effector coupling associated with distinct GPR55 ligands.
Project description:The receptors mediating the hemodynamic responses to cannabinoids are not clearly defined due to the multifarious pharmacology of many commonly used cannabinoid ligands. While both CB1 and TRPV1 receptors are implicated, G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) may also mediate some of the hemodynamic effects of several atypical cannabinoid ligands. The present studies attempted to unravel the pharmacology underlying the in vivo hemodynamic responses to ACEA (CB1 agonist), O-1602 (GPR55 agonist), AM251 (CB1 antagonist), and cannabidiol (CBD; GPR55 antagonist). Agonist and antagonist profiles of each ligand were determined by ligand-induced GTP?S binding in membrane preparations expressing rat and mouse CB1 and GPR55 receptors. Blood pressure responses to ACEA and O-1602 were recorded in anesthetized and conscious mice (wild type, CB1 (-/-) and GPR55(-/-)) and rats in the absence and presence of AM251 and CBD. ACEA demonstrated GTP?S activation at both receptors, while O-1602 only activated GPR55. AM251 exhibited antagonist activity at CB1 and agonist activity at GPR55, while CBD demonstrated selective antagonist activity at GPR55. The depressor response to ACEA was blocked by AM251 and attenuated by CBD, while O-1602 did not induce a depressor response. AM251 caused a depressor response that was absent in GPR55(-/-) mice but enhanced by CBD, while CBD caused a small vasodepressor response that persisted in GPR55(-/-) mice. Our findings show that assessment of the pharmacological profile of receptor activation by cannabinoid ligands in in vitro studies alongside in vivo functional studies is essential to understand the role of cannabinoids in hemodynamic control.
Project description:The cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB(1)) and CB(2) cannabinoid receptors, associated with drugs of abuse, may provide a means to treat pain, mood, and addiction disorders affecting widespread segments of society. Whether the orphan G-protein coupled receptor GPR55 is also a cannabinoid receptor remains unclear as a result of conflicting pharmacological studies. GPR55 has been reported to be activated by exogenous and endogenous cannabinoid compounds but surprisingly also by the endogenous non-cannabinoid mediator lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI). We examined the effects of a representative panel of cannabinoid ligands and LPI on GPR55 using a beta-arrestin-green fluorescent protein biosensor as a direct readout of agonist-mediated receptor activation. Our data demonstrate that AM251 and SR141716A (rimonabant), which are cannabinoid antagonists, and the lipid LPI, which is not a cannabinoid receptor ligand, are GPR55 agonists. They possess comparable efficacy in inducing beta-arrestin trafficking and, moreover, activate the G-protein-dependent signaling of protein kinase CbetaII. Conversely, the potent synthetic cannabinoid agonist CP55,940 acts as a GPR55 antagonist/partial agonist. CP55,940 blocks GPR55 internalization, the formation of beta-arrestin GPR55 complexes, and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2; CP55,940 produces only a slight amount of protein kinase CbetaII membrane recruitment but does not stimulate membrane remodeling like LPI, AM251, or rimonabant. Our studies provide a paradigm for measuring the responsiveness of GPR55 to a variety of ligand scaffolds comprising cannabinoid and novel compounds and suggest that at best GPR55 is an atypical cannabinoid responder. The activation of GPR55 by rimonabant may be responsible for some of the off-target effects that led to its removal as a potential obesity therapy.
Project description:GPR55 has recently attracted much attention as another member of the cannabinoid family, potentially explaining physiological effects that are non-CB1/CB2 mediated. However, the data gathered so far are conflicting with respect to its pharmacology. We review the primary literature to date on GPR55, describing its discovery, structure, pharmacology and potential physiological functions. The CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist AM251 has been shown to be a GPR55 agonist in all reports in which it was evaluated, as has the lysophospholipid, lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI). Whether GPR55 responds to the endocannabinoid ligands anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol and the phytocannabinoids, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabidiol and cannabidiol, is cell type and tissue-dependent. GPR55 has been shown to utilize G(q), G(12), or G(13) for signal transduction; RhoA and phospholipase C are activated. Experiments with mice in which GPR55 has been inactivated reveal a role for this receptor in neuropathic and inflammatory pain as well as in bone physiology. Thus delineating the pharmacology of this receptor and the discovery of selective agonists and antagonists merits further study and could lead to new therapeutics.
Project description:The cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1) regulates insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in peripheral tissues. CB1 is expressed on pancreatic beta (β)-cells where its functions have not been fully described. We generated a β-cell-specific CB1-knockout (β-CB1-/-) mouse to study the long-term consequences of CB1 ablation on β-cell function in adult mice. β-CB1-/- mice had increased basal- and stimulated-insulin secretion and intra-islet cAMP levels, resulting in primary hyperinsulinemia, as well as increased β-cell viability, proliferation, and islet area. Hyperinsulinemia led to insulin resistance, which was aggravated by a high fat/high glucose diet and weight gain, although β-cells maintained their insulin secretory capacity in response to glucose. Strikingly, islets from β-CB1-/- mice were protected from diet-induced inflammation. Mechanistically we show that this is a consequence of curtailment of oxidative stress and reduced activation of Nlrp3 inflammasome in β-cells. Our data demonstrate CB1 to be a negative regulator of β-cells and a mediator of islet inflammation under conditions of metabolic stress. Overall design: Gene expression profiles from islets from wildtype (β-CB1+/+) (N=4) and a β-cell-specific CB1-knockout (β-CB1-/-) mice (N=3) were examined using gene expression microarray analysis.
Project description:Some inverse agonists of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) have been demonstrated to be anorectic antiobesity drug candidates. However, the first generation of CB1 inverse agonists, represented by rimonabant (SR141716A), otenabant, and taranabant, are centrally active, with a high level of psychiatric side effects. Hence, the discovery of CB1 inverse agonists with a chemical scaffold distinct from these holds promise for developing peripherally active CB1 inverse agonists with fewer side effects. We generated a new CB1 inverse agonist, (4-(bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl)piperazin-1-yl)(cyclohexyl)methanone hydrochloride (LDK1229), from the class of benzhydryl piperazine analogs. This compound binds to CB1 more selectively than cannabinoid receptor type 2, with a Ki value of 220 nM. Comparable CB1 binding was also observed by analogs 1-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-4-cinnamylpiperazine dihydrochloride (LDK1203) and 1-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-4-tosylpiperazine hydrochloride (LDK1222), which differed by the substitution on the piperazine ring where the piperazine of LDK1203 and LDK1222 are substituted by an alkyl group and a tosyl group, respectively. LDK1229 exhibits efficacy comparable with SR141716A in antagonizing the basal G protein coupling activity of CB1, as indicated by a reduction in guanosine 5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate binding. Consistent with inverse agonist behavior, increased cell surface localization of CB1 upon treatment with LDK1229 was also observed. Although docking and mutational analysis showed that LDK1229 forms similar interactions with the receptor as SR141716A does, the benzhydryl piperazine scaffold is structurally distinct from the first-generation CB1 inverse agonists. It offers new opportunities for developing novel CB1 inverse agonists through the optimization of molecular properties, such as the polar surface area and hydrophilicity, to reduce the central activity observed with SR141716A.
Project description:GPR55 is activated by l-?-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) but also by certain cannabinoids. In this study, we investigated the GPR55 pharmacology of various cannabinoids, including analogues of the CB1 receptor antagonist Rimonabant®, CB2 receptor agonists, and Cannabis sativa constituents. To test ERK1/2 phosphorylation, a primary downstream signaling pathway that conveys LPI-induced activation of GPR55, a high throughput system, was established using the AlphaScreen® SureFire® assay. Here, we show that CB1 receptor antagonists can act both as agonists alone and as inhibitors of LPI signaling under the same assay conditions. This study clarifies the controversy surrounding the GPR55-mediated actions of SR141716A; some reports indicate the compound to be an agonist and some report antagonism. In contrast, we report that the CB2 ligand GW405833 behaves as a partial agonist of GPR55 alone and enhances LPI signaling. GPR55 has been implicated in pain transmission, and thus our results suggest that this receptor may be responsible for some of the antinociceptive actions of certain CB2 receptor ligands. The phytocannabinoids ?9-tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabidivarin, and cannabigerovarin are also potent inhibitors of LPI. These Cannabis sativa constituents may represent novel therapeutics targeting GPR55.
Project description:The G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is a novel cannabinoid (CB) receptor, whose role in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract remains unknown. Here we studied the significance of GPR55 in the regulation of GI motility.GPR55 mRNA and protein expression were measured by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The effects of the GPR55 agonist O-1602 and a selective antagonist cannabidiol (CBD) were studied in vitro and in vivo and compared to a non-selective cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2. CB1/2(-/-) and GPR55(-/-) mice were employed to identify the receptors involved.GPR55 was localized on myenteric neurons in mouse and human colon. O-1602 concentration-dependently reduced evoked contractions in muscle strips from the colon (?60%) and weakly (?25%) from the ileum. These effects were reversed by CBD, but not by CB1 or CB2 receptor antagonists. I.p. and i.c.v. injections of O-1602 slowed whole gut transit and colonic bead expulsion; these effects were absent in GPR55(-/-) mice. WIN55,212-2 slowed whole gut transit effects, which were counteracted in the presence of a CB1 antagonist AM251. WIN55,212-2, but not O-1602 delayed gastric emptying and small intestinal transit. Locomotion, as a marker for central sedation, was reduced following WIN55,212-2, but not O-1602 treatment.GPR55 is strongly expressed on myenteric neurons of the colon and it is selectively involved in the regulation of colonic motility. Since activation of GPR55 receptors is not associated with central sedation, the GPR55 receptor may serve as a future target for the treatment of colonic motility disorders.
Project description:Marijuana is the most widely abused illegal drug, and its spectrum of effects suggests that several receptors are responsible for the activity. Two cannabinoid receptor subtypes, CB1 and CB2, have been identified, but the complex pharmacological properties of exogenous cannabinoids and endocannabinoids are not fully explained by their signaling. The orphan receptor GPR55 binds a subset of CB1 and CB2 ligands and has been proposed as a cannabinoid receptor. This designation, however, is controversial as a result of recent studies in which lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) was identified as a GPR55 agonist. Defining a biological role for GPR55 requires GPR55 selective ligands that have been unavailable. From a ?-arrestin, high-throughput, high-content screen of 300000 compounds run in collaboration with the Molecular Libraries Probe Production Centers Network initiative (PubChem AID1965), we identified potent GPR55 selective agonists. By modeling of the GPR55 activated state, we compared the GPR55 binding conformations of three of the novel agonists obtained from the screen, CID1792197, CID1172084, and CID2440433 (PubChem Compound IDs), with that of LPI. Our modeling indicates the molecular shapes and electrostatic potential distributions of these agonists mimic those of LPI; the GPR55 binding site accommodates ligands that have inverted-L or T shapes with long, thin profiles that can fit vertically deep in the receptor binding pocket while their broad head regions occupy a horizontal binding pocket near the GPR55 extracellular loops. Our results will allow the optimization and design of second-generation GPR55 ligands and provide a means for distinguishing GPR55 selective ligands from those interacting with cannabinoid receptors.
Project description:BACKGROUDS:Cannabinoid receptor antagonists have been suggested as a novel treatment for obesity and diabetes. We have developed a synthetic cannabinoid receptor antagonist denominated BAR-1. As the function and integrity of a ?-cell cellular structure are important keys for diabetes onset, we evaluated the effects of pharmacological administration of BAR-1 on prediabetic and diabetic rodents. METHODS:CD-1 mice fed a hypercaloric diet or treated with streptozotocin were treated with 10?mg/kg BAR-1 for 2, 4 or 8 weeks. Body weight, oral glucose tolerance test, HbA1c, triglycerides and insulin in serum were measured. In isolated islets, we evaluated stimulated secretion and mRNA expression, and relative area of islets in fixed pancreases. Docking analysis of BAR-1 was complemented. RESULTS:BAR-1 treatment slowed down weight gain in prediabetic mice. Fasting glucose-insulin relation also decreased in BAR-1-treated mice and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was increased in isolated islets, without effects in oral test. Diabetic mice treated with BAR-1 showed a reduced glucose and a partial recovery of islet integrity. Gene expression of insulin and glucagon showed biphasic behaviour, increasing after 4 weeks of BAR-1 administration; however, after 8 weeks, mRNA abundance decreased significantly. Administration of BAR-1 also prevents changes in endocannabinoid element expression observed in prediabetic mice. No changes were detected in other parameters studied, including the histological structure. A preliminary in-silico study suggests a close interaction with CB1 receptor. CONCLUSIONS:BAR-1 induces improvement of islet function, isolated from both prediabetic and diabetic mice. Effects of BAR-1 suggest a possible interaction with other cannabinoid receptors.