ABSTRACT: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a member of ErbB receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family, is activated through growth factor-induced reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and subsequent dimerization. We herein explored the molecular mechanism underlying the suppression of ligand-induced EGFR dimerization by CD99 agonists and its relevance to tumor growth in vivo. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) activated the formation of c-Src/focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-mediated intracellular complex and subsequently induced RhoA-and Rac1-mediated actin remodeling, resulting in EGFR dimerization and endocytosis. In contrast, CD99 agonist facilitated FAK dephosphorylation through the HRAS/ERK/PTPN12 signaling pathway, leading to inhibition of actin cytoskeletal reorganization via inactivation of the RhoA and Rac1 signaling pathways. Moreover, CD99 agonist significantly suppressed tumor growth in a BALB/c mouse model injected with MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Taken together, these results indicate that CD99-derived agonist ligand inhibits epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced EGFR dimerization through impairment of cytoskeletal reorganization by PTPN12-dependent c-Src/FAK inactivation, thereby suppressing breast cancer growth.
Project description:Repeated stimulation of mu-opioid receptors (MORs), by an MOR-selective agonist DAMGO induces type II priming, a form of nociceptor neuroplasticity, which has 2 components: opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) and prolongation of prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2)-induced hyperalgesia. We report that intrathecal antisense knockdown of the MOR in nociceptors, prevented the induction of both components of type II priming. Type II priming was also eliminated by SSP-saporin, which destroys the peptidergic class of nociceptors. Because the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) participates in MOR signaling, we tested its role in type II priming. The EGFR inhibitor, tyrphostin AG 1478, prevented the induction of prolonged PGE2-induced hyperalgesia, but not OIH, when tested out to 30 days after DAMGO. However, even when repeatedly injected, an EGFR agonist did not induce hyperalgesia or priming. A phosphopeptide, which blocks the interaction of Src, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and EGFR, also prevented DAMGO-induced prolongation of PGE2 hyperalgesia, but only partially attenuated the induction of OIH. Inhibitors of Src and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) also only attenuated OIH. Inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase, which cleaves EGF from membrane protein, markedly attenuated the expression, but did not prevent the induction, of prolongation of PGE2 hyperalgesia. Thus, although the induction of prolongation of PGE2-induced hyperalgesia at the peripheral terminal of peptidergic nociceptor is dependent on Src, FAK, EGFR, and MAPK signaling, Src, FAK, and MAPK signaling is only partially involved in the induction of OIH.
Project description:The flow of information through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is shaped by molecular interactions in the plasma membrane. The EGFR is associated with lipid rafts, but their role in modulating receptor mobility and subsequent interactions is unclear. To investigate the role of nanoscale rafts in EGFR dynamics, we used single-molecule fluorescence imaging to track individual receptors and their dimerization partner, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), in the membrane of human mammary epithelial cells. We found that the motion of both receptors was interrupted by dwellings within nanodomains. EGFR was significantly less mobile than HER2. This difference was likely due to F-actin because its depolymerization led to similar diffusion patterns between the EGFR and HER2. Manipulations of membrane cholesterol content dramatically altered the diffusion pattern of both receptors. Cholesterol depletion led to almost complete confinement of the receptors, whereas cholesterol enrichment extended the boundaries of the restricted areas. Interestingly, F-actin depolymerization partially restored receptor mobility in cholesterol-depleted membranes. Our observations suggest that membrane cholesterol provides a dynamic environment that facilitates the free motion of EGFR and HER2, possibly by modulating the dynamic state of F-actin. The association of the receptors with lipid rafts could therefore promote their rapid interactions only upon ligand stimulation.
Project description:Cell-surface receptors frequently use scaffold proteins to recruit cytoplasmic targets, but the rationale for this is uncertain. Activated receptor tyrosine kinases, for example, engage scaffolds such as Shc1 that contain phosphotyrosine (pTyr)-binding (PTB) domains. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, here we show that mammalian Shc1 responds to epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation through multiple waves of distinct phosphorylation events and protein interactions. After stimulation, Shc1 rapidly binds a group of proteins that activate pro-mitogenic or survival pathways dependent on recruitment of the Grb2 adaptor to Shc1 pTyr sites. Akt-mediated feedback phosphorylation of Shc1 Ser?29 then recruits the Ptpn12 tyrosine phosphatase. This is followed by a sub-network of proteins involved in cytoskeletal reorganization, trafficking and signal termination that binds Shc1 with delayed kinetics, largely through the SgK269 pseudokinase/adaptor protein. Ptpn12 acts as a switch to convert Shc1 from pTyr/Grb2-based signalling to SgK269-mediated pathways that regulate cell invasion and morphogenesis. The Shc1 scaffold therefore directs the temporal flow of signalling information after EGF stimulation.
Project description:Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) plays a critical role in connective tissue remodeling by fibroblasts during development, tissue repair, and fibrosis. We investigated the molecular pathways in the transmission of TGFbeta signals that lead to features of connective tissue remodeling, namely formation of an alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) cytoskeleton, matrix contraction, and expression of profibrotic genes. TGFbeta causes the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), leading to JNK phosphorylation. TGFbeta induces JNK-dependent actin stress fiber formation, matrix contraction, and expression of profibrotic genes in fak+/+, but not fak-/-, fibroblasts. Overexpression of MEKK1, a kinase acting upstream of JNK, rescues TGFbeta responsiveness of JNK-dependent transcripts and actin stress fiber formation in FAK-deficient fibroblasts. Thus we propose a FAK-MEKK1-JNK pathway in the transmission of TGFbeta signals leading to the control of alpha-SMA cytoskeleton reorganization, matrix contraction, and profibrotic gene expression and hence to the physiological and pathological effects of TGFbeta on connective tissue remodeling by fibroblasts.
Project description:Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) has been implicated in tumor development and invasion. Dimerization and autophosphorylation of EGFR are the critical events for EGFR activation. However, the regulation of EGF-dependent and EGF-independent dimerization and phosphorylation of EGFR has not been fully understood. Here, we report that cytoplasmic protein plakophilin-2 (PKP2) is a novel positive regulator of EGFR signaling. PKP2 specifically interacts with EGFR via its N-terminal head domain. Increased PKP2 expression enhances EGF-dependent and EGF-independent EGFR dimerization and phosphorylation. Moreover, PKP2 knockdown reduces EGFR phosphorylation and attenuates EGFR-mediated signal activation, resulting in a significant decrease in proliferation and migration of cancer cells and tumor development. Our results indicate that PKP2 is a novel activator of the EGFR signaling pathway and a potential new drug target for inhibiting tumor growth.
Project description:Signaling by the B cell receptor (BCR) promotes integrin-mediated adhesion and cytoskeletal reorganization. This results in B cell spreading, which enhances the ability of B cells to bind antigens and become activated. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase (Pyk2) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are related cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases that regulate cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell migration. In this report we show that BCR signaling and integrin signaling collaborate to induce the phosphorylation of Pyk2 and FAK on key tyrosine residues, a modification that increases the kinase activity of Pyk2 and FAK. Activation of the Rap GTPases is critical for BCR-induced integrin activation as well as for BCR- and integrin-induced reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. We now show that Rap activation is essential for BCR-induced phosphorylation of Pyk2 and for integrin-induced phosphorylation of Pyk2 and FAK. Moreover Rap-dependent phosphorylation of Pyk2 and FAK required an intact actin cytoskeleton as well as actin dynamics, suggesting that Rap regulates Pyk2 and FAK via its effects on the actin cytoskeleton. Importantly B cell spreading induced by BCR/integrin co-stimulation or by integrin engagement was inhibited by short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of either Pyk2 or FAK expression and by treatment with PF-431396, a chemical inhibitor that blocks the kinase activities of both Pyk2 and FAK. Thus Pyk2 and FAK are downstream targets of the Rap GTPases that play a key role in regulating B cell morphology.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) internalization following ligand binding controls EGFR downstream pathway signaling activity. Internalized EGFR is poly-ubiquitinated by Cbl to promote lysosome-mediated degradation and signal downregulation. ACK1 is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that interacts with ubiquitinated EGFR to facilitate EGFR degradation. Dynamic reorganization of the cortical actin cytoskeleton controlled by the actin related protein (Arp)2/3 complex is important in regulating EGFR endocytosis and vesicle trafficking. How ACK1-mediated EGFR internalization cooperates with Arp2/3-based actin dynamics during EGFR downregulation is unclear.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Here we show that ACK1 directly binds and phosphorylates the Arp2/3 regulatory protein cortactin, potentially providing a direct link to Arp2/3-based actin dynamics during EGFR degradation. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicates that the cortactin SH3 domain is responsible for binding to ACK1. In vitro kinase assays demonstrate that ACK1 phosphorylates cortactin on key tyrosine residues that create docking sites for adaptor proteins responsible for enhancing Arp2/3 nucleation. Analysis with phosphorylation-specific antibodies determined that EGFR-induced cortactin tyrosine phosphorylation is diminished coincident with EGFR degradation, whereas ERK1/2 cortactin phosphorylation utilized in promoting activation of the Arp2/3 regulator N-WASp is sustained during EGFR downregulation. Cortactin and ACK1 localize to internalized vesicles containing EGF bound to EGFR visualized by confocal microscopy. RNA interference and rescue studies indicate that ACK1 and the cortactin SH3 domain are essential for ligand-mediated EGFR internalization.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Cortactin is a direct binding partner and novel substrate of ACK1. Tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin by ACK1 creates an additional means to amplify Arp2/3 dynamics through N-WASp activation, potentially contributing to the overall necessary tensile and/or propulsive forces utilized during EGFR endocytic internalization and trafficking involved in receptor degradation.
Project description:The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is frequently mutated and overexpressed in metastatic cancer. Although EGFR is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase localized to the basolateral membrane in normal epithelium, it is frequently found intracellularly localized in transformed cells. We have previously demonstrated the epithelial adaptor protein mucin 1 (MUC1) alters trafficking of EGFR, inhibiting its degradation and promoting its translocation to the nucleus, where it can directly modulate gene transcription. Here, we demonstrate that MUC1 promotes the retention of EGF-bound EGFR in Early Endosome Antigen1 (EEA1)-positive vesicles while preventing its trafficking to the lysosome. These events result in the accumulation of endosomal vesicles harboring active receptor throughout the cell and a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. EGF-dependent cell migration and filopodia formation is reliant upon this altered trafficking, and can be prevented by blocking retrograde trafficking. Together, these results indicate that intracellular EGFR may play an essential role in cancer metastasis and a potential mechanism for the failure of therapeutic antibodies in EGFR-driven metastatic breast cancer.
Project description:Targeting of Toxoplasma gondii by autophagy is an effective mechanism by which host cells kill the protozoan. Thus, the parasite must avoid autophagic targeting to survive. Here we show that the mammalian cytoplasmic molecule Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) becomes activated during invasion of host cells. Activated FAK appears to accompany the formation of the moving junction (as assessed by expression the parasite protein RON4). FAK activation was inhibited by approaches that impaired ?1 and ?3 integrin signaling. FAK caused activation of Src that in turn mediated Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation at the unique Y845 residue. Expression of Src-resistant Y845F EGFR mutant markedly inhibited ROP16-independent activation of STAT3 in host cells. Activation of FAK, Y845 EGFR or STAT3 prevented activation of PKR and eIF2?, key stimulators of autophagy. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of FAK, Src, EGFR phosphorylation at Y845, or STAT3 caused accumulation of the autophagy protein LC3 and LAMP-1 around the parasite and parasite killing dependent on autophagy proteins (ULK1 and Beclin 1) and lysosomal enzymes. Parasite killing was inhibited by expression of dominant negative PKR. Thus, T. gondii activates a FAK?Src?Y845-EGFR?STAT3 signaling axis within mammalian cells, thereby enabling the parasite to survive by avoiding autophagic targeting through a mechanism likely dependent on preventing activation of PKR and eIF2?.