Potential of Bacteria from Alternative Fermented Foods as Starter Cultures for the Production of Wheat Sourdoughs.
ABSTRACT: Microbial strains for starter culture-initiated sourdough productions are commonly isolated from a fermenting flour-water mixture. Yet, starter culture strains isolated from matrices other than sourdoughs could provide the dough with interesting metabolic properties and hence change the organoleptic properties of the concomitant breads. Furthermore, the selection of sourdough starter cultures does not need to be limited to lactic acid bacteria (LAB), as other food-grade microorganisms are sometimes found in sourdoughs. Therefore, different strains belonging to LAB, acetic acid bacteria (AAB), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) that originated from different fermented food matrices (fermenting cocoa pulp-bean mass, fermented sausage, and water kefir), were examined as to their prevalence in a wheat sourdough ecosystem during 72-h fermentations. Limosilactobacillus fermentum IMDO 222 (fermented cocoa pulp-bean mass isolate) and Latilactobacillus sakei CTC 494 (fermented sausage isolate) seemed to be promising candidates as sourdough starter culture strains, as were the AAB strains Acetobacter pasteurianus IMDO 386B and Gluconobacter oxydans IMDO A845 (both isolated from fermented cocoa pulp-bean mass), due to their competitiveness in the wheat flour-water mixtures. Wheat breads made with G. oxydans IMDO A845 sourdoughs were significantly darker than reference wheat breads.
Project description:Teff and teff sourdoughs are promising ingredients for bread production. Therefore, this study aimed at the characterization of spontaneous and flour-native starter culture-initiated teff sourdough productions under bakery and laboratory conditions. Backslopped laboratory and bakery teff sourdough productions were characterized by different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast species, but were both characterized by a pH below 4.0 after five backslopping steps. The sourdough-associated Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis was isolated for the first time from backslopped spontaneous teff sourdoughs. The autochthonous strain L. sanfranciscensis IMDO 150101 was tested as starter culture during laboratory teff sourdough fermentations. Its prevalence could be related to the process conditions applied, in particular the ambient temperature (below 30°C). Breads made with 20% teff sourdough (on flour basis) displayed interesting features compared with all-wheat-based reference breads. Teff sourdoughs were characterized as to their pH evolution, microbial community dynamics, and microbial species composition. Representative strains of the LAB species isolated from these sourdoughs, in particular L. sanfranciscensis, may be selected as starter cultures for the production of stable teff sourdoughs and flavorful breads, provided they are adapted to the environmental conditions applied.
Project description:Lactobacillus fermentum is a species of lactic acid bacteria that is frequently found in sourdough, a fermented flour-water mixture used in the production of bread and other baked goods. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of L. fermentum IMDO 130101, a candidate sourdough starter culture strain isolated from a backslopped rye sourdough.
Project description:Sourdough fermentation is a traditional process that is used to improve bread quality. A spontaneous sourdough ecosystem consists of a mixture of flour and water that is fermented by endogenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts. The aim of this study was to identify bacterial diversity during backslopping of spontaneous sourdoughs prepared from wheat, spelt, or rye wholemeal flour. Culture-dependent analyses showed that the number of LAB (109 CFU/ml) was higher by three orders of magnitude than the number of yeasts (106 CFU/ml), irrespective of the flour type. These results were complemented by next-generation sequencing of the 16S rDNA V3 and V4 variable regions. The dominant phylum in all sourdough samples was Firmicutes, which was represented exclusively by the Lactobacillales order. The two remaining and less abundant phyla were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The culture-independent approach allowed us to detect changes in microbial ecology during the 72-hr fermentation period. Weissella sp. was the most abundant genus after 24 hr of fermentation of the rye sourdough, but as the process progressed, its abundance decreased in favor of the Lactobacillus genus similarly as in wheat and spelt sourdoughs. The Lactobacillus genus was dominant in all sourdoughs after 72 hr, which was consistent with our results obtained using culture-dependent analyses. This work was carried out to determine the microbial biodiversity of sourdoughs that are made from wheat, spelt, and rye wholemeal flour and can be used as a source of strains for specific starter cultures to produce functional bread.
Project description:In this study, mixed starter cultures of yeast and lactobacilli were used for type I sourdough bread making to evaluate their ability to improve bread quality and increase the amount of flavor volatiles. Kazachstania humilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM20451T and Lactobacillus sakei LS8 were used in different combinations to ferment wheat sourdough. S. cerevisiae produced the highest amount of CO2 among all strains and thus enhanced bread volume and crumb texture. S. cerevisiae also increased the free thiol level in bread dough, and this study confirms that thiol accumulation was not strongly related to the content of the glutenin macropolymer (GMP) or bread volume. The role of thiol exchange reactions on bread quality differs between long fermentation sourdough and straight dough with baker's yeast only. The influence of different starter cultures on wheat sourdough bread volatiles was established by using head space solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis (SPME-GC/MS). The sourdough breads fermented with a combination of lactobacilli and yeast had a more complex profile of volatiles, particularly with respect to esters.
Project description:Sourdough fermented bread has been suggested to have beneficial health effects, in part mediated by increased satiety in the postprandial phase, but only limited research has been conducted to verify this. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of the amounts of sourdough and rye in soft bread on postprandial appetite. On 6 occasions, 23 healthy volunteers consumed 5 different test breads, with varying amount of rye and sourdough, and a yeast-fermented refined wheat control bread as part of a breakfast meal. The sourdough ranged between 9?51% of dough weight and rye content between 35?48% of flour weight. Appetite was recorded using visual analogue scales from immediately before breakfast and every 30 min the following 4 h. An ad libitum lunch was served 4 h after the breakfast meal, from which voluntary energy intake was measured. While some of the test breads resulted in lower hunger ratings and increased sense of fullness compared to the refined wheat bread, there were no differences between the test breads. The content of rye in the test breads differed within a narrow range, which might explain the lack of a consistent effect of rye on appetite. Microstructural examination of the test breads showed an increased aggregation of proteins in the breads with high content of sourdough, indicating additional changes to the breads, beyond change in pH, which may counteract the potential effect of decreased pH in the bread on appetite. In conclusion, our study does not support an effect of sourdough on appetite and ad libitum food intake.
Project description:Bakers use pure microorganisms and/or traditional sourdoughs as the leavening agent for making bread. The performance of each starter and the substances produced by the microorganisms greatly affect the dough rheology and features of breads. Modern sourdoughs inoculated with selected lactic acid bacteria and yeasts are microbiologically stable, safer than traditional sourdoughs, and easy to use. However, the commercial repertoire of baker's yeasts is still limited. Therefore, there is a demand for new strains of yeast species, capable of conferring distinctive traits to breads made from a variety of agri-food matrices, in the design of innovative starters. In this context, we report the first comprehensive study on yeasts isolated from a wide range of fermented doughs, cereal flours, and grains of Spain. Nine yeast species were identified from 433 isolates, which were distributed among separate clades. Moreover, phenotypic traits of potential technological relevance were identified in selected yeast strains. Mother doughs (MDs) showed the greatest yeast biodiversity, whereas commercial <i>Saccharomyces</i> starters or related and wild strains often dominated the bakery doughs. A metataxonomic analysis of wheat and tritordeum MDs revealed a greater richness of yeast species and percentage variations related to the consistency, flour type, and fermentation time of MDs.
Project description:Many patients suspect wheat as being a major trigger of their irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. Our aim was to evaluate whether sourdough wheat bread baked without baking improvers and using a long dough fermentation time (>12 h), would result in lower quantities of alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) and Fermentable, Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides and Polyols (FODMAPs), and would be better tolerated than yeast-fermented wheat bread for subjects with IBS who have a poor subjective tolerance to wheat. The study was conducted as a randomised double-blind controlled 7-day study (n = 26). Tetrameric ATI structures were unravelled in both breads vs. baking flour, but the overall reduction in ATIs to their monomeric form was higher in the sourdough bread group. Sourdough bread was also lower in FODMAPs. However, no significant differences in gastrointestinal symptoms and markers of low-grade inflammation were found between the study breads. There were significantly more feelings of tiredness, joint symptoms, and decreased alertness when the participants ate the sourdough bread (p ≤ 0.03), but these results should be interpreted with caution. Our novel finding was that sourdough baking reduces the quantities of both ATIs and FODMAPs found in wheat. Nonetheless, the sourdough bread was not tolerated better than the yeast-fermented bread.
Project description:Cocoa pulp fermentation is a spontaneous process during which the natural microbiota present at cocoa farms is allowed to ferment the pulp surrounding cocoa beans. Because such spontaneous fermentations are inconsistent and contribute to product variability, there is growing interest in a microbial starter culture that could be used to inoculate cocoa pulp fermentations. Previous studies have revealed that many different fungi are recovered from different batches of spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations, whereas the variation in the prokaryotic microbiome is much more limited. In this study, therefore, we aimed to develop a suitable yeast starter culture that is able to outcompete wild contaminants and consistently produce high-quality chocolate. Starting from specifically selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, we developed robust hybrids with characteristics that allow them to efficiently ferment cocoa pulp, including improved temperature tolerance and fermentation capacity. We conducted several laboratory and field trials to show that these new hybrids often outperform their parental strains and are able to dominate spontaneous pilot scale fermentations, which results in much more consistent microbial profiles. Moreover, analysis of the resulting chocolate showed that some of the cocoa batches that were fermented with specific starter cultures yielded superior chocolate. Taken together, these results describe the development of robust yeast starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentations that can contribute to improving the consistency and quality of commercial chocolate production.
Project description:Food consumers make decisions primarily on the basis of a product's nutritional, functional, and sensorial aspects. In this context, this study evaluated the persistence in sourdough of a multistrain starter culture from laboratory to bakery plant production and the effect of the starter on antioxidant and rheological properties of sourdoughs and derived bread. Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis B450, Leuconostoc citreum B435, and Candida milleri L999 were used as a multispecies starter culture to produce a sourdough subsequently used to modify two traditional sourdoughs to make novel bread with improved health and rheological properties. Both these novel bakery sourdoughs showed the persistence of L. sanfranciscensis B450 and C. milleri L999, and showed a significantly different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) concentration from the traditional sourdoughs. The novel sourdough PF7 M had a higher phenolic content (170% increase) and DPPH (8% increase) than the traditional bakery sourdough PF7 F. The novel sourdough PF9 M exhibited an improvement in textural parameters. Further research would be useful on the bioavailability of bio-active compounds to obtain bread with improved characteristics.
Project description:This study determined the effects of specific metabolic traits of Lactobacillus reuteri on its competitiveness in sourdoughs. The competitiveness of lactobacilli in sourdough generally depends on their growth rate; acid resistance additionally contributes to competitiveness in sourdoughs with long fermentation times. Glycerol metabolism via glycerol dehydratase (gupCDE) accelerates growth by the regeneration of reduced cofactors; glutamate metabolism via glutamate decarboxylase (gadB) increases acid resistance by generating a proton motive force. Glycerol and glutamate metabolisms are lineage-specific traits in L. reuteri; therefore, this study employed glycerol dehydratase-positive sourdough isolates of human-adapted L. reuteri lineage I, glutamate decarboxylase-positive strains of rodent-adapted L. reuteri lineage II, as well as mutants with deletions in gadB or gupCDE. The competitivenesses of the strains were quantified by inoculation of wheat and sorghum sourdoughs with defined strains, followed by propagation of doughs with a 10% inoculum and 12-h or 72-h fermentation cycles. Lineage I L. reuteri strains dominated sourdoughs propagated with 12-h fermentation cycles; lineage II L. reuteri strains dominated sourdoughs propagated with 72-h fermentation cycles. L. reuteri 100-23ΔgadB was outcompeted by its wild-type strain in sourdoughs fermented with 72-h fermentation cycles; L. reuteri FUA3400ΔgupCDE was outcompeted by its wild-type strain in sourdoughs fermented with both 12-h and 72-h fermentation cycles. Competition experiments with isogenic pairs of strains resulted in a constant rate of strain displacement of the less competitive mutant strain. In conclusion, lineage-specific traits of L. reuteri determine the competitiveness of this species in sourdough fermentations.