Progression of Pulmonary Function and Correlation with Survival Following Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy of Central and Ultracentral Lung Tumors.
ABSTRACT: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to central and ultracentral lung tumors carries a risk of excessive toxicity. This study analyzed changes in pulmonary function tests (PFT) and their correlation with overall survival (OS) in 107 patients following central (n = 62) or ultracentral (n = 45) lung SBRT. Ultracentral location was defined as planning target volume overlap with the proximal bronchial tree (PBT). Vital capacity (VC) (-0.3 l, absolute -9.4% of predicted, both p < 0.001) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1s) (-0.2 l, absolute -7.7% of predicted, both p < 0.001) significantly decreased following SBRT. Higher maximum dose to the PBT significantly correlated with a steeper decline in VC (p = 0.005) and FEV1s (p = 0.03) over time. Pronounced decline in FEV1s between 6 and 12 months (HR = 0.90, p = 0.006) and pronounced decline in VC between baseline and 12 months (HR = 0.95, p = 0.004) independently correlated with worse OS. Consequently, PFT presented a statistically significant albeit clinically mild decrease in lung volumes following central and ultracentral SBRT that correlated moderately with maximum dose to the PBT. Stronger decline in pulmonary function was associated with constrained survival, advocating consequent performance of PFT during follow-up.
Project description:PURPOSE:To assess hypo-fractionated particle beam therapy (PBT)'s efficacy relative to that of photon stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for early stage (ES) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS:Eligible studies were identified through extensive searches of the PubMed, Medline, Google-scholar, and Cochrane library databases from 2000 to 2016. Original English publications of ES NSCLC were included. A meta-analysis was performed to compare the survival outcome, toxicity profile, and patterns of failure following each treatment. RESULTS:72 SBRT studies and 9 hypo-fractionated PBT studies (mostly single-arm) were included. PBT was associated with improved overall survival (OS; p=0.005) and progression-free survival (PFS; p=0.01) in the univariate meta-analysis. The OS benefit did not reach its statistical significance after inclusion of operability into the final multivariate meta-analysis (p=0.11); while the 3-year local control (LC) still favored PBT (p=0.03). CONCLUSION:Although hypo-fractionated PBT may lead to additional clinical benefit when compared with photon SBRT, no statistically significant survival benefit from PBT over SBRT was observed in the treatment of ES NSCLC in this hypothesis-generating meta-analysis after adjusting for potential confounding variables.
Project description:PURPOSE:To investigate pulmonary function test (PFT) results and arterial blood gas changes (complete PFT) following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and to see whether baseline PFT correlates with lung toxicity and overall survival in medically inoperable patients receiving SBRT for early stage, peripheral, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS AND MATERIALS:During the 2-year follow-up, PFT data were collected for patients with T1-T2N0M0 peripheral NSCLC who received effectively 18 Gy × 3 in a phase 2 North American multicenter study (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] protocol 0236). Pulmonary toxicity was graded by using the RTOG SBRT pulmonary toxicity scale. Paired Wilcoxon signed rank test, logistic regression model, and Kaplan-Meier method were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS:At 2 years, mean percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in the first second and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide declines were 5.8% and 6.3%, respectively, with minimal changes in arterial blood gases and no significant decline in oxygen saturation. Baseline PFT was not predictive of any pulmonary toxicity following SBRT. Whole-lung V5 (the percentage of normal lung tissue receiving 5 Gy), V10, V20, and mean dose to the whole lung were almost identical between patients who developed pneumonitis and patients who were pneumonitis-free. Poor baseline PFT did not predict decreased overall survival. Patients with poor baseline PFT as the reason for medical inoperability had higher median and overall survival rates than patients with normal baseline PFT values but with cardiac morbidity. CONCLUSIONS:Poor baseline PFT did not appear to predict pulmonary toxicity or decreased overall survival after SBRT in this medically inoperable population. Poor baseline PFT alone should not be used to exclude patients with early stage lung cancer from treatment with SBRT.
Project description:Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in central lung tumors has been associated with higher rates of severe toxicity. We sought to evaluate toxicity and local control in a large cohort and to identify predictive dosimetric parameters.We identified patients who received SBRT for central tumors according to either of 2 definitions. Local failure (LF) was estimated using a competing risks model, and multivariate analysis (MVA) was used to assess factors associated with LF. We reviewed patient toxicity and applied Cox proportional hazard analysis and log-rank tests to assess whether dose-volume metrics of normal structures correlated with pulmonary toxicity.One hundred twenty-five patients received SBRT for non-small cell lung cancer (n=103) or metastatic lesions (n=22), using intensity modulated radiation therapy. The most common dose was 45 Gy in 5 fractions. Median follow-up was 17.4 months. Incidence of toxicity ? grade 3 was 8.0%, including 5.6% pulmonary toxicity. Sixteen patients (12.8%) experienced esophageal toxicity ? grade 2, including 50% of patients in whom PTV overlapped the esophagus. There were 2 treatment-related deaths. Among patients receiving biologically effective dose (BED) ?80 Gy (n=108), 2-year LF was 21%. On MVA, gross tumor volume (GTV) was significantly associated with LF. None of the studied dose-volume metrics of the lungs, heart, proximal bronchial tree (PBT), or 2 cm expansion of the PBT ("no-fly-zone" [NFZ]) correlated with pulmonary toxicity ?grade 2. There were no differences in pulmonary toxicity between central tumors located inside the NFZ and those outside the NFZ but with planning target volume (PTV) intersecting the mediastinum.Using moderate doses, SBRT for central lung tumors achieves acceptable local control with low rates of severe toxicity. Dosimetric analysis showed no significant correlation between dose to the lungs, heart, or NFZ and severe pulmonary toxicity. Esophageal toxicity may be an underappreciated risk, particularly when PTV overlaps the esophagus.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to evaluate treatment patterns and outcomes of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for centrally located primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or lung metastases from the RSSearch(®) Patient Registry, an international, multi-center patient registry dedicated to radiosurgery and SBRT.Eligible patients included those with centrally located lung tumors clinically staged T1-T2 N0, M0, biopsy-confirmed NSCLC or lung metastases treated with SBRT between November 2004 and January 2014. Descriptive analysis was used to report patient demographics and treatment patterns. Overall survival (OS) and local control (LC) were determined using Kaplan-Meier method. Toxicity was reported using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0.In total, 111 patients with 114 centrally located lung tumors (48 T1-T2,N0,M0 NSCLC and 66 lung metastases) were treated with SBRT at 19 academic and community-based radiotherapy centers in the US and Germany. Median follow-up was 17 months (range, 1-72). Median age was 74 years for primary NSCLC patients and 65 years for lung metastases patients (p < 0.001). SBRT dose varied from 16 - 60 Gy (median 48 Gy) delivered in 1-5 fractions (median 4 fractions). Median dose to centrally located primary NSCLC was 48 Gy compared to 37.5 Gy for lung metastases (p = 0.0001) and median BED10 was 105.6 Gy for primary NSCLC and 93.6 Gy for lung metastases (p = 0.0005). Two-year OS for T1N0M0 and T2N0M0 NSCLC was 79 and 32.1 %, respectively (p = 0.009) and 2-year OS for lung metastases was 49.6 %. Two-year LC was 76.4 and 69.8 % for primary NSCLC and lung metastases, respectively. Toxicity was low with no Grade 3 or higher acute or late toxicities.Overall, patients with centrally located primary NSCLC were older and received higher doses of SBRT than those with lung metastases. Despite these differences, LC and OS was favorable for patients with central lung tumors treated with SBRT. Reported toxicity was low, although low grade toxicities were observed in patients where dose tolerances approached or exceeded published guidelines. Prospective studies are needed to further define the optimal SBRT dose for this cohort of patients.Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01885299.
Project description:To report overall survival and local control for patients identified in the RSSearch® Patient Registry with metastatic cancer to the lung treated with SBRT.Seven hundred two patients were identified with lung metastases in the RSSearch® Registry. Of these patients, 577 patients had SBRT dose and fractionation information available. Patients were excluded if they received prior surgery, radiation, or radiofrequency ablation to the SBRT treated area. Between April 2004-July 2015, 447 patients treated with SBRT at 30 academic and community-based centers were evaluable for overall survival (OS). Three hundred four patients with 327 lesions were evaluable for local control (LC). All doses were converted to Monte Carlo equivalents and subsequent BED Gy10 for dose response analysis.Median age was 69 years (range, 18-93 years). Median Karnofsky performance status (KPS) was 90 (range 25/75% 80-100). 49.2% of patients had prior systemic therapy. Median metastasis volume was 10.58 cc (range 25/75% 3.7-25.54 cc). Site of primary tumor included colorectal (25.7%), lung (16.6%), head and neck (11.4%), breast (9.2%), kidney (8.1%), skin (6.5%) and other (22.1%). Median dose was 50 Gy (range 25/75% 48-54) delivered in 3 fractions (range 25/75% 3-5) with a median BED of 100Gy10 (range 25/75% 81-136). Median OS for the entire group was 26 months, with actuarial 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS of 74.1%, 33.3, and 21.8%, respectively. Patients with head and neck and breast cancers had longer median OS of 37 and 32 months respectively, compared to colorectal (30 months) and lung (26 months) which corresponded to 3-year actuarial OS of 51.8 and 47.9% for head and neck and breast respectively, compared to 35.8% for colorectal and 31.2% for lung. The median LC for all patients was 53 months, with actuarial 1-, 3-, and 5-year LC rates of 80.4, 58.9, and 46.3%, respectively. There was no difference in LC by primary histologic type (p?=?0.49). Improved LC was observed for lung metastases that received SBRT doses of BED ?100Gy10 with 3-year LC rate of 77.1% compared to 45% for lung metastases treated with BED?<?100Gy10 (p?=?0.01). Smaller tumor volumes (<11 cc) had improved LC compared to tumor volumes?>?11 cc. (p?=?0.005) Two-year LC rates for tumor volumes?<?11 cc, 11-27 cc and?>?27 cc were 72.9, 64.2 and 45.6%, respectively. This correlated with improved OS with 2-year OS rates of 62.4, 60.9 and 46.2% for tumor volumes?<?11 cc, 11-27 cc and?>?27 cc, respectively (p?=?0.0023). In a subset of patients who received BED ?100Gy10, 2-year LC rates for tumor volumes?<?11 cc, 11-27 cc and?>?27 cc were 82.8, 58.9 and 68.6%, respectively (p?=?0.0244), and 2-year OS rates were 66.0, 58.8 and 28.5%, respectively (p?=?0.0081).Excellent OS and LC is achievable with SBRT utilizing BED ?100Gy10 for lung metastases according to the RSSearch® Registry data. Patients with small lung metastases (volumes?<?11 cc) had better LC and OS when using SBRT doses of BED ?100Gy10. Further studies to evaluate a difference, if any, between various tumor types will require a larger number of patients.
Project description:Although lung cancer rates are decreasing nationally, lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer related death. Despite advancements in treatment and technology, overall survival (OS) for lung cancer remains poor. Proton beam therapy (PBT) is an advanced radiation therapy (RT) modality for treatment of lung cancer with the potential to achieve dose escalation to tumor while sparing critical structures due to higher target conformality. In early and late-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), dosimetric studies demonstrated reduced doses to organs at risk (OARs) such as the lung, spinal cord, and heart, and clinical studies report limited toxicities with PBT, including hypofractionated regimens. In limited-stage SCLC, studies showed that regimens chemo RT including PBT were well tolerated, which may help optimize clinical outcomes. Improved toxicity profiles may be beneficial in post-operative radiotherapy, for which initial dosimetric and clinical data are encouraging. Sparing of OARs may also increase the proportion of patients able to complete reirradiation for recurrent disease. However, there are various challenges of using PBT including a higher financial burden on healthcare and limited data supporting its cost-effectiveness. Further studies are needed to identify subgroups that benefit from PBT based on prognostic factors, and to evaluate PBT combined with immunotherapy, in order to elucidate the benefit that PBT may offer future lung cancer patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To compare patterns of care and overall survival (OS) between stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and percutaneous local tumor ablation (LTA) for non-surgically managed early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS:The National Cancer Database (NCDB) was queried from 2004 to 2014 for adults with non-metastatic, node-negative invasive adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma of the lung with primary tumor size ?5.0?cm who did not undergo surgery or chemotherapy and received SBRT or LTA. Patterns of care were assessed with multivariate logistic regression. After propensity-score weighting with generalized boosted regression, OS was assessed with univariate and doubly-robust multivariate Cox regression. RESULTS:Of 15,792 patients, 14,651 (93%) received SBRT and 1141 (7%) received LTA. Increasing age (OR 1.01, p?=?.035), treatment at an academic institution (OR 2.94, p?<?.001), increasing tumor size (OR 1.05, p?<?.001), and more recent year of diagnosis (OR 1.43, p?<?.001) were predictive of treatment with SBRT, whereas comorbidities (OR 0.74, p?=?.003) and treatment at a high-volume facility (OR 0.05, p?<?.001) were predictive for LTA. At a median follow-up of 26.2 months, SBRT was associated with improved OS relative to LTA within a propensity-score weighted doubly-robust multivariate analysis (HR 0.71, p?<?.001). On weighted subgroup analyses, improved OS was observed with SBRT for tumor sizes >2.0?cm (HR 0.72, p?<?.001) and for those treated at high-volume facilities (HR 0.71, p?<?.001). No OS difference was found with SBRT or LTA in tumor sizes ?2.0?cm (HR 0.90, p?=?.227). CONCLUSION:Within the NCDB, SBRT was more commonly utilized and was associated with improved OS when compared to percutaneous LTA for patients with non-surgically managed early-stage NSCLC. Patients with small tumor volumes likely represent an appropriate population for future prospective randomized comparisons between SBRT and LTA.
Project description:Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is an emerging treatment option for liver metastases in patients unsuitable for surgery. We investigated factors associated with clinical outcomes for liver metastases treated with SBRT from a multi-center, international patient registry.Patients with liver metastases treated with SBRT were identified in the RSSearch® Patient Registry. Patient, tumor and treatment characteristics associated with treatment outcomes were assessed. Dose fractionations were normalized to BED10. Overall survival (OS) and local control (LC) were evaluated using Kaplan Meier analysis and log-rank test.The study included 427 patients with 568 liver metastases from 25 academic and community-based centers. Median age was 67 years (31-91 years). Colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC) was the most common primary cancer. 73% of patients received prior chemotherapy. Median tumor volume was 40 cm3 (1.6-877 cm3), median SBRT dose was 45 Gy (12-60 Gy) delivered in a median of 3 fractions [1-5]. At a median follow-up of 14 months (1-91 months) the median overall survival (OS) was 22 months. Median OS was greater for patients with CRC (27 mo), breast (21 mo) and gynecological (25 mo) metastases compared to lung (10 mo), other gastro-intestinal (GI) (18 mo) and pancreatic (6 mo) primaries (p?<?0.0001). Smaller tumor volumes (<?40 cm3) correlated with improved OS (25 months vs 15 months p?=?0.0014). BED10???100 Gy was also associated with improved OS (27 months vs 15 months p?<?0.0001). Local control (LC) was evaluable in 430 liver metastases from 324 patients. Two-year LC rates was better for BED10???100 Gy (77.2% vs 59.6%) and the median LC was better for tumors <?40 cm3 (52 vs 39 months). There was no difference in LC based on histology of the primary tumor.In a large, multi-institutional series of patients with liver metastasis treated with SBRT, reasonable LC and OS was observed. OS and LC depended on dose and tumor volume, while OS varied by primary tumor. Future prospective trials on the role of SBRT for liver metastasis from different primaries in the setting of multidisciplinary management including systemic therapy, is warranted.Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01885299 .
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:To compare time-dependent changes in lung parenchyma of early-stage non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients after stereotactic body radiation therapy with protons (SBPT) or photons (SBRT). MATERIALS AND METHOD:We retrospectively identified NSCLC patients treated with SBPT and matched each one with a SBRT patient by patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics. Lung parenchyma on serial post-treatment chest computer tomography (CT) scans was deformably registered with the treatment plan to analyze lung density changes as function of dose, quantified by Houndsfield Unit (HU)/Gy. A thoracic radiologist also evaluated the CTs using an established grading system. RESULTS:We matched 23 SBPT/SBRT pairs, including 5 patients treated with both modalities (internally matched cohort). Normal lung response following SBPT significantly increased in the early time period (CTs acquired <6?months, median 3?months) post-treatment, and then did not change significantly in the later time period (CTs acquired 6-14?months, median 9?months). For SBRT, the normal lung response was similar to SBPT in the early time period, but then increased significantly from the early to the late time period (p?=?0.007). These differences were most pronounced in sensitive (response >6 HU/Gy) patients and in the internally matched cohort. However, there was no significant difference in the maximum observed response in the entire cohort over all time periods, median 3.4 [IQR, 1.0-5.4] HU/Gy (SBPT) versus 2.5 [1.6-5.2] HU/Gy (SBRT). Qualitative radiological evaluation was highly correlated with the quantitative analysis (p?<?0.0001). CONCLUSION:While there was no significant difference in maximum response after SBPT versus SBRT, dose-defined lung inflammation occurred earlier after proton irradiation. Further investigation is warranted into the mechanisms of inflammation and therapeutic consequences after proton versus photon irradiation.
Project description:To determine the therapeutic efficacy and safety of risk-adapted stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) schedules for patients with early-stage central and ultra-central inoperable non-small cell lung cancer. From 2006 to 2015, 80 inoperable T1-2N0M0 NSCLC patients were treated with two median dose levels: 60 Gy in six fractions (range, 48-60 Gy in 4-8 fractions) prescribed to the 74% isodose line (range, 58%-79%) for central lesions (ie within 2 cm of, but not abutting, the proximal bronchial tree; n = 43), and 56 Gy in seven fractions (range, 48-60 Gy in 5-10 fractions) prescribed to the 74% isodose line (range, 60%-80%) for ultra-central lesions (ie abutting the proximal bronchial tree; n = 37) on consecutive days. Primary endpoint was overall survival (OS); secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), tumor local control rate (LC), and toxicity. Median OS and PFS were 64.47 and 32.10 months (respectively) for ultra-central patients, and not reached for central patients. Median time to local failure, regional failure, and any distant failures for central versus ultra-central lesions were: 27.37 versus 26.07 months, 20.90 versus 12.53 months, and 20.85 versus 15.53 months, respectively, all P < .05. Multivariate analyses showed that tumor categorization (ultra-central) and planning target volume ≥52.76 mL were poor prognostic factors of OS, PFS, and LC, respectively (all P < .05). There was one grade 5 toxicity; all other toxicities were grade 1-2. Our results showed that ultra-central tumors have a poor OS, PFS, and LC compared with central patients because of the use of risk-adapted SBRT schedules that allow for equal and favorable toxicity profiles.