Epidemiology of Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomas: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 16,953 Patients.
ABSTRACT: Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) are a heterogenous group of rare diseases. Many studies have reported on local epidemiology or geographic clustering, however we lack information from a global perspective. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted in Medline and the Cochrane Library based on a previously registered protocol and according to the preferred reporting of items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA). We selected publications that enrolled at least 100 patients with primary cutaneous lymphomas according to the current classifications. The relative frequencies (proportions) of subtypes were compared between studies and geographic regions in a meta-analysis. In total, 26 studies met our inclusion criteria, reporting on altogether 16,953 patients. Within primary cutaneous lymphomas, CTCL appeared to be 15% more frequent in Asian populations. Mycosis fungoides (MF) accounted for 62% of CTCL, with an important heterogeneity in frequencies between studies and continents. The proportion of Sézary syndrome (SS) was 3%, stable worldwide. Rare CTCL, such as NK/T-cell lymphoma or subcutaneous panniculitis-like lymphoma, were more frequent in Asian studies. This global meta-analysis of CTCL confirmed the predominance of CTCL among primary cutaneous lymphomas (83% on average) in the three analyzed continents, most of which were MF cases. It revealed the same proportions of SS across continents, and the heterogeneity of MF frequencies, suggesting the possible role of environmental factors in the pathophysiology of the latter. Registration number: CRD42020148295 (PROSPERO).
Project description:Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) represent a large, heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas that primarily affect the skin. Among multiple CTCL variants, the most prevalent types are mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS). In the past decade, the molecular genetics of CTCL have been the target of intense study, increasing the knowledge of CTCL genomic alterations, discovering novel biomarkers, and potential targets for patient-specific therapy. However, the detailed pathogenesis of CTCL development still needs to be discovered. This review aims to summarize the novel insights into molecular heterogeneity of malignant cells using high-throughput technologies, such as RNA sequencing and single-cell RNA sequencing, which might be useful to identify tumour-specific molecular signatures and, therefore, offer guidance for therapy, diagnosis, and prognosis of CTCL.
Project description:HTLV-1 is estimated to affect ~20 million people worldwide and in ~5% of carriers it produces Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL), which can often masquerade and present with classic erythematous pruritic patches and plaques that are typically seen in Mycosis Fungoides (MF) and Sézary Syndrome (SS), the most recognized variants of Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomas (CTCL). For many years the role of HTLV-1 in the pathogenesis of MF/SS has been hotly debated. In this study we analyzed CTCL vs. HTLV-1+ leukemic cells. We performed G-banding/spectral karyotyping, extensive gene expression analysis, TP53 sequencing in the 11 patient-derived HTLV-1+ (MJ and Hut102) vs. HTLV-1- (Myla, Mac2a, PB2B, HH, H9, Hut78, SZ4, Sez4 and SeAx) CTCL cell lines. We further tested drug sensitivities to commonly used CTCL therapies and studied the ability of these cells to produce subcutaneous xenograft tumors in NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ mice. Our work demonstrates that unlike classic advanced MF/SS cells that acquire many ongoing balanced and unbalanced chromosomal translocations, HTLV-1+ CTCL leukemia cells are diploid and exhibit only a minimal number of non-specific chromosomal alterations. Our results indicate that HTLV-1 virus is likely not involved in the pathogenesis of classic MF/SS since it drives a very different pathway of lymphomagenesis based on our findings in these cells. This study also provides for the first time a comprehensive characterization of the CTCL cells with respect to gene expression profiling, TP53 mutation status, ability to produce tumors in mice and response to commonly used therapies.
Project description:Background & purposeAlthough rare, cutaneous lymphomas represent a separate entity in hematologic oncology. T cell origin lymphomas are most common, with Mycosis Fungoides (MF) accounting for about 50–70% of cases. Sezary Syndrome (SS), which represents the leukemic varian of MF, accounts for 3% of Cutaneous T Cell Lymphomas (CTCL). Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy (TSEB) is included at the mainstream of treatment choices for CTCL. The scope of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of two treatment schedules of TSEB.Methods and materialsWe report our experience with TSEB in the management of MF and SS, as of 14 patients treated in our institution from 2011 to 2015. 8 patients received the 12?Gy (low dose) scheme while 6 patients were managed with 36?Gy (standard or full dose scheme) according to six dual field Stanford technique. The endpoints were overall response rate, duration of response and toxicity of treatment.ResultsAfter a median follow up of 2.5?years we noted excellent treatment outcome, with both schemes being well tolerated and resulting in comparable response rates. The overall response rate for both treatment regimens was over 87.5%. Treatment was well tolerated with mild toxicity.ConclusionThe role of TSEB in the management of MF and SS is well established. The low dose TSEB schedule of 12?Gy is an effective treatment option, since therapeutic results are more than acceptable, compliance is excellent and toxicity is minimal. Moreover, the evidence that it can be repeated safely makes it more attractive than the standard 36?Gy scheme, when a patient is referred to radiation treatment according to treatment guidelines.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Although the quality of life (QoL) plays an important role in treatment decision making and clinical management of mycosis fungoides (MF) or Sézary syndrome (SS) subtypes of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (MF/SS-CTCLs), an MF- or SS-specific measure of QoL does not exist.<h4>Objective</h4>The objective of this research was to develop and validate the first QoL instrument for MF/SS-CTCL using a patient-centered approach.<h4>Methods</h4>A conceptual framework for the MF/SS-CTCL QoL was developed through a literature review and interviews with key opinion leaders. Concept elicitation with patients was utilized to refine the conceptual model and generate preliminary items. The items were then revised based on qualitative and quantitative feedback obtained through cognitive debriefing surveys and interviews with patients. Next, participants (N=126) completed the preliminary MF/SS-CTCL QoL and a comparator measure of health-related QoL (Skindex-29) through the PatientsLikeMe Open Research Exchange. The MF/SS-CTCL QoL was completed again 5 days later by 66 participants for the purposes of evaluating test-retest reliability. The MF/SS-CTCL QoL was finalized based on results from an empirical evaluation, which included both classical and modern test theory approaches. Specifically, this included evaluation of (1) the optimal item response theory measurement model; (2) item fit; (3) unidimensionality; (4) rating scale performance; (5) reliability; (6) test information (precision); (7) person-to-item map; (8) convergent and discriminant validity; and (9) presence of bias via differential item function.<h4>Results</h4>Results from the comprehensive psychometric evaluation utilizing a Rasch-Grouped Rating Scale model yielded a final 12-item instrument. The rating scale functioned as expected, and the instrument exhibited adequate person reliability (.87), good to excellent test-retest reliability (r=.89, P<.001), high levels of measurement precision, and good person-to-item targeting. The correlation between the MF/SS-CTCL QoL and the Skindex-29 (r=.852, P<.001) was significantly greater than the correlation between the MF/SS-CTCL QoL and syndrome stage (r=.260, P<.001), providing support for convergent and discriminant validity. Items did not show significant bias based on gender, age, or race. Rasch scores were converted to scaled scores with qualitative descriptive categories for ease of interpretation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Empirical evaluation demonstrated strong evidence of excellent psychometric properties. Utilizing a patient-centered measure development approach ensures that this QoL instrument captures the information that is most meaningful and clinically relevant to patients.
Project description:Primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) affect the skin and tend to transform and spread. CTCL involves primarily the Mycosis fungoides (MF) and more aggressive Sezary syndrome (SS). Oncogenic microRNAs (miRs) are stable epigenetic inhibitors often deregulated in the tumour and detectable as biomarkers in non-cellular fractions of peripheral blood. The tumour-specific expression of miR-155, miR-203, and miR-205 was shown to correctly diagnose CTCL. We herein asked whether these microRNAs can be used as plasma biomarkers for clinical CTCL monitoring. Patients with CTCL (n = 10) and controls with non-malignant conditions (n = 11) repeatedly donated plasma samples every ca. five months. MicroRNAs were detected in the plasma samples by specifically-primed RT-PCR followed by multivariate analyses of the miR expression dynamics. We herein established the plasma miR-classifier for detecting CTCL based on the miR-155 upregulation and miR-203/miR-205 downregulation with 100% specificity and 94% sensitivity. The 3-miR-score in the consecutive samples coincided with the clinical outcome of MF and SS patients such as the therapy response or changes in the clinical stage or tumor size. Quantitation of the selected microRNAs in plasma is a specific and straightforward approach for evaluating CTCL outcome representing, thus, a valuable tool for CTCL diagnostics and therapy response monitoring.
Project description:BACKGROUND:While mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS) are the most common cutaneous lymphomas (CLs), there is limited data about non-MF/SS CLs. OBJECTIVE:We aimed to evaluate clinical characteristics of non-MF/SS CLs. METHODS:A retrospective analysis evaluated patients with non-MF/SS CLs covering a period of 17 years. The records of 59 patients with non-MF/SS CLs were reviewed for demographic profiles, clinical features, and survival outcomes. RESULTS:Our series consisted of 38 non-MF/SS cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) and 21 cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (CBCLs). In the group of non-MF/SS CTCLs including 33 primary and five secondary cases, there were cases of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (15.3% of non-MF/SS CLs), extranodal natural killer/ T-cell lymphoma (13.5%), peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (13,5%), adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (8.5%), subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (6.8%) and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (6.8%). In the group of CBCLs including nine primary and 12 secondary cases, there were cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (22.0%), mantle cell lymphoma (5.1%), extranodal marginal lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (3.4%), follicle center lymphoma (3.4%) and intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (1.7%). The overall survivals were 57 months for non-MF/SS CTCLs and 41.5 months for CBCLs. Elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase level, thrombocytopenia, multiple anatomical sites of skin involvement and lower albumin level may be associated with poor prognosis in non-MF/SS CTCLs, but the latter two were not in CBCLs. CONCLUSION:With this series, we hope to provide indigenous data and outcome of non-MF/SS CLs. The overall survival of non-MF/SS CTCLs was better than CBCLs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) are skin malignancies including mycosis fungoides (MF) and CD30(+) lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD). In early disease, CTCL can be difficult to diagnose, especially in MF for which there is no reliable diagnostic marker. MF/CTCL have increased expression of thymocyte selection-associated HMG box protein (TOX). Although TOX has been proposed to be a diagnostic marker for MF, further validation studies are needed. Moreover, it is unclear what drives TOX expression or its role in MF/CTCL. OBJECTIVE:We hypothesize evaluation of TOX levels across a spectrum of CTCL, including MF precursor (large plaque parapsoriasis, LPP), will help elucidate the implications of altered TOX expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS:TOX staining was performed in MF, CD30(+) LPD, LPP as well as benign inflammatory dermatoses (BID) and normal skin (NS). CTCL cell lines were utilized to evaluate the regulation of TOX. RESULTS:Positive TOX expression was identified in 73.6% of MF cases and in 31.6% of BID/NS. TOX had a positive predictive value (PPV) for MF of 86.7% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 48.1%. TOX expression in MF was detected more commonly in Black patients (P = 0.015) and less commonly in transformed MF (P = 0.045). LPP had positive TOX staining in 70.0%. In CTCL cells, GATA3 knockdown decreased TOX mRNA and protein expression. TOX expression also decreased in the presence of CTCL therapeutics. CONCLUSION:Our data indicate that TOX is useful as a diagnostic marker in MF. Moreover, TOX expression was evident in LPP, indicating it may have a previously unappreciated role in the development of MF. Finally, our data suggest that GATA3 regulates TOX, revealing insight into TOX regulation.
Project description:Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a rare but potentially devastating primary cutaneous lymphoma. CTCL is characterized by localization of neoplastic T lymphocytes to the skin, with mycosis fungoides (MF) and its leukemic form, Sézary syndrome (SS) being the most common variants. Thymocyte selection-associated high-mobility group box (TOX) gene has been found to be highly expressed in MF and SS. It is reported that higher expression levels of TOX in patients will increase risks of disease progression and poor prognosis. However, the molecular events leading to these abnormalities have not been well understood. To better understand the molecular mechanism underlying TOX-mediated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in CTCL, and to identify DEGs pathways triggered after knockdown of TOX gene in the CTCL cell line Hut78, we employed two shRNA-mediated lentiviruses to knock down TOX gene in the skin lymphoma cell line HuT78. RNA sequencing (RNAseq) analysis was applied to analyze DEGs, DEGs GO and their corresponding pathways. Knockdown of TOX can induce upregulation of 547 genes and downregulation of 649 genes, respectively. HOXC9 was the most significant downregulated gene. Most DEGs are enriched in malignancies and relate to the Wnt and mTOR signaling pathways, and therefore they can regulate cellular processes and induce different biological regulation. Transcriptome analysis of DEGs after knockdown of TOX in our study provides insights into the mechanism of TOX in CTCL and suggests candidate targets for therapy of CTCL.
Project description:Mast cells (MC) are bone marrow derived haematopoetic cells playing a crucial role not only in immune response but also in the tumor microenvironment with protumorigenic and antitumorigenic functions. The role of MC in primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL), a heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas with initial presentation in the skin, is largely unknown.To gain more accurate information about presence, number, distribution and state of activation (degranulated vs. non-degranulated) of MC in CTCL variants and clinical stages.We established a novel computer-aided tissue analysis method on digitized skin sections. Immunohistochemistry with an anti-MC tryptase antibody was performed on 34 biopsies of different CTCL subtypes and on control skin samples. An algorithm for the automatic detection of the epidermis and of cell density based CTCL areas was developed. Cells were stratified as being within the CTCL infiltrate, in P1 (a surrounding area 0-30 ?m away from CTCL), or in P2 (30-60 ?m away from CTCL) area.We found high MC counts within CTCL infiltrates and P1 and a decreased MC number in the surrounding dermis P2. Higher MC numbers were found in MF compared to all other CTCL subgroups. Regarding different stages of MF, we found significantly higher mast cell counts in stages IA and IB than in stages IIA and IIB. Regarding MC densities, we found a higher density of MC in MF compared to all other CTCL subgroups. More MC were non-degranulated than degranulated.Here for the first time an automated method for MC analysis on tissue sections and its use in CTCL is described. Eliminating error from investigator bias, the method allows for precise cell identification and counting. Our results provide new insights on MC distribution in CTCL reappraising their role in the pathophysiology of CTCL.
Project description:In cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCL), miR-21 is aberrantly expressed in skin and peripheral blood and displays anti-apoptotic properties in malignant T cells. It is, however, unclear exactly which cells express miR-21 and what mechanisms regulate miR-21. Here, we demonstrate miR-21 expression in situ in both malignant and reactive lymphocytes as well as stromal cells. qRT-PCR analysis of 47 patients with mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sezary Syndrome (SS) confirmed an increased miR-21 expression that correlated with progressive disease. In cultured malignant T cells miR-21 expression was inhibited by Tofacitinib (CP-690550), a clinical-grade JAK3 inhibitor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed direct binding of STAT5 to the miR-21 promoter. Cytokine starvation ex vivo triggered a decrease in miR-21 expression, whereas IL-2 induced an increased miR-21 expression in primary SS T cells and cultured cytokine-dependent SS cells (SeAx). siRNA-mediated depletion of STAT5 inhibited constitutive- and IL-2-induced miR-21 expression in cytokine-independent and dependent T cell lines, respectively. IL-15 and IL-2 were more potent than IL-21 in inducing miR-21 expression in the cytokine-dependent T cells. In conclusion, we provide first evidence that miR-21 is expressed in situ in CTCL skin lesions, induced by IL-2 and IL-15 cytokines, and is regulated by STAT5 in malignant T cells. Thus, our data provide novel evidence for a pathological role of IL-2Rg cytokines in promoting expression of the oncogenic miR-21 in CTCL.